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    "count": 18018,
    "next": "http://www.politifact.com/api/factchecks/?page=2",
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    "results": [
        {
            "id": 18875,
            "slug": "no-trump-didnt-tell-americans-infected-coronavirus",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "joe-biden",
                "full_name": "Joe Biden",
                "first_name": "Joe",
                "last_name": "Biden"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "On COVID-19, Donald Trump said that “maybe if you drank bleach you may be okay.”",
            "ruling_slug": "barely-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-11T06:00:00-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>Joe Biden criticized President Donald Trump&rsquo;s handling of the coronavirus pandemic, saying during a speech on the economy that Trump had given up trying to manage a crisis he&rsquo;s ill equipped to solve.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;And when it comes to COVID-19, after months of doing nothing, other than predicting the virus would disappear, or maybe if you drank bleach you may be okay, Trump has simply given up,&quot; said Biden, who <a href=\"https://www.inquirer.com/politics/pennsylvania/joe-biden-mike-pence-pa-visit-economy-20200709.html\">delivered his remarks</a> at a metalworks factory near his hometown of Scranton on Thursday.</p>\n\n<p>Trump spoke about the role he thought disinfectants could play in tackling an infection caused by the virus during a now infamous <a href=\"https://www.rev.com/blog/transcripts/donald-trump-coronavirus-press-conference-transcript-april-23\">April 23 briefing</a>. But he didn&rsquo;t say people should drink bleach.</p>\n\n<p>His comments came after William Bryan, the undersecretary for science and technology at the Department of Homeland Security, presented a study that found sun exposure and <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/apr/24/context-what-donald-trump-said-about-disinfectant-/\">cleaning agents like bleach can kill the virus</a> when it lingers on surfaces.</p>\n\n<p>Trump remarked on the effectiveness of those methods and wondered if they could help address infections in the human body.</p>\n\n<p>Here are his full comments:</p>\n\n<p>&quot;A question that probably some of you are thinking of if you&rsquo;re totally into that world, which I find to be very interesting. So, supposedly we hit the body with a tremendous, whether it&rsquo;s ultraviolet or just very powerful light, and I think you said that hasn&rsquo;t been checked, but you&rsquo;re going to test it. And then I said supposing you brought the light inside the body, which you can do either through the skin or in some other way. (To Bryan) And I think you said you&rsquo;re going to test that, too. Sounds interesting, right?&quot;</p>\n\n<p>He continued.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;And then I see the disinfectant, where it knocks it out in one minute. And is there a way we can do something like that, by injection inside or almost a cleaning, because you see it gets in the lungs and it does a tremendous number on the lungs, so it&rsquo;d be interesting to check that, so that you&rsquo;re going to have to use medical doctors with, but it sounds interesting to me. So, we&rsquo;ll see, but the whole concept of the light, the way it kills it in one minute. That&rsquo;s pretty powerful.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Later, Trump clarified his comments after a reporter asked Bryan whether disinfectants could actually be injected into COVID-19 patients.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It wouldn&rsquo;t be through injections, almost a cleaning and sterilization of an area. Maybe it works, maybe it doesn&rsquo;t work, but it certainly has a big effect if it&rsquo;s on a stationary object.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Trump did not explicitly recommend ingesting a disinfectant like bleach. Nevertheless, his remarks led some companies and state agencies to issue warnings about ingesting disinfectants. The <a href=\"https://www.rb.com/media/news/2020/april/improper-use-of-disinfectants/\">maker of Lysol said in a statement</a> that &quot;under no circumstance&quot; should its products be used in the human body.</p>\n\n<p>The Biden campaign did not respond to a request for comment about what evidence the former vice president relied on when he claimed the president suggested Americans drink bleach to combat the virus.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>Biden said Trump said drinking bleach could help fight the coronavirus. Trump did not specifically recommend ingesting disinfectants, but he did express interest in exploring whether disinfectants could be applied to the site of a coronavirus infection inside the body, such as the lungs. We rate Biden&rsquo;s claim Mostly False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>C-SPAN, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.c-span.org/video/?471458-1/president-trump-coronavirus-task-force-briefing\">President Trump with Coronavirus Task Force Briefing</a>,&quot; April 23, 2020</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/apr/24/context-what-donald-trump-said-about-disinfectant-/\">In Context: What Donald Trump said about disinfectant, sun and coronavirus</a>,&quot; April 24, 2020</p>\n\n<p>RB, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.rb.com/media/news/2020/april/improper-use-of-disinfectants/\">Improper use of Disinfectants</a>,&quot; April 2020</p>\n\n<p>Rev, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.rev.com/blog/transcripts/donald-trump-coronavirus-press-conference-transcript-april-23\">Donald Trump Coronavirus Press Conference Transcript April 23</a>,&quot; April 23, 2020</p>\n\n<p>TV Eyes, accessed April 24, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18861,
