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    "count": 17153,
    "next": "http://www.politifact.com/api/factchecks/?page=2",
    "previous": null,
    "results": [
        {
            "id": 17993,
            "slug": "no-california-mayor-did-not-write-column-explains-",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "facebook-posts",
                "full_name": "Facebook posts",
                "first_name": "",
                "last_name": "Facebook posts"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "“The mayor of Livermore California explains Trump’s popularity and success.”",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-25T12:39:08-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>We can&rsquo;t explain how Marshall Kamena, a former mayor of Livermore, Calif., got linked in the first place to an online post defending President Donald Trump. But we know he didn&rsquo;t write it.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The mayor of Livermore California explains Trump&rsquo;s popularity and success. This is perhaps the best explanation for Trump&#39;s popularity,&quot; <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200224135535/https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/mayor-livermore-california-explains-trumps-popularity-julian-mccall?fbclid=IwAR28P3XCmCMWGwHKiSc3Iw8Pybp54WErAaK8Qa1YnvVrd9yP3ZoCTwDAv9U\">said the headline</a> of a June 16, 2018, LinkedIn post shared on Facebook.</p>\n\n<p>The post was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about<a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\"> our partnership with Facebook</a>.)</p>\n\n<p>The column on Trump was actually written by conservative author Evan Sayet and <a href=\"https://townhall.com/columnists/evansayet/2017/07/13/he-fights-n2354580\">posted</a> July 13, 2017, on townhall.com. It&rsquo;s been widely misattributed to Kamena, whose mayoralty <a href=\"https://patch.com/california/livermore/marshall-kamena\">ended</a> in late 2011. The current Livermore mayor is John Marchand.</p>\n\n<p>Versions of the LinkedIn headline have appeared <a href=\"https://1059sunnyfm.radio.com/blogs/rick-stacy/livermore-california-mayor-marshall-kamena\">elsewhere</a> <a href=\"https://www.truthorfiction.com/marshall-kamena-donald-trump/\">since 2017</a> (including the website of an Orlando radio station), claiming that Kamena wrote a good read offering a better understanding of Trump and U.S. politics.</p>\n\n<p>The posts claim that Kamena is a registered Democrat who &quot;ran on the Democratic ticket,&quot; yet is &quot;as conservative as they come.&quot; We don&rsquo;t know Kamena&rsquo;s political leaning or registration; Livermore local elections are nonpartisan.</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact tried to get in touch with Kamena but didn&rsquo;t hear back from him.</p>\n\n<p>The body of the LinkedIn blog post does not match its headline. The blog post consists of an introductory paragraph followed by the full text of Sayet&rsquo;s column. In that introduction, the author of the Linked blog post acknowledges in a muddled way that Sayet&rsquo;s column was &quot;mistakenly attributed&quot; to Kamena.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Our ruling</strong></div>\n\n<p>A LinkedIn headline shared on Facebook claimed that the mayor of Livermore, Calif., wrote a column defending Trump.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The column was written by conservative author Evan Sayet, and misattributed to a former mayor of Livermore.</p>\n\n<p>We rate it False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p><a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200221231833/https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/mayor-livermore-california-explains-trumps-popularity-julian-mccall?fbclid=IwAR28P3XCmCMWGwHKiSc3Iw8Pybp54WErAaK8Qa1YnvVrd9yP3ZoCTwDAv9U\">Archived LinkedIn post,</a> June 16, 2018</p>\n\n<p>City of Livermore, <a href=\"http://www.cityoflivermore.net/citygov/council/mayor.htm\">Mayor&rsquo;s Message</a></p>\n\n<p>Truth or Fiction, <a href=\"https://www.truthorfiction.com/marshall-kamena-donald-trump/\">Democratic Livermore Mayor Marshall Kamena on Donald Trump-Incorrect Attribution!</a>, Nov. 22, 2017</p>\n\n<p>1059sunnyfm.radio.com, <a href=\"https://1059sunnyfm.radio.com/blogs/rick-stacy/livermore-california-mayor-marshall-kamena\">Rick Shares Livermore Mayors Marshall Kamena&#39;s Opinion</a>, Aug. 13, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Townhall.com, <a href=\"https://townhall.com/columnists/evansayet/2017/07/13/he-fights-n2354580\">He Fights</a>, July 13, 2017&nbsp;</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17992,
            "slug": "liberal-facebook-groups-blogs-fabricate-devin-nune",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "facebook-posts",
                "full_name": "Facebook posts",
                "first_name": "",
                "last_name": "Facebook posts"
            },
            "targets": [
                {
                    "slug": "devin-nunes",
                    "full_name": "Devin Nunes",
                    "first_name": "Devin",
                    "last_name": "Nunes"
                }
            ],
            "statement": "Rep. Devin Nunes, R-Calif., said “defending Trump is more important than the United States.”",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-25T12:28:55-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>A popular Facebook post is putting words in the mouth of Rep. Devin Nunes, R-Calif.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/GoLeftEveryone/posts/3099951906705391\">The post</a>, which includes a quote about President Donald Trump alongside an image of Nunes, was shared in a popular liberal Facebook page called Go Left. The post claims to be based on leaked audio from July 2019.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Defending Trump is more important than the United States,&quot; the image reads.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The post was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about our <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\">partnership with Facebook</a>.) It has been shared more than 1,400 times on several social media platforms.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>(Screenshot from Facebook)</em></p>\n\n<p>We reached out to Go Left for its evidence for the post, but we haven&rsquo;t heard back.</p>\n\n<p>As the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, Nunes <a href=\"https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2019/11/devin-nunes-house-intelligence-questioning-vindman-williams-politics-daily/602266/\">was one of</a> Trump&rsquo;s staunchest defenders during the president&rsquo;s impeachment. But the Facebook post is inaccurate &mdash;&nbsp;the leaked audio it cites was recorded in July 2018, not 2019. And Nunes didn&rsquo;t say anything close to the quote Go Left published.</p>\n\n<p>The audio was recorded at a private fundraiser for Rep. Cathy McMorris Rodgers, R-Wash., that Nunes attended in July 2018. MSNBC first obtained and <a href=\"http://www.msnbc.com/rachel-maddow-show/trms-exclusive-devin-nunes-speaks-candidly-fundraiser\">aired</a> the clips during the Rachel Maddow Show on Aug. 8, 2018.</p>\n\n<p>Nunes&rsquo; comments focused on former special counsel Robert Mueller&rsquo;s investigation of 2016 Russian election interference and the role of the Trump campaign.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;So therein lies, so it&rsquo;s like your classic Catch-22 situation where we were at a &ndash; this puts us in such a tough spot. If (then-Attorney General Jeff) Sessions won&rsquo;t unrecuse and Mueller won&rsquo;t clear the president, we&rsquo;re the only ones. Which is really the danger,&quot; Nunes said in one of the clips that MSNBC published. &quot;That&rsquo;s why I keep, and thank you for saying it by the way, I mean we have to keep all these seats. We have to keep the majority. If we do not keep the majority, all of this goes away.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The audio shows that Nunes was interested in defending Trump from the Mueller investigation to try and keep the Republican majority in Congress ahead of the midterm elections. But none of the four clips that MSNBC published included Nunes saying anything close to &quot;defending Trump is more important than the United States.&quot; That distortion was added later by several <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200225161401/https://mavenroundtable.io/theintellectualist/news/in-leaked-tape-nunes-says-protecting-trump-more-important-than-defending-us-ABcEKs-EA0KF10fz1336Ug\">liberal</a> <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200225161405/https://politicaltribune.org/secret-audio-resurfaced-showed-devin-nunes-apparently-saying-protecting-trump-more-important-than-protecting-us/\">blogs</a> and <a href=\"https://youtu.be/g-A26a39LNg\">YouTube videos</a>.</p>\n\n<p>We reached out to Nunes&rsquo; press office for comment, but we haven&rsquo;t heard back.</p>\n\n<p>The Facebook post is inaccurate. We rate it False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>The Atlantic, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2019/11/devin-nunes-house-intelligence-questioning-vindman-williams-politics-daily/602266/\">The Atlantic Politics Daily: Trump&#39;s Top Defender in Congress</a>,&quot; Nov. 19, 2019</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=3099951433372105&amp;set=a.264248670275743\">Facebook post</a>, Feb. 23, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The Intellectualist, &quot;<a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200225161401/https://mavenroundtable.io/theintellectualist/news/in-leaked-tape-nunes-says-protecting-trump-more-important-than-defending-us-ABcEKs-EA0KF10fz1336Ug\">In Leaked Tape, Nunes Says Protecting Trump More Important Than Defending US</a>,&quot; Feb. 20, 2019</p>\n\n<p>MSNBC, &quot;<a href=\"http://www.msnbc.com/rachel-maddow-show/trms-exclusive-devin-nunes-speaks-candidly-fundraiser\">TRMS Exclusive: Devin Nunes speaks candidly at fundraiser</a>,&quot; Aug. 8, 2018</p>\n\n<p>Political Tribune, &quot;<a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200225161405/https://politicaltribune.org/secret-audio-resurfaced-showed-devin-nunes-apparently-saying-protecting-trump-more-important-than-protecting-us/\">Secret Audio Resurfaced, Showed Devin Nunes Apparently Saying Protecting Trump More Important Than Protecting US</a>&quot;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-A26a39LNg&amp;feature=youtu.be\">YouTube video</a>, Nov. 18, 2019</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17991,
            "slug": "polls-show-most-democrats-many-americans-back-key-",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "pete-buttigieg",
                "full_name": "Pete Buttigieg",
                "first_name": "Pete",
                "last_name": "Buttigieg"
            },
            "targets": [
                {