            "slug": "biden-open-shifting-some-police-money-his-enemy-co",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "mike-pence",
                "full_name": "Mike Pence",
                "first_name": "Mike",
                "last_name": "Pence"
            },
            "targets": [
                {
                    "slug": "joe-biden",
                    "full_name": "Joe Biden",
                    "first_name": "Joe",
                    "last_name": "Biden"
                }
            ],
            "statement": "“And I heard that just yesterday, Joe Biden said that well-armed police in his words ‘become the enemy’ and he said that he would ‘absolutely cut funding for law enforcement.’”",
            "ruling_slug": "barely-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T17:14:06-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>Former Vice President Joe Biden has <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/08/ad-watch-fact-checking-trump-campaigns-defunding-p/\">rejected</a> the notion of &quot;defunding the police,&quot; but that hasn&rsquo;t stopped his critics from trying to pin the slogan on him.</p>\n\n<p>A recent Trump campaign ad <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/08/ad-watch-fact-checking-trump-campaigns-defunding-p/\">misrepresented</a> Biden&rsquo;s stated position. And now a <a href=\"https://www.mediamatters.org/fox-news/trumpists-use-distortion-outright-fabrication-lie-biden-called-police-enemy\">chorus</a> of <a href=\"https://www.independentsentinel.com/joe-biden-says-he-proposed-defunding-the-police-theyve-become-the-enemy/?fbclid=IwAR0FfGkVHSk9PYBg5Og8eMNqtLcrz0rdvZcviDXCEjQcdy4Yp44H4E_guO8\">conservative</a> <a href=\"https://townhall.com/tipsheet/katiepavlich/2020/07/08/joe-biden-says-police-have-become-the-enemy-entertains-defunding-them-n2572130\">voices</a> is seizing on snippets of an interview as evidence that the former vice president does support defunding the police after all.</p>\n\n<p>Vice President Mike Pence on July 9 visited the Fraternal Order of Police Lodge 5 in Northeast Philadelphia for a Back the Blue rally with an audience of 300 police officers and their supporters. Pence recognized officers killed or injured in the line of duty and denounced calls to defund police departments across the country.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;And I heard that, just yesterday, Joe Biden said that well-armed police in his words &lsquo;become the enemy&rsquo; and he said that he would &lsquo;absolutely cut funding for law enforcement,&rsquo;&quot; Pence <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-vice-president-pence-back-blue-rally-philadelphia-pa/\">said</a>.</p>\n\n<p>But Biden&rsquo;s actual comments didn&rsquo;t go as far as Pence claimed.</p>\n\n<p>Biden said in the interview that he is open to shifting some federal police funds to other programs. Otherwise, he has proposed increasing federal funding for community policing, and has consistently called for linking federal law-enforcement funding to policing reforms.</p>\n\n<p>And while Biden did use the word &quot;enemy&quot; in his comments, Pence distorted what Biden actually said.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What Biden has said</div>\n\n<p>Trump has <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/09/donald-trump/biden-campaign-says-he-doesnt-want-defund-police/\">falsely</a> claimed that Biden wants to &quot;defund the police.&quot; That term isn&rsquo;t a precise concept. While some protesters seeking police reform want to eliminate police departments entirely, most public officials who have used the phrase want to revisit the functions of police departments and redirect some of their funding toward social services.</p>\n\n<p>Biden has repeatedly <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/08/ad-watch-fact-checking-trump-campaigns-defunding-p/\">stated</a> his opposition to defunding the police.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I don&#39;t support defunding the police,&quot; Biden told CBS News in a clip aired June 8. &quot;I support conditioning federal aid to police, based on whether or not they meet certain basic standards of decency and honorableness &mdash; and, in fact, are able to demonstrate they can protect the community and everybody in the community.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>He repeated that stance in a June 10 <a href=\"https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2020/06/10/biden-root-out-systemic-racism-not-just-divisive-trump-talk-column/5327631002/\">op-ed</a> in USA Today.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;While I do not believe federal dollars should go to police departments violating people&rsquo;s rights or turning to violence as the first resort, I do not support defunding police,&quot; Biden wrote. &quot;The better answer is to give police departments the resources they need to implement meaningful reforms, and to condition other federal dollars on completing those reforms.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Biden has actually taken some heat from activists for his relatively moderate position on the issue. In June, more than 50 liberal groups signed a <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/context/letter-from-liberal-groups-to-the-biden-campaign/83d3ad62-feeb-45e9-9f32-67cb611346a3/?itid=lk_inline_manual_1\">letter</a> to Biden calling on him to support defunding police and criticizing his promise to add $300 million for community policing programs.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">New interview</div>\n\n<p>Pence&rsquo;s statement followed a video <a href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4CLoiA3vfQ\">interview</a> Biden did with liberal activist Ady Barkan that posted July 8.</p>\n\n<p>The Biden campaign told us that the video was edited before being shared online.</p>\n\n<p>Barkan spent most of the 27-minute remote interview asking about health care. But about 20 minutes in, the discussion turned to George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, both of whom were killed in encounters with police.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Alluding to demands made by Black Lives Matter, Barkan said deadly police encounters with citizens could be reduced if some police funding were redirected to social services, mental health counseling and affordable housing.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Are you open to that kind of reform?&quot; he asked.</p>\n\n<p>Biden replied: &quot;Yes. I proposed that kind of reform.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Biden said he has called for more mental health funding, as well as police reforms such as transparency in officer misconduct records. He did not speak directly about reducing police funding.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Biden then talked about police using military equipment in their communities, which is where the &quot;enemy&quot; comment came up:</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Surplus military equipment for law enforcement &mdash; they don&#39;t need that. The last thing you need is an up-armored Humvee coming into a neighborhood; it&#39;s like the military invading. They don&#39;t know anybody; they become the enemy, they&rsquo;re supposed to be protecting these people.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Barkan then interjected, asking: &quot;But do we agree that we can redirect some of the funding?&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Biden replied: &quot;Yes. Absolutely.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The Biden campaign gave PolitiFact an audio recording of that portion of the interview. After, &quot;Yes. Absolutely,&quot; according to the recording, Biden said, &quot;And by the way, not just redirect, condition them.&quot; He offered holding up federal law enforcement grants if agencies used no-knock warrants or did not eliminate choke holds.</p>\n\n<p>So, Biden said he &quot;absolutely&quot; would shift some funds from police to other services, but he has also proposed adding funding for community policing.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>Pence said Biden &quot;said that well-armed police in his words &lsquo;become the enemy&rsquo; and he said that he would &lsquo;absolutely cut funding for law enforcement.&rsquo;&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Biden said police become the enemy when they use military equipment in a way that&rsquo;s like invading a neighborhood. That context is missing from Pence&rsquo;s portrayal.</p>\n\n<p>Biden also said he is open to redirecting some police funding to social services, but he has stated opposition to fully defunding the police. In fact, he has proposed more funding for community policing and using federal funding to incentivize police reform.</p>\n\n<p>The statement contains an element of truth but ignores critical facts that would give a different impression. We rate it Mostly False.</p>\n\n<p><em>PolitiFact PolitiFact Pennsylvania reporter Jessica Calafeti contributed.</em></p>",
            "sources": "<p>Gateway Pundit, <a href=\"https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2020/07/biden-says-police-become-enemy-calls-cutting-police-funding-video/?fbclid=IwAR0aOxjJBwaCmjTOvhKi2hF7S1Z1QQxWDzKfSSss7cFZYA89Dhxokem3jTs\">&quot;Biden Says Police Have &lsquo;Become the Enemy&rsquo; and Calls For Defunding the Police,&quot;</a> July 8, 2020 (archived <a href=\"http://archive.is/EWz21\">here</a>)&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Email, Vice President Mike Pence spokeswoman Katie Miller, July 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Interview, Joe Biden campaign spokesman Andrew Bates, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The White House, <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-vice-president-pence-back-blue-rally-philadelphia-pa/\">Mike Pence remarks</a>, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>IndependentSentinel.com, <a href=\"https://www.independentsentinel.com/joe-biden-says-he-proposed-defunding-the-police-theyve-become-the-enemy/?fbclid=IwAR0FfGkVHSk9PYBg5Og8eMNqtLcrz0rdvZcviDXCEjQcdy4Yp44H4E_guO8\">&quot;Joe Biden says he &lsquo;proposed defunding the police,&rsquo; &lsquo;they&rsquo;ve become the enemy,&rsquo;&quot;</a> July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/08/ad-watch-fact-checking-trump-campaigns-defunding-p/\">&quot;Ad Watch: Fact-checking the Trump