                    "slug": "bernie-sanders",
                    "full_name": "Bernie Sanders",
                    "first_name": "Bernie",
                    "last_name": "Sanders"
                }
            ],
            "statement": "Says Bernie Sanders would “go beyond reform and reorder the economy in ways most Democrats — let alone most Americans — don’t support.\"",
            "ruling_slug": "barely-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-25T12:08:18-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>In his speech after the Nevada caucuses, Pete Buttigieg took a shot at his rival Bernie Sanders, who had just won a clear victory.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Sen. Sanders sees capitalism as the root of all evil,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2020/02/22/us/politics/ap-us-election-2020-takeaways.html%5C\">Buttigieg said</a>. &quot;He&rsquo;d go beyond reform and reorder the economy in ways most Democrats &mdash; let alone most Americans &mdash; don&rsquo;t support.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Buttigieg is wrong to say most Democrats don&rsquo;t support Sanders&rsquo; <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/us-policy/2019/02/19/bernie-sanderss-policy-agenda-medicare-all-action-climate-change-an-hour-minimum-wage/\">agenda</a>. Polling shows that key elements of Sanders&rsquo; economic platform are strongly popular among Democrats. And several of them score majority support among all voters.</p>\n\n<p>However, support among all voters for some of Sanders&rsquo; proposals declines when poll respondents are told about the costs. And in some cases, less-aggressive policy options &mdash; some of them backed by Sanders&rsquo; competitors &mdash; receive wider support from voters than his proposals do.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Would Sanders&rsquo; platform &quot;reorder the economy&quot;?</div>\n\n<p>We looked at several elements of Sanders&rsquo; platform that could potentially have an impact on the economy. They include instituting single-payer health care; the Green New Deal to combat climate change; tuition-free college; student debt forgiveness; a $15 minimum wage; breaking up big banks, and paid family leave.</p>\n\n<p>We found broad acceptance among economists that at least some of these policies would qualify as &quot;reordering&quot; the economy.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>By shifting payments from private insurers to the federal government, single-payer health care would dramatically change the health care sector, which accounts for <a href=\"https://www.cms.gov/files/document/highlights.pdf\">17.7% of the nation&rsquo;s gross domestic product</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>This policy, and breaking up big banks, &quot;would change things in a major way,&quot; said Stanford University economist Roger Noll. &quot;These are huge sectors.&quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The Green New Deal would affect a smaller, <a href=\"https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=36754\">but still substantial</a>, share of the economy that relates to energy, by setting aggressive targets for phasing out fossil fuels. The proposal also includes a federal job guarantee.</p>\n\n<p>Economists&rsquo; views vary on the scale of the other proposals, but some said that changes to the higher-education sector &mdash; making college tuition free and forgiving student loan debt &mdash; could have a significant impact on the economy. And while the impact of other aspects of Sanders&rsquo; plan, such as a $15 minimum wage or paid family leave, might be less dramatic, they could have significant effects on certain regions and employment sectors.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It&#39;s quite fair to say he is reordering the economy, given the massive transfer of money from the private sector to the government,&quot; said Daniel Mitchell, <a href=\"https://danieljmitchell.wordpress.com/2020/01/15/the-impossibly-expensive-promises-of-bernie-sanders/\">a pro-free market economist</a>.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">How popular are Sanders&rsquo; proposals?</div>\n\n<p>We collected recent poll results on most of these proposals and put them into the chart below. The questions in these polls did not identify the ideas as being backed by Sanders, and they offered basic descriptions of the plans, without mentioning complications, such as the cost involved.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The data shows that &mdash; contrary to what Buttigieg said &mdash; a large share of Democrats support Sanders&rsquo; economic proposals, according to polls. Among Democrats, single-payer health care receives upwards of 58% support, the Green New Deal gets 86%, a $15 minimum wage gets 84%, tuition-free college gets 76%, student-loan forgiveness gets 79%, breaking up big banks gets 60%, and paid family leave gets 94%.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Among all Americans, only one of these policies &mdash; single-payer health care &mdash; gets less than 50% support. Paid family leave got 84% support, while the other policies had support levels in the 53% to 63% range among all voters.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Warning signs</div>\n\n<p>That said, other poll results give Buttigieg&rsquo;s remark some support.</p>\n\n<p>First, when we inquired about his comment, the Buttigieg camp pointed to health insurance.</p>\n\n<p>As it turns out, Buttigieg&rsquo;s own policy preference &mdash; a public option to buy into Medicare for those who want it &mdash; wins majority support from all Americans, a level of support significantly stronger than the 30% to 40% national approval rates for a Sanders-style single-payer system.</p>\n\n<p>In February 2020, the <a href=\"https://www.kff.org/health-reform/poll-finding/kff-health-tracking-poll-february-2020/\">Kaiser Family Foundation tracking poll</a> found that 44% of voters preferred a public option, compared to 26% of voters who preferred single-payer and 23% who opposed both. Democrats alone also expressed a preference for the public option, with 51% favoring the public option compared to 39% for single-payer.</p>\n\n<p>Second, providing poll respondents with more complete descriptions of a policy option &mdash; often including the cost required &mdash; usually reduced the levels of support. Here are some examples:</p>\n\n<p>&bull; <strong>$15 minimum wage</strong>. A SurveyMonkey <a href=\"https://www.businessinsider.com/americans-15-minimum-wage-waver-cbo-impact-democrats-poll-2019-7\">poll conducted for Business Insider</a> asked two questions about the $15 minimum wage. The first was, &quot;Do you support or oppose increasing the federal minimum wage to $15 per hour?&quot; This question elicited 63% support among all respondents.</p>\n\n<p>The second question added that the Congressional Budget Office &mdash; the non-partisan number-crunching arm of Congress &mdash; found that a $15 minimum wage would increase wages for 27 million workers and lift 1.3 million households out of poverty, but could also eliminate 1.3 million jobs. Adding this caveat dropped support levels to just 37%.</p>\n\n<p>&bull; <strong>Student loan forgiveness</strong>. A <a href=\"https://poll.qu.edu/images/polling/us/us04302019_upaf67.pdf\">Quinnipiac University poll in April 2019</a> asked two questions about a plan for student loan forgiveness.</p>\n\n<p>First, the pollsters asked, &quot;Do you support or oppose the federal government forgiving up to $50,000 in student loans for individuals who live in households that make less than $250,000 a year?&quot; This won support from 57% of all Americans, and 79% of Democrats.</p>\n\n<p>Then they asked, &quot;Would you support or oppose this plan to forgive student loans if it was paid for by a new tax on wealthy individuals?&quot; On this question, Democratic support remained strong &mdash; 72% &mdash; but reaction among respondents overall turned negative, with 44% support and 52% opposition.</p>\n\n<p>&bull; <strong>Paid family leave</strong>. A survey sponsored by the libertarian <a href=\"https://www.heritage.org/budget-and-spending/report/americans-want-national-paid-family-leave-program-not-if-they-have-pay\">Cato Institute</a> showed strong initial support &mdash; 74% among all respondents &mdash; for a paid family leave program granting 12 weeks for birth, adoption, or medical need. But support dropped significantly when possible impacts were mentioned. The poll found that only 48% would still support the policy if it cost another $450 a year in taxes.</p>\n\n<p>&bull; <strong>Green New Deal</strong>. A <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2019/11/27/americans-like-green-new-deals-goals-they-reject-paying-trillions-reach-them/\">Washington Post-Kaiser Family Foundation poll</a> in July and August 2019 found broad support for individual elements of the Green New Deal, which Sanders backs. These include a jobs guarantee (78%), energy efficiency improvements for existing buildings (70%), a goal of 100 percent of U.S. power coming from emissions-free sources within 10 years (69%), increased federal spending on disaster-prevention infrastructure (67%), new regulations on businesses (61%), and reductions in coal mining jobs (55%).</p>\n\n<p>The one unpopular aspect of the plan? Increasing spending by trillions of dollars, which was backed by just 30% of respondents.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>Buttigieg said that Sanders would &quot;go beyond reform and reorder the economy in ways most Democrats &mdash; let alone most Americans &mdash; don&rsquo;t support.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>In reality, polling consistently shows that most Democrats do approve of key parts of Sanders&rsquo; economic agenda, including single-payer health care, the Green New Deal, tuition-free college, student debt forgiveness, a $15 minimum wage, breaking up big banks, and paid family leave. And for each of those issues except single-payer health care, a more modest percentage of all Americans &mdash; but still a majority &mdash; signal their support.</p>\n\n<p>It&rsquo;s important to note, however, that support levels by all Americans drop significantly once voters are informed about the policies&rsquo; costs, often to majority disapproval. And on health care policy, Buttigieg&rsquo;s plan &mdash; the public option to buy into Medicare &mdash; is more popular than Sanders&rsquo; single-payer proposal is, both among all voters and among Democrats.