campaign&rsquo;s &#39;defunding the police&#39; ad,&quot;</a> July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>YouTube, <a href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4CLoiA3vfQ\">Ady Barkan-Joe Biden interview</a> (20:40), July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Media Matters for America, <a href=\"https://www.mediamatters.org/fox-news/trumpists-use-distortion-outright-fabrication-lie-biden-called-police-enemy\">&quot;Trumpists use distortion, outright fabrication to lie that Biden called police &lsquo;the enemy,&rsquo;&quot;</a> July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Twitter, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/TrumpWarRoom/status/1280904345408745472?s=20\">Trump War Room tweet</a>, July 8, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18873,
            "slug": "some-covid-19-deaths-have-been-children",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "john-cornyn",
                "full_name": "John Cornyn",
                "first_name": "John",
                "last_name": "Cornyn"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Says “no one under the age of 20 has died of the coronavirus. We still don’t know whether children can get it and transmit it to others.”",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T17:04:13-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>Texas schools will be open this fall, but parents will be allowed to choose between sending their children to in-person classes or keeping them home for virtual instruction, per <a href=\"https://www.statesman.com/news/20200707/texas-guidelines-will-let-parents-choose-remote-or-in-person-classes-masks-to-be-required-in-school\">new guidance</a> issued by the state&rsquo;s education agency on Tuesday.</p>\n\n<p>The decision received mixed reviews from educators, parents and state officials, some of whom cited rising infection rates, hospitalizations and deaths<a href=\"https://www.statesman.com/news/20200709/texas-daily-coronavirus-deaths-hit-triple-digits-as-abbott-expands-elective-surgery-ban\"> from COVID-19</a> in the state as a point of concern.</p>\n\n<p>In an interview with <a href=\"https://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/texas-news/cornyn-on-covid-19-we-still-dont-know-whether-children-can-get-it-and-transmit-it/2403772/\">a television station in Dallas</a> on Thursday, U.S. Sen. John Cornyn said he thinks the most important factor in opening schools should be safety.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The good news is, when you look at the numbers, no one under the age of 20 has died of the coronavirus,&quot; said Cornyn, a Republican. &quot;We still don&rsquo;t know whether children can get it and transmit it to others.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>But is that accurate? Cornyn did not return a request for comment seeking more information about his statement.</p>\n\n<p>A spokesperson for the senator told NBC DFW on Friday that Cornyn &quot;could have been more precise with his language,&quot; but his information came from a July 9 tweet shared by Dr. Scott Gottlieb, the former commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration.</p>\n\n<p>In reply to a question about children and the coronavirus, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/ScottGottliebMD/status/1281191162775244800?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1281191162775244800%7Ctwgr%5E&amp;ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nbcdfw.com%2Fnews%2Flocal%2Ftexas-news%2Fcornyn-on-covid-19-we-still-dont-know-whether-children-can-get-it-and-transmit-it%2F2403772%2F\">Gottlieb wrote</a>: &quot;Balance of data clearly shows they&rsquo;re less likely to become infected and less likely to transmit infection. But IMHO we need to have humility on this question and recognize we don&rsquo;t fully understand all the risks; and while kids are less vulnerable, less risk doesn&rsquo;t mean no risk.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Cornyn spokesman Drew Brandewie told the Houston Chronicle that Cornyn &quot;was not questioning whether children can catch the virus &mdash; of course they can. He was questioning the likelihood that children can catch it and THEN transmit it.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Let&rsquo;s dive in.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Looking at infection numbers, deaths</strong></p>\n\n<p>People of any age can contract the coronavirus, which causes the disease COVID-19.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Everyone is at risk for getting COVID-19 if they are exposed to the virus,&quot; reads a<a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-at-increased-risk.html\"> U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention </a>webpage on the virus. &quot;Some people are more likely than others to become severely ill, which means that they may require hospitalization, intensive care, or a ventilator to help them breathe, or they may even die.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Some <a href=\"https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0962-9\">independent research</a> and a <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6914e4.htm?s_cid=mm6914e4_w\">preliminary report</a> from the CDC show that children may be less likely to contract the virus than adults. Plus, the risk of severe illness from COVID-19 increases with age.