</p>\n\n<p>We rate the statement Mostly False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>Associated Press, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2020/02/22/us/politics/ap-us-election-2020-takeaways.html\">Sanders on Top: Key Takeaways From the Nevada Caucuses</a>,&quot; Feb. 22, 2020</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://berniesanders.com/issues/\">Bernie Sanders issues webpage</a></p>\n\n<p>Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.cms.gov/files/document/highlights.pdf\">National Health Expenditures 2018 Highlights</a>,&quot; accessed Feb. 4, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Energy Information Administration, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=36754\">In 2016, U.S. energy expenditures per unit GDP were the lowest since at least 1970</a>,&quot; July 30, 2018</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://poll.qu.edu/images/polling/us/us04302019_upaf67.pdf\">Quinnipiac poll, April 2019</a></p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://poll.qu.edu/images/polling/us/us11262019_uaov531.pdf\">Quinnipiac poll, Nov. 2019</a></p>\n\n<p><a href=\"http://maristpoll.marist.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/NPR_PBS-NewsHour_Marist-Poll_USA-NOS-and-Tables_1907190926.pdf#page=3\">NPR/PBS/Marist poll, July 2019</a></p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://scottrasmussen.com/53-want-to-break-up-big-banks-75-want-restrictions-on-regulators-going-to-work-for-banks/\">ScottRasmussen.com/HarrisX, April 2019</a></p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/economic-justice/paid-leave/voters-views-on-paid-family-medical-leave-survey-findings-august-2018.pdf\">NORC/Natl Partnership for Women &amp; Families, July 2018</a></p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.kff.org/health-reform/poll-finding/kff-health-tracking-poll-february-2020/\">Kaiser Family Foundation tracking poll, February 2020</a></p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2019/11/27/americans-like-green-new-deals-goals-they-reject-paying-trillions-reach-them/\">Washington Post-Kaiser Family Foundation poll, July-August 2019</a></p>\n\n<p>Washington Post, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/us-policy/2019/02/19/bernie-sanderss-policy-agenda-medicare-all-action-climate-change-an-hour-minimum-wage/\">Bernie Sanders&rsquo;s 2020 policy agenda: Medicare for All; action on climate change; $15-an-hour minimum wage</a>,&quot; Feb. 19, 2019</p>\n\n<p>New York Times, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/21/climate/green-new-deal-questions-answers.html\">What Is the Green New Deal? A Climate Proposal, Explained</a>,&quot; Feb. 21, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Business Insider, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.businessinsider.com/americans-15-minimum-wage-waver-cbo-impact-democrats-poll-2019-7\">A huge majority of Americans want a $15 minimum wage, but they waver after hearing its economic impact</a>,&quot; July 18, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Heritage Foundation, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.heritage.org/budget-and-spending/report/americans-want-national-paid-family-leave-program-not-if-they-have-pay\">Americans Want a National Paid Family Leave Program&mdash;But Not If They Have to Pay For It: New Survey</a>,&quot; January 24, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Email interview with Daniel Mitchell, free-market economist, Feb. 24, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email interview with Gary Burtless, senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, Feb. 24, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email interview with Roger Noll, Stanford University economist, Feb. 24, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email interview with David Sirota, spokesman for Bernie Sanders, Feb. 24, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17986,
            "slug": "no-evidence-united-kingdom-preparing-lockdown-over",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "facebook-posts",
                "full_name": "Facebook posts",
                "first_name": "",
                "last_name": "Facebook posts"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "“Breaking: UK Prepares For Full Lockdown After Hundreds Of New Cases — Wuhan Super Virus Updates.”",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-25T11:10:04-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>A split-screen video with a chyron broadcasting &quot;Breaking News&quot; exacerbates fears about the 2019 novel coronavirus, circulating mistruths about the state of the virus&rsquo; spread through the United Kingdom.</p>\n\n<p>The 22-minute <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/STFNReloaded/videos/661207144684249/\">video post</a> being shared on Facebook starts by simultaneously rolling three videos under this headline:&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Breaking: UK Prepares For Full Lockdown After Hundreds Of New Cases &mdash; Wuhan Super Virus Updates.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The post was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about<a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\"> our partnership with Facebook</a>.)</p>\n\n<p>It&rsquo;s not clear where the video clips were shot, but they show a variety of disturbing scenes, including what appear to be four people in hazmat suits loading something into a van; an older Asian man being handcuffed and led away by what appear to be two police officers wearing medical face masks; and a younger Asian man outdoors wearing only underwear being led away by two men wearing uniforms.</p>\n\n<p>As the video clips play, a male narrator says officials in the U.K.&nbsp;&mdash;&nbsp;which comprises England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland &mdash; are desperately searching for hundreds of coronavirus cases. He goes on to share more <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jan/24/fact-checking-hoaxes-and-conspiracies-about-corona/\">conspiracy theories</a> about the virus&rsquo; origins.</p>\n\n<p>But the data doesn&#39;t indicate any such panic in the U.K.</p>\n\n<p>As of Feb. 24, 2020:</p>\n\n<ul>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>The World Health Organization <a href=\"https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200223-sitrep-34-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=44ff8fd3_2\">reported</a> only nine confirmed cases of coronavirus in the U.K. (British officials say the number has risen to <a href=\"https://www.gov.uk/guidance/wuhan-novel-coronavirus-information-for-the-public\">13</a>.) Eight of the people have been treated and discharged, The Telegraph, a British news organization <a href=\"https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/02/21/coronavirus-uk-china-guide-explained/\">reported</a>.</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>The risk of catching the coronavirus in the U.K. is low, <a href=\"https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/\">according</a> to the country&rsquo;s National Health Service.</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>British officials <a href=\"https://www.gov.uk/guidance/wuhan-novel-coronavirus-information-for-the-public\">say</a> they are monitoring airports with direct flights from China, and are <a href=\"https://publichealthmatters.blog.gov.uk/2020/01/23/wuhan-novel-coronavirus-what-you-need-to-know/\">recommending</a> movement restrictions to residents only if they have been to Wuhan recently or have been to China or nearby countries and have respiratory symptoms.</p>\n\t</li>\n</ul>\n\n<p>The post was made by STFN Reloaded. We have also rated as <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/feb/11/facebook-posts/no-evidence-coronavirus-causes-sudden-death-syndro/\">False</a> a claim by that group that the coronavirus &quot;causes sudden death syndrome.&quot; And the Australian Associated Press <a href=\"https://factcheck.aap.com.au/social-media-claims/no-evidence-2019-coronavirus-came-from-a-chinese-lab\">said </a>an STFN Reloaded claim that the coronavirus came from a Chinese lab is false.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Our ruling</strong></p>\n\n<p>A Facebook <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/STFNReloaded/videos/661207144684249/\">post</a> says: &quot;Breaking: UK Prepares For Full Lockdown After Hundreds Of New Cases &mdash; Wuhan Super Virus Updates.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>There are fewer than 10 coronavirus cases in the United Kingdom and no signs that travel or other aspects of life in Britain have been shut down by the virus.</p>\n\n<p>We rate the statement False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>Facebook, <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/STFNReloaded/videos/661207144684249/\">post</a>, Feb. 11, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The Telegraph, <a href=\"https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/02/21/coronavirus-uk-china-guide-explained/\">&quot;Coronavirus: a quick guide to the outbreak sweeping the world,&quot;</a> Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Public Health England, <a href=\"https://publichealthmatters.blog.gov.uk/2020/01/23/wuhan-novel-coronavirus-what-you-need-to-know/\">&quot;Coronavirus -- what you need to know,&quot;</a> Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>World Health Organization, <a href=\"https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200221-sitrep-32-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=4802d089_2\">&quot;Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report &ndash; 32,&quot;</a> Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>United Kingdom National Health Service, <a href=\"https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/\">&quot;Coronavirus (COVID-19),&quot;</a> Feb. 18, 2020</p>\n\n<p>United Kingdom Department of Health and Social Care and Public Health England, <a href=\"https://www.gov.uk/guidance/wuhan-novel-coronavirus-information-for-the-public\">&quot;Coronavirus (COVID-19): latest information and advice,&quot;</a> Feb. 21, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17990,
            "slug": "photo-air-force-one-daytona-500-outdated",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "viral-image",
                "full_name": "Viral image",
                "first_name": "",