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But that does not mean children cannot contract the virus or experience illness as a result.</p>\n\n<p>The<a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#demographics\"> latest analysis</a> from the CDC shows that roughly 6% of confirmed coronavirus cases in the United States have been among people 17 years old and under &mdash; 1.4% have been in people under 4 and 4.6% between 5 and 17.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://txdshs.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/ed483ecd702b4298ab01e8b9cafc8b83\">In Texas</a>, about 7% of the 24,459 coronavirus cases with a completed investigation have been people under 19 &mdash;&nbsp;2.3% have been people under 9 and 4.8% between 10 and 19.</p>\n\n<p>National and state data also show that Cornyn is wrong to say no person under 20 has died from the coronavirus.</p>\n\n<p>Across the<a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm#AgeAndSex\"> United States</a>, 29 people under the age of 14 and 142 people between the ages of 15 and 24 have died after contracting the coronavirus.</p>\n\n<p>In Texas, state data does not show any coronavirus fatalities for people younger than 19 &mdash; but the state has investigated just 703 of the state&rsquo;s reported 2,918 fatalities.</p>\n\n<p>According to media reports, some children have died after contracting the virus in the state.</p>\n\n<p>In April, a 17-year-old girl in Lancaster died of complications related to the coronavirus, <a href=\"https://www.dallasnews.com/news/public-health/2020/04/28/17-year-old-girl-dies-of-coronavirus-in-dallas-county/\">according to the Dallas Morning News.</a></p>\n\n<p>On Friday, health officials in Corpus Christi reported &quot;a COVID-19 related death of a six week old infant,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/molinacampaign/posts/1397730067085276\">according to Ben Molina</a>, a city council member in the area.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Exploring transmission</strong></p>\n\n<p>Dr. Jeffrey Kahn, chief of Pediatric Infectious Disease at UT Southwestern Medical Center, told NBC DFW in <a href=\"https://www.nbcdfw.com/news/coronavirus/health-expert-offers-safety-tips-for-day-care-facilities-and-summer-camps/2400645/\">a July 3 interview</a> that children are able to contract and transmit the virus.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We know that children should be less prone to severe disease and viral infections, that&rsquo;s not to say children can&rsquo;t get sick,&quot; he said. &quot;We&rsquo;ve had many examples of children getting sick. We also know that children can spread the virus and not be symptomatic.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>But the extent to which children spread the virus remains under-studied, and it is likely that children play a small role in the bulk of virus transmission.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;So far, researchers agree that children are not contracting the new coronavirus at the same rate as adults,&quot; reads <a href=\"https://www.advisory.com/about-us/newsroom/the-advisory-board-in-the-news\">a report from the Advisory Board</a>, a health care research and consulting firm. &quot;But research has yet to show whether young children transmit the new coronavirus at a similar rate as adults.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Robert Redfield, director of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, spoke about whether children returning to schools pose a risk of spreading the virus during a briefing of the White House Task Force on Wednesday.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We really don&rsquo;t have evidence that children are driving the transmission cycle of (the coronavirus),&quot; he said.</p>\n\n<p>Dr. Deborah Birx, the White House coronavirus response coordinator, said that could be due to lack of testing among children.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It really comes to the evidence base of: what do we have as far as testing and children?&quot; she said during the same press briefing. &quot;So, if you look across all of the tests that we&rsquo;ve done and when we have the age, the portion that has been the lowest-tested portion is the under-10-years-old.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Two international studies conducted on children&mdash; one <a href=\"https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6498/1481.full\">focused on China</a> and the other based in<a href=\"https://zoonosen.charite.de/fileadmin/user_upload/microsites/m_cc05/virologie-ccm/dateien_upload/Weitere_Dateien/analysis-of-SARS-CoV-2-viral-load-by-patient-age.pdf\"> Germany</a> &mdash;&nbsp;offer &quot;compelling evidence that children can transmit the virus,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/05/health/coronavirus-children-transmission-school.html\">according to the New York Times.</a></p>\n\n<p>A preliminary report from the CDC on the coronavirus in children said children are less likely to show typical symptoms of the coronavirus like fever or cough.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Social distancing and everyday preventive behaviors remain important for all age groups as patients with less serious illness and those without symptoms likely play an important role in disease transmission,&quot; the report reads.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Our ruling</strong></p>\n\n<p>Cornyn said that &quot;no one under the age of 20 has died of the coronavirus. We still don&rsquo;t know whether children can get it and transmit it to others.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Cornyn&rsquo;s claim is wrong on multiple counts: First, numerous children across the country and in Texas have contracted the coronavirus and some have died as a result.</p>\n\n<p>Research indicates that children are able to transmit the coronavirus, but there has been little research into how the rate of transmission may vary compared to adults. Transmission involving children does not appear to make up the bulk of the spread.</p>\n\n<p>We rate this claim False.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>NBC DFW, <a href=\"https://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/texas-news/cornyn-on-covid-19-we-still-dont-know-whether-children-can-get-it-and-transmit-it/2403772/\">Cornyn on COVID-19: &lsquo;We Still Don&#39;t Know Whether Children Can Get It and Transmit It&#39;</a>, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Twitter, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/ScottGottliebMD/status/1281191162775244800?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1281191162775244800%7Ctwgr%5E&amp;ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nbcdfw.com%2Fnews%2Flocal%2Ftexas-news%2Fcornyn-on-covid-19-we-still-dont-know-whether-children-can-get-it-and-transmit-it%2F2403772%2F\">Scott Gottlieb</a>, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Austin American-Statesman, <a href=\"https://www.statesman.com/news/20200707/texas-guidelines-will-let-parents-choose-remote-or-in-person-classes-masks-to-be-required-in-school\">Texas guidelines will let parents choose remote or in-person classes; masks to be required in school,</a> June 7, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Austin American-Statesman, <a href=\"https://www.statesman.com/news/20200709/texas-daily-coronavirus-deaths-hit-triple-digits-as-abbott-expands-elective-surgery-ban\">Texas daily coronavirus deaths hit triple digits as Abbott expands elective surgery ban</a>, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>CDC, <a href=\"https://data.cdc.gov/NCHS/Provisional-COVID-19-Death-Counts-by-Sex-Age-and-S/9bhg-hcku\">Provisional COVID-19 Death Counts by Sex, Age, and State</a>, accessed July 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#demographics\">CDC COVID Data Tracker</a>, accessed July 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/may/22/janel-brandtjen/yes-children-do-get-coronavirus-it-just-might-not-/\">Yes, children do get coronavirus. It just might not be as serious.</a>, May 27, 2020</p>\n\n<p>NBC DFW, <a href=\"https://www.nbcdfw.com/news/coronavirus/health-expert-offers-safety-tips-for-day-care-facilities-and-summer-camps/2400645/\">Health Expert Offers Safety Tips for Day Care Facilities and Summer Camps</a>, July 3, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children/protect-children.html\">Help Stop the Spread of COVID-19 in Children</a>, accessed June 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>NPR, <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/06/20/880983822/coronavirus-mystery-are-kids-less-likely-to-catch-it-than-adults-are\">Coronavirus Mystery: Are Kids Less Likely To Catch It Than Adults Are?</a>, June 20, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Nature.com, <a href=\"https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0962-9\">Age-dependent effects in the transmission and control of COVID-19 epidemics</a>, June 16, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Dallas Morning News, <a href=\"https://www.dallasnews.com/news/public-health/2020/04/28/17-year-old-girl-dies-of-coronavirus-in-dallas-county/\">17-year-old Lancaster girl among Dallas County&rsquo;s latest 10 coronavirus victims</a>, April 28, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Facebook post, <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/molinacampaign/posts/1397730067085276\">Councilman Ben Molina</a>, July 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The Advisory Board, <a href=\"https://www.advisory.com/daily-briefing/2020/05/26/children-transmission\">Can children spread the new coronavirus? Here&#39;s what research says</a>, May 26, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18874,
            "slug": "california-lawmaker-makes-oversimplified-untrue-cl",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "melissa-melendez",
                "full_name": "Melissa Melendez",
                "first_name": "Melissa",
                "last_name": "Melendez"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "“There is no science or data to suggest that kids are at risk from COVID.”",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T16:33:51-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>A California state lawmaker jumped into the national debate on whether to reopen schools this fall amid the rapid spread of COVID-19, by claiming there&rsquo;s no evidence children are in harm&rsquo;s way.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There is no science or data to suggest that kids are at risk from COVID,&quot; Republican state Sen. Melissa Melendez <a href=\"https://twitter.com/senatormelendez/status/1281366669659648002\">tweeted</a> on Thursday.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Melendez, who represents much of Riverside County, went on to argue for a full reopening.