                "last_name": "Viral image"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "A photo shows Air Force One at the 2020 Daytona 500.",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-25T11:01:58-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>A <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/takingbackamericaofficial/photos/a.1294469730676258/2623018301154721/?type=3&amp;theater\">photo shared on Facebook</a> shows the president&rsquo;s plane, Air Force One, amid a massive crowd at the Daytona 500, which President Donald Trump attended.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Only, it wasn&rsquo;t taken in 2020 or any time in the last decade.</p>\n\n<p>The photo was shared on Feb. 16, the date of the 2020 Daytona 500, with a caption that reads:&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;What an incredible moment for our President and our country! God Bless the USA!&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The image was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about<a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\"> our partnership with Facebook</a>.)</p>\n\n<p>The <a href=\"https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/air-force-one-takes-off-with-us-president-geore-w-bush-news-photo/72523414\">image is authentic</a>, but it&rsquo;s from 2004 when President George W. Bush attended the event.</p>\n\n<p>The photo was taken by photographer Jonathan Ferrey. Its caption says, &quot;Air Force One takes off with U.S. President Geore W. Bush aboard after attending the NASCAR Nextel Cup Daytona 500 on Feb. 15, 2004, at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Fla.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Several commenters believed it showed President Trump&rsquo;s visit and the crowd during this year&rsquo;s race, and for good reason. George W. Bush is the only other president to attend the event.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Presidents George H.W. Bush and Ronald Reagan <a href=\"https://www.espn.com/racing/news/story?id=1729186\">attended</a> the Pepsi 400, which is held at the Daytona International Speedway in the summer.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Like Trump, the younger Bush served as the race&rsquo;s grand marshal and was also seeking re-election at the time of his visit.</p>\n\n<p>Nevertheless, this photo is missing context: It&rsquo;s over 15 years old and two presidents removed from Trump. We rate it False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>Facebook <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/takingbackamericaofficial/photos/a.1294469730676258/2623018301154721/?type=3&amp;theater\">post,</a> Feb. 16, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Getty Images, <a href=\"https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/air-force-one-takes-off-with-us-president-geore-w-bush-news-photo/72523414\">Daytona 500,</a> Feb. 15, 2004&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>ESPN, <a href=\"https://www.espn.com/racing/news/story?id=1729186\">Bush third sitting president to attend Daytona race</a>, Feb. 6, 2004</p>\n\n<p>Business Insider, <a href=\"https://www.businessinsider.com/trump-george-w-bush-attended-the-daytona-500-during-campaign-2020-2\">Taking a page from George W. Bush, Trump attends the Daytona 500 amid his bid for re-election</a>, Feb. 16, 2020</p>\n\n<div>&nbsp;</div>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17989,
            "slug": "sanders-correct-cuba-literacy-campaign-skimps-prop",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "bernie-sanders",
                "full_name": "Bernie Sanders",
                "first_name": "Bernie",
                "last_name": "Sanders"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "“When Fidel Castro came into office, you know what he did? He had a massive literacy program.”",
            "ruling_slug": "mostly-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-24T18:04:50-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>Bernie Sanders&#39; past praise for the welfare policies of countries such as Cuba and Nicaragua is front and center as he has moved into the lead in the Democratic primary. In an interview on CBS News&rsquo; &quot;60 Minutes,&quot; Sanders described what he saw as two sides to the regime of Cuba&rsquo;s Fidel Castro.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We&#39;re very opposed to the authoritarian nature of Cuba but you know, it&#39;s unfair to simply say everything is bad,&quot; Sanders said <a href=\"https://www.cbsnews.com/news/bernie-sanders-democratic-presidential-candidate-anderson-cooper-60-minutes-2020-02-23/\">Feb. 23</a>. &quot;When Fidel Castro came into office, you know what he did? He had a massive literacy program. Is that a bad thing? Even though Fidel Castro did it?&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Interviewer Anderson Cooper pressed Sanders on the dissidents sent to Cuban jails.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;That&#39;s right,&quot; Sanders said. &quot;And we condemn that.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Sanders&rsquo; critique of Cuba fell well short for many opponents of the regime. Sen. Ted Cruz, R-Texas, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/tedcruz/status/1231762113141649408\">tweeted</a>, &quot;It really makes a difference when those you murder at the firing squad can read and write.&quot; U.S. Rep. <a href=\"https://twitter.com/DonnaShalala/status/1231760466776657923\">Donna Shalala</a>, D-Fla., said, &quot;I&#39;m hoping that in the future, Sen. Sanders will take time to speak to some of my constituents before he decides to sing the praises of a murderous tyrant like Fidel Castro.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Sanders&rsquo; focus on the teaching side of Castro&rsquo;s campaign downplayed its substantial political overtones. But Castro did significantly expand literacy rates after seizing power.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The academic consensus seems to be that Fidel Castro&rsquo;s government did increase the literacy rate of the island&rsquo;s population, at the same time that it clearly used the literacy campaign for propaganda purposes,&quot; said Jorge Duany, director of the Cuban Research Institute at Florida International University.</p>\n\n<p>A <a href=\"https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000062893\">1984 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization</a> (UNESCO) report found that in 1959, 23.6% of the population above the age of 10 were illiterate. By 1961, the number had fallen to 3.9%. While <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2014/jan/31/tom-harkin/sen-tom-harkin-says-cuba-has-lower-child-mortality/\">health care statistics on Cuba</a> have been questioned, experts we interviewed told us they were not aware of issues with this data.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Bringing literacy to Cuba&rsquo;s peasants was a long-standing policy in Castro&rsquo;s broader agenda. In his <a href=\"http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuban-rebels/manifesto.htm\">1957 manifesto</a>, he included: &quot;Immediate initiation of an intensive campaign against illiteracy, and civic education emphasizing the duties and rights of each citizen to his society and fatherland.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In 1961, about a quarter of a million teachers fanned out across the island nation. Their ranks included formally trained teachers and members of such groups as the National &nbsp; Federation of Sugar Workers, the Rebel Youth Association and the Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces.</p>\n\n<p>They identified nearly 1 million illiterate people, and by the end of the year over 700,000 passed a basic literacy test.</p>\n\n<p>The teaching materials came with a blunt political message. They were built on 15 lessons with titles that included &quot;Fidel is Our Leader,&quot; &quot;The Land is Ours,&quot; &quot;Racial Discrimination&quot; and &quot;Housing.&quot; The final literacy exam was based on the lesson &quot;The Cuban Fishermen.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Education researchers <a href=\"https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1147644.pdf\">Carolyn Davidson Abel and Charles Frederick Abel</a> at Stephen F. Austin State University looked at whether the Cubans set the literacy bar too low, and found that they used a reasonable benchmark.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We did see evidence of basic literacy development, typical of what we might like to see in first graders here in America,&quot; Abel said.</p>\n\n<p>Today, the World Bank puts the adult literacy rate in Cuba at 99.8%, about 8 points higher than <a href=\"https://databank.worldbank.org/source/education-statistics-%5E-all-indicators#\">the average</a> for the Caribbean region.</p>\n\n<p>Sanders&rsquo; comments about Cuba mirror those of <a href=\"https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/03/23/remarks-president-obama-young-leaders-americas-initiative-town-hall\">President Barack Obama in 2016</a>, soon after he had moved to open diplomatic relations with Cuba. Obama spoke to a group of up-and-coming leaders of the Americas, and said their generation had the chance to get beyond old political labels and explore practical solutions.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I said (to Castro), look, you&#39;ve made great progress in educating young people. Every child in Cuba gets a basic education &mdash; that&#39;s a huge improvement from where it was.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>But Obama continued on to describe the benefits of private enterprise and the failures of the Cuban economy. Above all, he urged his audience to be &quot;practical.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>Sanders said that when Fidel Castro &quot;came into office&quot; in Cuba, he &quot;had a massive literacy program.&quot; Multiple reports confirm that. Using large scale mobilization, within two years of the revolution, over 700,000 Cubans were taught to read and write for the first time.</p>\n\n<p>Castro did not simply take office. He won a drawn-out military campaign and toppled the government in power. As for the literacy effort, in Castro&rsquo;s own words, the goal wasn&rsquo;t simply to teach, but to instill political beliefs. That&rsquo;s important context to capture the nature of the literacy campaign.</p>\n\n<p>We rate the claim Mostly True.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>CBS News, <a href=\"https://www.cbsnews.com/news/bernie-sanders-democratic-presidential-candidate-anderson-cooper-60-minutes-2020-02-23/\">Bernie Sanders on being the Democratic front-runner and taking on Donald Trump</a>, Feb. 23, 2020</p>\n\n<p>UNESCO, <a href=\"https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000062893\">Campaigning for literacy: eight national experiences of the twentieth century, with a memorandum to decision-makers</a>, 1984</p>\n\n<p>Cuban Research Institute, <a href=\"https://cri.fiu.edu/research/cuba-profile/cuba-country-profile.pdf\">Cuba: Country profile</a>, accessed Fab. 24, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Fidel Castro, <a href=\"http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuban-rebels/manifesto.htm\">Sierra Maestra Manifesto</a>, July 12, 1957</p>\n\n<p>Texas Journal of Literacy Education, <a href=\"https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1147644.pdf\">EARLY LITERACY IN CUBA: LESSONS FOR AMERICA</a>, Summer 2017</p>\n\n<p>Arkansas State University, <a href=\"http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/LASA98/Supko.pdf\">Perspectives on the Cuban National Literacy Campaign</a>, Sept. 24, 1998</p>\n\n<p>World Bank, <a href=\"https://databank.worldbank.org/source/education-statistics-%5E-all-indicators#\">Education statistics</a>, accessed Feb. 24, 2020</p>\n\n<p>White House, <a href=\"https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/03/23/remarks-president-obama-young-leaders-americas-initiative-town-hall\">Remarks by President Obama in Young Leaders of the Americas Initiative Town Hall</a>, March 23, 2016</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange, Jorge Duany, director, Cuban Research Institute, Florida International University, Feb. 24. 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange, Carolyn Davidson Abel, professor, Department of Elementary Education, Stephen F. Austin State University, Feb. 24, 2020</p>\n\n<div>&nbsp;</div>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17988,
            "slug": "facebook-post-misinterprets-bloombergs-reference-3",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "facebook-posts",
                "full_name": "Facebook posts",
                "first_name": "",
                "last_name": "Facebook posts"
            },
            "targets": [
                {
                    "slug": "michael-bloomberg",
                    "full_name": "Michael Bloomberg",
                    "first_name": "Michael",
                    "last_name": "Bloomberg"
                }
            ],
            "statement": "\"Bloomberg says he wants to ban guns holding more than three rounds.\"",
            "ruling_slug": "barely-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-24T15:58:35-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>Mike Bloomberg has made gun control a central pillar of his Democratic campaign for president, including a call for limits on assault weapons.</p>\n\n<p>But limiting guns to three rounds?</p>\n\n<p>That social media claim is based on vague comments Bloomberg made in 2012 about how to define such weapons. He does not have such a policy in 2020.</p>\n\n<p>The headline of one Facebook <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/COLIONNOIR/videos/754410235049295/\">post</a>, paired with a video commentary, says of the former New York City mayor:&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Bloomberg says he wants to ban guns holding more than three rounds.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The post resembles <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2013/mar/26/wayne-lapierre/wayne-lapierre-michael-bloomberg-says-we-can-only-/\">comments made in 2013</a> by Wayne LaPierre, chief executive of the National Rifle Association, on NBC&rsquo;s Meet the Press.</p>\n\n<p>The post was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about our <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\">partnership with Facebook</a>.)</p>\n\n<p>Two problems:&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>1. </strong>The claim uses the present tense in describing what it refers to as Bloomberg&rsquo;s proposal, but it cites comments Bloomberg made in a 2012 TV interview.</p>\n\n<p><strong>2.</strong> In those comments, which were in response to questions about how to determine which weapons would be subject to restrictions, Bloomberg alluded to limiting the number of rounds a gun could fire quickly. But he didn&rsquo;t explicitly say he supported a limit of three.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Old video</div>\n\n<p>Bloomberg has publicly endorsed a ban on &quot;military-style assault weapons&quot; and &quot;high-capacity ammunition magazines,&quot; such as in a <a href=\"http://www.feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/files/serve/?File_id=bec13d44-82ea-4090-bb40-d913f4728929\">Feb. 11, 2013, letter</a> to lawmakers from Mayors Against Illegal Guns, a coalition Bloomberg co-founded in 2006.</p>\n\n<p>The recent Facebook post includes a video with a narrator commenting on excerpts from an <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/bloomberg-blasts-nra-connecticut-actions/story?id=18029157#.UVHS51vwLU5\">ABC News Nightline interview</a> with Bloomberg on Dec. 20, 2012.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The interview referenced the 20 first-graders and six school staffers who were killed by a gunman at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut. In the interview, anchor Cynthia McFadden asked Bloomberg about the challenge of defining an &quot;assault weapon.&quot; Bloomberg responded by expressing a desire to limit how quickly a gun can fire rounds and the number of rounds a gun can carry.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Well, if it can fire a lot of bullets very quickly, that&#39;s a good place to start, OK, and then you can argue about what a lot is,&quot; Bloomberg said.</p>\n\n<p>McFadden started to interject, and the mayor continued:</p>\n\n<p>&quot;OK, let&#39;s pick it. Let&#39;s say three. If you haven&#39;t hit the deer with three shots, you&#39;re a pretty lousy shot. That deer deserves to get away. Let&#39;s get serious here.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The Bloomberg campaign didn&rsquo;t respond to a request for comment.</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg <a href=\"https://www.mikebloomberg.com/policies/gun-safety?gclid=CjwKCAiAhc7yBRAdEiwAplGxXzfu1IQ_GOJRExt_lcyRp_q5FlASWcJ8k7GyCR7SeQOEUCmQjYaqghoCKiUQAvD_BwE\">supports</a> reinstating the federal ban on assault weapons and high-capacity magazines; it <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/aug/07/bill-clinton/did-mass-shooting-deaths-fall-under-1994-assault-w/\">banned</a> certain types of semi-automatic firearms along with magazines holding more than 10 rounds of ammunition. Under Bloomberg&rsquo;s proposal, current assault weapons owners could keep their guns, but would have to report them to federal officials.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>A Facebook post says: &quot;Bloomberg says he wants to ban guns holding more than three rounds.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The post is misleading in that Bloomberg made the reference to three rounds in a 2012 interview.</p>\n\n<p>And while he suggested restricting the number of rounds that can be fired quickly, and tossed out the idea of three, he didn&rsquo;t articulate a particular proposal. He also expressed a desire to limit the number of rounds a gun can hold.</p>\n\n<p>His 2020 presidential campaign platform includes reinstating the federal ban on assault weapons, which <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/aug/07/bill-clinton/did-mass-shooting-deaths-fall-under-1994-assault-w/\">prohibited</a> certain types of semi-automatic firearms along with magazines holding more than 10 rounds of ammunition.</p>\n\n<p>We rate the statement Mostly False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>Facebook, <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/COLIONNOIR/videos/754410235049295/\">post</a>, Feb. 4, 2020</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2013/mar/26/wayne-lapierre/wayne-lapierre-michael-bloomberg-says-we-can-only-/\">&quot;Says New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg says &lsquo;we can only have three bullets&quot; and &quot;the NRA wants firearms with nukes on them,&rsquo;&quot;</a> March 26, 2013</p>\n\n<p>ABC News, <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/bloomberg-blasts-nra-connecticut-actions/story?id=18029157#.UVHS51vwLU5\">&quot;Bloomberg Blasts NRA: &#39;Connecticut Is Because of Some of Their Actions,&#39;&quot;</a> Dec. 20, 2012</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17985,
            "slug": "misleading-based-numbers-say-obama-and-not-trump-a",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "facebook-posts",
                "full_name": "Facebook posts",
                "first_name": "",
                "last_name": "Facebook posts"
            },
            "targets": [
                {
                    "slug": "barack-obama",
                    "full_name": "Barack Obama",
                    "first_name": "Barack",
                    "last_name": "Obama"
                }
            ],
            "statement": "\"Pardons — Obama: 1,927, Trump: 26. And Trump is abusing that power?\"",
            "ruling_slug": "barely-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-24T15:37:57-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>The latest round of clemency grants from President Donald Trump sparked new criticism that he was abusing his expansive pardon powers by skirting the normal review process and favoring white-collar criminals who were prominent and well-connected.</p>\n\n<p>But two days after the Feb. 18 announcements, a Facebook post implied that it was Barack Obama, not Trump, who had abused the largely unchecked pardon power.</p>\n\n<p>The <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/liberalprivilegeusa/photos/a.2135000133195387/3296467323715323/?type=3&amp;theater\">post</a> said:</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Pardons &mdash; Obama: 1,927, Trump: 26. And Trump is abusing that power?&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The post was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about our <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\">partnership with Facebook</a>.)</p>\n\n<p>The numbers in the post are roughly accurate totals for presidential clemency actions, which include both pardons and sentence commutations. But either way, they&rsquo;re not a good measure of abuse of power.</p>\n\n<p>In his eight years in office, Obama issued 1,927 clemency actions. The vast majority of them &mdash; nearly 90% &mdash; were sentence commutations granted to ordinary individuals, based on a policy of criminal justice reform in drug cases, and specific recommendations from the U.S. Justice Department. Trump has acted outside the Justice Department process in granting clemency to a few well-known white-collar offenders.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Two types of clemency</div>\n\n<p>Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution says the president &quot;shall have the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2017/jul/21/4-questions-about-presidential-pardon-power/\">Power</a> to grant Reprieves and Pardons for offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The general term for these presidential actions is clemency, but there are two <a href=\"https://www.justice.gov/pardon/frequently-asked-questions\">types</a>, the Justice Department says on its website. A pardon, described as an &quot;expression of the President&rsquo;s forgiveness,&quot; is issued after a person&rsquo;s conviction or after a person&rsquo;s sentence has been completed. It restores rights, such as the right to vote or run for office. A commutation reduces a sentence, either totally or partially, but it does not remove the conviction.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Obama vs. Trump</div>\n\n<p>Obama <a href=\"https://www.justice.gov/pardon/clemency-statistics#obama\">issued</a> 212 pardons and 1,715 commutations, for a total of 1,927 acts of clemency &mdash; the number used in the Facebook post.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Trump has <a href=\"https://www.justice.gov/pardon\">taken 35</a> clemency actions, more than the figured cited in the Facebook post. Roughly two-thirds of them were pardons, including two posthumous ones.</p>\n\n<p>Trump has been criticized for issuing the actions outside the usual review process and for seeming to favor certain high-profile or <a href=\"http://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/19/us/politics/trump-pardons.html\">connected</a> individuals.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Obama acted in each case pursuant to a report and recommendation from the Justice Department, which came to him through an orderly and regular process that gave everyone a fair chance of success,&quot; said Margaret Love, a lawyer specializing in executive clemency who was a Justice Department pardon attorney from 1990 to 1997. &quot;By contrast, Trump has almost totally ignored the established DOJ process, and acted pursuant to informal and unofficial recommendations from friends, celebrities, media personalities, business colleagues, etc.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The Trump White House has noted the achievements and the prominent supporters of people whom Trump granted clemency.</p>\n\n<p>In <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/statement-press-secretary-regarding-executive-grants-clemency-2/\">announcing</a> Trump&rsquo;s 11 most recent actions, the White House cited the election of Edward DeBartolo Jr. to the Pro Football Hall of Fame as an NFL team owner and his charitable contributions; called Michael Milken one of America&rsquo;s greatest financiers and noted his philanthropic work; and praised former Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich for tutoring and mentoring fellow prisoners.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>DeBartolo, whose family controls the San Franscisco 49ers, was convicted in 1998 and sentenced to probation for failing to report a felony regarding an extortion attempt. Milken pleaded guilty to securities violations in 1989 and served two years in prison in the early 1990s. Both were pardoned.</p>\n\n<p>Blagojevich received a commutation after spending eight years in prison for a scheme to sell an appointment to the U.S. Senate seat Obama vacated in 2008.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>A Facebook post claims: &quot;Pardons &mdash; Obama: 1,927, Trump: 26. And Trump is abusing that power?&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The numbers for Obama are roughly accurate if you count total acts of clemency &mdash; pardons plus sentence commutations. But only about 11% of those were pardons.</p>\n\n<p>The numbers alone don&rsquo;t suggest abuse of power. Experts told us that Obama followed a policy of clemency actions aimed at low-level criminals who were given long sentences many years ago, and he followed recommendations made by the Justice Department, whereas Trump has largely acted on his own.</p>\n\n<p>For a statement that contains only an element of truth, our rating is Mostly False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>Facebook, <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/liberalprivilegeusa/photos/a.2135000133195387/3296467323715323/?type=3&amp;theater\">post</a>, Feb. 19, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Check Your Fact, <a href=\"https://checkyourfact.com/2020/02/21/fact-check-barack-obama-donald-trump-pardons/?fbclid=IwAR3KZhGATRkgLDNFN13HAZN_r-kbRnoL2Oe8N4w_ZThd7yOp2FWJfuHGYWI\">&quot;Fact Check: Viral Image Claims Obama Pardoned 1,927 People And Trump Pardoned 26,&quot;</a> Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2017/jul/21/4-questions-about-presidential-pardon-power/\">&quot;Can the president pardon himself? 4 questions about the presidential pardon,&quot;</a> July 21, 2017</p>\n\n<p>U.S. Department of Justice, <a href=\"https://www.justice.gov/pardon\">Office of the Pardon Attorney</a>, accessed Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>U.S. Department of Justice, <a href=\"https://www.justice.gov/pardon/clemency-statistics#obama\">&quot;Clemency statistics,&quot;</a> Feb. 7, 2020</p>\n\n<p>U.S. Department of Justice, <a href=\"https://www.justice.gov/pardon/frequently-asked-questions\">&quot;Office of the Pardon Attorney Frequently Asked Questions,&quot;</a> Dec. 14, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Email, <a href=\"https://www.thompsonhine.com/professionals/Robenalt-James\">James Robenalt</a>, attorney with the firm Thompson Hine, Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email, pardon attorney <a href=\"https://pardonlaw.com/\">Margaret Love</a>, Department of Justice pardon attorney from 1990 to 1997, Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email, American University clemency expert and American politics professor <a href=\"https://www.american.edu/spexs/faculty/crouch.cfm\">Jeffrey Crouch</a>, Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email, <a href=\"https://www.law.upenn.edu/cf/faculty/krooseve/\">Kermit Roosevelt</a>, constitutional law professor, University of Pennsylvania Law School, Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email, <a href=\"https://lawweb.colorado.edu/profiles/profile.jsp?id=8\">Harold Bruff</a>, University of Colorado constitutional law professor, Feb. 21, 2020&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>New York Times, <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/19/us/politics/trump-pardons.html\">&quot;The 11 Criminals Granted Clemency by Trump Had One Thing in Common: Connections,&quot;</a> Feb. 19, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The Atlantic, <a href=\"https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/02/our-founders-didnt-intend-pardons-work-like/606838/\">&quot;Our Founders Didn&rsquo;t Intend for Pardons to Work Like This,&quot;</a> Feb. 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The White House, <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/statement-press-secretary-regarding-executive-grants-clemency-2/\">clemency statement</a>, Feb. 18, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17975,
            "slug": "contrary-todd-gilbert-us-isnt-reducing-carbon-emis",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "todd-gilbert",
                "full_name": "Todd Gilbert",
                "first_name": "Todd",
                "last_name": "Gilbert"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "“America’s carbon emissions are being reduced at a rate far higher than any country in the world.”",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-24T08:57:51-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>House Minority Leader Todd Gilbert, R-Shenandoah, recently accused the newly-elected Democratic majorities in the General Assembly of undermining Virginia&rsquo;s pro-business environment.</p>\n\n<p>In a blunt Feb. 12 <a href=\"https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/chamber/chamberstream.php\">floor speech</a>, Gilbert criticized Democrats for advancing bills that would raise Virginia&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?ses=201&amp;typ=bil&amp;val=hb395\">minimum</a> <a href=\"https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?ses=201&amp;typ=bil&amp;val=sb7\">wage</a>, increase the <a href=\"http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+sum+SB890\">gas</a> <a href=\"http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+sum+HB1414\">tax</a> to aid transportation, and impose a <a href=\"http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+sum+HB534\">five-cent</a> <a href=\"http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+sum+SB11\">state fee</a> on each disposable bag stores provide to consumers.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Gilbert particularly focused on bills passed by the House and Senate that would require Virginia to completely rely on renewable energy sources by mid-century - a death knell for Southwest Virginia&rsquo;s declining coal industry.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Democrats apparently want to run Virginia&rsquo;s thriving economy, not on the abundant energy resources that we already have at our disposal here in this country and this Commonwealth, but merely on rays of sunlight and gusts of wind,&quot; he said.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;They are unyielding in this pursuit of their agenda, even though America&rsquo;s carbon emissions are being reduced at a rate far higher than any country in the world while we are presiding over one of the largest energy booms in world history.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>We fact-checked Gilbert&rsquo;s assertion that &quot;America&rsquo;s carbon emissions are being reduced at a rate higher than any country in the world.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>We asked Garren Shipley, Gilbert&rsquo;s communications director, for the source of the minority leader&rsquo;s claim. He sent us a report on global carbon emissions in 2019, published Feb. 11, 2020 by the International Energy Agency - a 30-nation organization that researches and makes policy recommendations for sustainable energy sources. The report said carbon emissions declined in the U.S. last year and held steady across the world.</p>\n\n<p>The language in the report can be a bit confusing. &quot;The United States saw the largest decline in energy-related CO2 emissions in 2019 on a country basis &ndash; a fall of 140 Mt, or 2.9%, to 4.8 Gt.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Thoroughly read, the reports says U.S. led all nations in reducing its tonnage of carbon pollution last year. But contrary to Gilbert&rsquo;s statement, other countries cut their emissions by larger rates. Let&rsquo;s explore this distinction.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Tonnage</strong></p>\n\n<p>The IEA found that the U.S, carbon emissions fell from 4.94 billion metric tons in 2018 to 4.8 billion last year. That&rsquo;s a reduction of 140 million metric tons&nbsp; - the most in the world, according to IEA.</p>\n\n<p>The report attributed the drop to a 15% decline in the use of coal-fired energy, largely caused by competition from cheaper, cleaner natural gas. Also, mild summer and winter weather eased demand for air-conditioning and heating.</p>\n\n<p>The IEA won&rsquo;t publish carbon data for every nation until March. But here are the few comparison numbers that can be gleaned from the February report:</p>\n\n<p>Germany reduced its carbon emissions from about 674 million metric tons in 2018 to 620 million last year, its lowest level since the 1950s. The 54-million-ton drop led European Union nations.</p>\n\n<p>Japan cut its emissions from about 1,076 million cubic tons in 2018 to 1,030 million last year - a drop of 46 million cubic tons.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The drop in the U.S. was encouraging to some environmentalists because it reversed an increase in carbon emissions in 2018. But the one-year measurement starting in 2018 produces a myopic result. That&rsquo;s because carbon emissions in 2018 soared to a four-year high, erasing progress that had been made in 2017.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>If you measure from 2017 to 2019, U.S. carbon emissions increased by 39 metric million tons, and fell in Germany and Japan, according to IEA <a href=\"https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics/?country=USA&amp;fuel=CO2%20emissions&amp;indicator=CO2%20emissions%20by%20energy%20source\">data</a>. If you measure from 2016 to 2019, U.S. emissions declined by 38 million tons - about one-third as much as they fell in Germany and Japan. If you start in 2010, U.S. emissions dropped by 452 million tons - far outpacing Germany and Japan.</p>\n\n<p>In other words, the data can show different trends. &quot;A lot of it depends on where your baseline is,&quot; said Jamie Russell, director of the Appalachian Energy Center at Appalachian State University.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The U.S. and China are by far the world&#39;s largest carbon polluters. China is responsible for <a href=\"https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-co2-emissions.pdf\">28%</a> of emission tonnage; the U.S. for <a href=\"https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-co2-emissions.pdf\">15%</a>. Chinese pollution is increasing.&nbsp; It&rsquo;s also increasing in the third-place country, India, which spews <a href=\"https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-co2-emissions.pdf\">7%</a> of the world&rsquo;s carbon tonnage. No other country is above <a href=\"https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-co2-emissions.pdf\">4.6%</a>. Although many European nations have cut emissions, none of those countries discharge more than 2 percent of the global tonnage.</p>\n\n<p>Think of a group of people that have all decided to lose weight. If one person weighs several times more than that the others, he&rsquo;s likely to lose the most pounds. But that doesn&rsquo;t mean he&rsquo;s the most effective dieter.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Rate</strong>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>That heaviest person may not be losing weight at the highest &quot;rate&quot; - the term Gilbert used when talking about U.S. emission cuts. A 500-pound person dropping 50 pounds in a year lost weight at a 10% annual rate. But a 150-pound person who shed only 20 pounds during that period lost weight at a faster 13% annual rate.</p>\n\n<p>The same principle applies to measuring rates of U.S. carbon reduction. The U.S. cut emissions by 2.9% in 2019, according to the IEA. That&rsquo;s not the highest rate. European Union nations cut emissions by 5%, with Germany leading the way at 8%. Japan reduced emissions by 4.3%. The February report doesn&rsquo;t offer this datum for other countries.</p>\n\n<p>From 2007 to 2017, U.S. lowered carbon emissions by an average 1.5% a year, according to BP. Nine European countries cut their emissions at a higher rate: the Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Italy, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine and the United Kingdom.</p>\n\n<p>The IEA report describes the U.S. progress last year in terms of reduced tonnage. But it does not say the U.S. cut carbon emissions at the world&rsquo;s fastest rate, nor do <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/grounds-optimism-global-carbon-emissions-level-growing-economy/story?id=68906935\">two</a> <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/International/paris-climate-accord-international-agreement-trump-withdrawing-us/story?id=66762416\">articles</a> on the report that Shipley sent us to back Gilbert&rsquo;s claim.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It was the largest drop in terms of tons, but that is not a &lsquo;rate,&rsquo;&quot; we were told by John Reilly, co-director of the Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change at the MIT Sloan School of Management. &quot;Your percentage calculation is a &lsquo;rate.&rsquo;&nbsp; Since the U.S. is among one of the biggest emitters among countries, much smaller drops for other countries translate to larger rates of reduction.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Robert Brecha, a professor in the department of physics and the renewable and clean energy program at the University of Dayton, agreed. &quot;Since the US is the second largest emitter, the magnitude of reductions is important,&quot; he wrote. &quot;But it is certainly not true that&nbsp; &lsquo;America&#39;s carbon emissions are being reduced at a rate far higher than any other country in the world.&rsquo;&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Our ruling</strong></p>\n\n<p>Gilbert misstated the findings of an IEA report when he said, &quot;America&rsquo;s carbon emissions are being reduced at a rate far higher than any country in the world.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The report requires close reading. It found that in 2019, the U.S. cut carbon emissions by 140 million metric tons, the highest weight loss in the world. That&rsquo;s significant because the U.S. is the world&rsquo;s second-largest carbon polluter.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But the IEA did not say the U.S. is cutting emission higher rate than any nation, let alone a &quot;far-higher&quot; rate that Gilbert described. America&rsquo;s 2.9% percent reduction last year was below Japan&rsquo;s, Germany&rsquo;s, and the combined rate of European Union nations.</p>\n\n<p>We rate Gilbert&rsquo;s statement&nbsp;False.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Editor&#39;s note:</strong> On a Feb. 18, 2020 VPM radio broadcast, PolitiFact Virginia rated Gilbert&#39;s statement Mostly False. We downgraded it to False after coming across additional information&nbsp;on carbon emissions.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>",
            "sources": "<p>House Minority Leader Todd Gilbert, <a href=\"https://virginiageneralassembly.gov/house/chamber/chamberstream.php\">floor speech, regular session</a>, Feb. 12, 2020 (12:26 p.m. mark).</p>\n\n<p>Emails from Garren Shipley, communications director for Gilbert, Feb. 13, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>International Energy Agency, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.iea.org/articles/global-co2-emissions-in-2019\">Global CO2 emissions in 2019</a>,&quot; Feb. 11, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>IEA, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics?country=GERMANY&amp;fuel=CO2%20emissions&amp;indicator=CO2%20emissions%20by%20energy%20source\">Data and Statistics</a>,&quot; accessed Feb. 18, 2020,&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The Hill, &quot;<a href=\"https://thehill.com/policy/energy-environment/482601-us-energy-related-carbon-dioxide-emissions-lowered-in-2019-report\">U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide lowered in 2029: report</a>,&quot; Feb. 11, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>ABC News, &quot;<a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/grounds-optimism-global-carbon-emissions-level-growing-economy/story?id=68906935\">&#39;Grounds for optimism&#39;: Global carbon emissions level out despite growing economy</a>,&quot; Feb. 11, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>Global Carbon Atlas, &quot;<a href=\"http://www.globalcarbonatlas.org/en/CO2-emissions\">CO2 Emissions</a>,&quot; accessed Feb. 13, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>BP, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2019-co2-emissions.pdf\">BP Statistical Review of World Energy</a>,&quot; 2019.</p>\n\n<p>United Nations, &quot;<a href=\"https://di.unfccc.int/time_series\">Greenhouse Gas Inventory</a>,&quot;&nbsp; accessed Feb. 13, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/jun/18/environmental-protection-agency/are-greenhouse-emissions-down-under-donald-trump-e/\">Are greenhouse gas emissions down under Trump, as EPA says?</a>&quot;, June 18, 2018.</p>\n\n<p>U.S. Energy Information Administration, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/\">U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2018</a>,&quot; Nov. 14, 2019.</p>\n\n<p>EIA, <a href=\"https://www.eia.gov/international/data/world/other-statistics/more-other-statistics-data?pd=40&amp;p=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000f&amp;u=0&amp;f=A&amp;v=mapbubble&amp;a=-&amp;i=none&amp;vo=value&amp;t=C&amp;g=00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001&amp;l=249-ruvvvvvfvtvnvv1vrvvvvfvvvvvvfvvvou20evvvvvvvvvvvvvvs&amp;s=315532800000&amp;e=1483228800000&amp;\">World CO2 emissions</a>, accessed Feb. 13, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>EIA, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=42515#\">EIA expects U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions to decrease annually through 2021</a>,&quot; Jan. 17, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>Emails from John Reilly, co-director of the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Technology of Global Change, Feb. 14, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>Email from Robert Brecha, professor at the School of Engineering Renewable and Clean Energy Program at the University of Dayton, Feb. 14, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>Interview with Jamie Russell, director of the Appalachian Energy Center at Appalachian State University, Feb. 17, 2019.</p>\n\n<p>Legislative Information System, <a href=\"https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?ses=201&amp;typ=bil&amp;val=hb395\">HB395</a>, <a href=\"https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?ses=201&amp;typ=bil&amp;val=sb7\">SB7</a>, <a href=\"http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+sum+HB1414\">HB1414</a>, <a href=\"http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+sum+SB899\">SB899</a>, <a href=\"http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+sum+HB534\">HB534</a>, <a href=\"http://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?201+sum+SB11\">SB11</a>, <a href=\"https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?ses=201&amp;typ=bil&amp;val=hb1526\">HB1526</a>, <a href=\"https://lis.virginia.gov/cgi-bin/legp604.exe?ses=201&amp;typ=bil&amp;val=sb851\">SB851</a>, 2020 Session.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 17984,
            "slug": "lipinski-revives-gop-talking-point-aca-medicare-ch",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "daniel-lipinski",
                "full_name": "Daniel Lipinski",
                "first_name": "Daniel",
                "last_name": "Lipinski"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Says the Affordable Care Act “took money out of the Medicare trust fund.”",
            "ruling_slug": "half-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-23T15:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>In his campaign to hold onto the 3rd District congressional seat, U.S. Rep. Daniel Lipinski frequently faces criticism from opponents about his vote against the Affordable Care Act.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/111-2010/h165\">The only Democratic member of Congress from Illinois</a> to oppose former President Barack Obama&rsquo;s signature healthcare overhaul, Lipinski later <a href=\"https://lipinski.house.gov/press-releases/lipinski-i-voted-against-obamacare-but-oppose-repeal-and-wait/\">came out against</a> Republican plans to repeal the law.</p>\n\n<p>But during <a href=\"https://www.fox32chicago.com/video/655234\">an interview</a> with Fox 32&rsquo;s Mike Flannery, Lipinski repeated his rationale for opposing the legislation back when it came through the House.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The cost was not going to be sustainable, was going to blow a big hole in the deficit,&quot; Lipinski said. &quot;It did nothing about controlling costs &mdash; and those are the big issues. It took money out of the Medicare trust fund.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact has checked claims about the Affordable Care Act siphoning dollars away from Medicare &mdash; usually leveled by Republican opponents of the plan &mdash;&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2012/nov/02/cuts-medicare-anatomy-talking-point/\">more than 30 times</a> since it was first introduced in 2009, consistently finding them to take things out of context or ignore critical details. So we wanted to see if Lipinski&rsquo;s statement held up any better.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">How the ACA affected Medicare</div>\n\n<p>In a phone interview, Lipinski said he was not suggesting the ACA reduced funding for Medicare beneficiaries.</p>\n\n<p>During his nine-minute Feb. 14 appearance, however, Lipinski said nothing to make that distinction clear. And in previous fact-checks, we&rsquo;ve contested more than just assertions that the ACA cut Medicare.</p>\n\n<p>When Mitt Romney &mdash; then a Republican presidential contender &mdash;&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2012/aug/20/mitt-romney/romney-says-obama-cuts-716-medicare-pay-obamacare/\">said in 2012</a> that &quot;under the president&rsquo;s plan, he cuts Medicare by $716 billion, takes that money out of the Medicare trust fund and uses it to pay for Obamacare,&quot; PolitiFact clarified that while savings from changes the law made to rein in future Medicare spending were used to offset costs associated with expanding coverage under the ACA, money was not being taken out of one account and moved to another.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.factcheck.org/2012/08/medicares-piggy-bank/\">FactCheck.org</a> made a similar point the same year, noting the president could not &quot;actually take money out of the trust fund.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Instead, the ACA instituted changes aimed at reducing the growth of Medicare payments to insurance companies and hospitals. Spending was still projected to grow, just at a slower rate. The law also raised taxes on wealthier Americans.</p>\n\n<p>Those changes significantly improved the outlook of Medicare&rsquo;s hospital insurance trust fund, <a href=\"https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/ReportsTrustFunds/downloads/tr2010.pdf\">its trustees reported at the time</a>, extending its solvency by more than a decade. The law also helped reduce the federal deficit, according to the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&lsquo;Double counting&rsquo;</div>\n\n<p>When we spoke with Lipinski, he agreed the ACA had neither taken money already allocated to Medicare nor weakened the fund&rsquo;s financial condition. Instead, he raised a different issue.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;In order to make the claim that the ACA was balanced or, you know, the CBO in the end came out saying that it actually decreased the deficit, you had to double count that money,&quot; Lipinski said. &quot;If you&rsquo;re going to raise the Medicare tax, if you&rsquo;re going to make cuts to providers, you shouldn&rsquo;t be doing that for the purpose of spending it somewhere else.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Paul Van de Water, a former assistant director for budget analysis at CBO and current senior fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, made the case that the office did not double count anything.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;If a batter hits a home run, on the one hand, it adds to his home run total,&quot; Van de Water said. &quot;The team also scores an additional run. That&rsquo;s not double counting, it&rsquo;s just that the same action has more than one effect. And in this case, the act of both reducing projected Medicare spending and increasing Medicare payroll taxes had two different effects.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Lipinski cited <a href=\"https://www.cbo.gov/publication/25017\">a 2009 CBO letter</a> reporting that &quot;to describe the full amount&quot; of trust fund savings &quot;as both improving the government&rsquo;s ability to pay future Medicare benefits and financing new spending outside of Medicare would essentially double-count a large share of those savings and thus overstate the improvement in the government&rsquo;s fiscal position.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>However, Van de Water pointed out, this was a response to a hypothetical &mdash; not how CBO calculated the improvements it reported in the government&rsquo;s overall fiscal position. Indeed, CBO clarified this on <a href=\"https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/114th-congress-2015-2016/reports/50279-QFRs_Senate_Budget_Hearing_1.pdf\">multiple occasions</a>, including in <a href=\"https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/111th-congress-2009-2010/reports/01-22-hi_fund.pdf\">a 2010 response</a> to a question from then-U.S. Sen. Jeff Sessions.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Only the additional savings by the government as a whole truly increase the government&rsquo;s ability to pay for future Medicare benefits or other programs,&quot; the CBO wrote in that letter, noting that those savings, while smaller than those within the fund itself, still decreased the deficit.</p>\n\n<p>Matthew Fiedler, a fellow with the USC-Brookings Schaeffer Initiative for Health Policy who served as chief economist of the Council of Economic Advisors during the implementation of the ACA&rsquo;s health insurance expansions, told us Lipinski&rsquo;s second point about the way the savings were allocated under the law is a &quot;more defensible&quot; position.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Were the tax increases and cuts in Medicare provider payments worth the things they paid for? That&#39;s a completely legitimate thing to debate,&quot; Fiedler said.</p>\n\n<p>However, that was not the issue Lipinski raised on Fox 32.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>Speaking about the costs behind the ACA as one of his reasons for voting against it, Lipinski said the law &quot;took money out of the Medicare trust fund.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The law did reduce future growth in Medicare spending to help fund Obama&rsquo;s expansion of health care coverage, but it did not do so by taking existing dollars away.</p>\n\n<p>While Lipinski did not directly state that the ACA resulted in a cut to Medicare, his remarks nevertheless suggested it siphoned money already in the fund away from the program.</p>\n\n<p>We rate his claim Half True.</p>\n\n<hr>\n<p><em><strong>HALF TRUE</strong> &ndash; The statement is partially accurate but leaves out important details or takes things out of context.</em></p>\n\n<p><em>Click here <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2018/feb/12/principles-truth-o-meter-politifacts-methodology-i/#Truth-O-Meter%20ratings\">for more</a> on the six PolitiFact ratings and how we select facts to check.</em></p>",
            "sources": "<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2012/nov/02/cuts-medicare-anatomy-talking-point/\">&quot;Medicare &#39;cuts&#39; and a talking point that won&#39;t die,&quot;</a> PolitiFact, Nov. 2, 2012</p>\n\n<p>Phone interview, U.S. Rep. Daniel Lipinski, Feb. 20, 2020</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2011/jun/16/mitt-romney/500-billion-medicare-obamacare-romney-says/\">&quot;$500 billion from Medicare for Obamacare, Mitt Romney says,&quot;</a> PolitiFact, June 16, 2011</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2012/aug/20/mitt-romney/romney-says-obama-cuts-716-medicare-pay-obamacare/\">&quot;Romney says Obama &#39;cuts&#39; $716B from Medicare to pay for Obamacare,&quot;</a> PolitiFact, Aug. 20, 2012</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2015/aug/07/mike-huckabee/obamacare-robbed-medicare-700-billion-says-huckabe/\">&quot;Obamacare &#39;robbed&#39; Medicare of $700B, says Huckabee,&quot;</a> PolitiFact, Aug. 7, 2015</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2012/aug/29/paul-ryan/paul-ryan-said-president-obama-funneled-716-billio/\">&quot;Paul Ryan said President Obama &quot;funneled&quot; $716 billion out of Medicare &quot;at the expense of the elderly,&quot;</a> PolitiFact, Aug. 29, 2012</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.factcheck.org/2012/08/medicares-piggy-bank/\">&quot;Medicare&rsquo;s &lsquo;Piggy Bank,&rsquo;&quot;</a> FactCheck.org, Aug. 24, 2012</p>\n\n<p>Email and phone interview: Lipinski spokesperson Sally Daly, Feb. 20 - 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email and phone interview: Paul Van de Water, senior fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Feb. 20 - 21, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email, Matthew Fiedler, fellow with the USC-Brookings Schaeffer Initiative for Health Policy, Feb. 20, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email: Holly Harvey, director of health policy at the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, Feb. 20, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email: Jonathan Oberlander, professor of health policy &amp; management at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Feb. 20, 2020</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/ReportsTrustFunds/downloads/tr2010.pdf\">2010 report</a> from trustees for the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.cbo.gov/publication/25017\">Effects of the ACA on the Federal Budget and the Balance in the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, </a>Congressional Budget Office, Dec. 23, 2009</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/114th-congress-2015-2016/reports/50279-QFRs_Senate_Budget_Hearing_1.pdf\">Answers to Questions for the Record Following a Hearing by the Senate Committee on the Budget</a>, Congressional Budget Office, June 16, 2015</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/111th-congress-2009-2010/reports/01-22-hi_fund.pdf\">Letter to Jeff Sessions,</a> Congressional Budget Office, Jan. 22, 2010</p>"
        }
    ]
}