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Students should return to school, in person, and all school sports/activities should resume. Let&rsquo;s stop robbing our kids of the education we owe them. We can do this safely.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><img alt=\"\" src=\"https://static.politifact.com/politifact/photos/Melendez_tweet_screen_shot.JPG\"></p>\n\n<p>We won&rsquo;t put a Truth-O-Meter rating on the second half of her tweet because it&rsquo;s her opinion. But the first part makes a claim about the facts.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Are there really no COVID-19 studies showing a risk to children?</p>\n\n<p>We decided to check that out.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Our research</strong></p>\n\n<p>Benjamin Linas is an associate professor of epidemiology and an infectious disease physician at Boston University School of Medicine. He wrote a recent <a href=\"https://www.vox.com/2020/7/9/21318560/covid-19-coronavirus-us-testing-children-schools-reopening-questions\">article in Vox</a> advocating for the reopening of schools this fall.</p>\n\n<p>But when asked about Melendez&rsquo;s claim, he called it &quot;an oversimplification and untrue.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There absolutely are studies of COVID-19 risk in children. It is silly to say that kids do not have risk,&quot; Linas wrote in an email. &quot;The good news is that medical consensus at this time, based on data, is that children generally have a mild form of COVID and that many are asymptomatic. Overall, if your child contracts COVID, they will be OK. That is good news. But to take that and say that kids are &lsquo;not at risk&rsquo; is an oversimplification and untrue. Some children have died of COVID, some have been in ICUs.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>In his Vox article, Linas pointed to <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6914e4.htm\">public health reporting</a> that showed children under the age of 18 made up only 2% of coronavirus cases in the United States, even though they represent 22% of the total population.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>He wrote that similar studies in <a href=\"https://academic.oup.com/jpids/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jpids/piaa070/5849922\">Chicago</a> and <a href=\"https://www.mass.gov/info-details/covid-19-response-reporting\">Massachusetts</a> found that children make up fewer COVID-19 cases than anticipated, as have studies in <a href=\"https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2006100?query=C19&amp;cid=DM90478_NEJM_COVID-19_Newsletter&amp;bid=185523657\">Italy</a>, <a href=\"https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.15.20036368v1.full.pdf\">South Korea</a>, and <a href=\"https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.17.20053157v1\">Iceland</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Looking at data nationally and worldwide at the end of May, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/pediatric-hcp.html\">concluded</a>: &quot;Based on these early studies, children of all ages are at risk for COVID-19; however, complications of COVID-19 appear to be less common among children compared with adults based on limited reports from China and the U.S.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Lee Riley, professor and chair of infectious disease and vaccinology at UC Berkeley&rsquo;s School of Public Health, also disputed Melendez&rsquo;s claim.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;This lawmaker is wrong,&quot; Riley wrote in an email. &quot;Though rare, there are well documented cases of severe complications kids develop with COVID-19. In Europe and the US, several cases of Kawasaki-like disease have been reported. (New York City) had about 100 cases with 3 deaths.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Riley is referring to a rare but serious condition found in young people this spring known as <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/2020/06/07/864493574/doctors-race-for-answers-as-kids-fight-rare-inflammatory-syndrome-tied-to-corona\">Multisystem-Inflammatory Syndrome</a>. Doctors in Europe and the United States have attributed it to complications linked to COVID-19.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>While the risk of severe illness from COVID-19 is low for children, the professor added that &quot;kids can serve as a reservoir for transmission to their parents and other relatives. Parents who may have diabetes, high blood pressure, and other underlying medical conditions will be at risk for severe complications and even death.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>When asked about the claim in question, a spokesperson for Sen. Melendez said her tweet was based on statements made at recent White House Coronavirus Task Force events. He acknowledged &quot;the exact phrasing&quot; of those statements &quot;is not the same&quot; as the senator&rsquo;s tweet.</p>\n\n<p>Here&rsquo;s a sample:&nbsp;</p>\n\n<ul>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>&quot;We really don&rsquo;t have evidence that children are driving the transmission cycle of this,&quot; CDC Director Robert Redfield stated on Wednesday at the task force briefing.&nbsp;</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>&quot;Children are less likely to become infected and they are less likely to spread infection,&quot; American Academy of Pediatrics President Sally Goza said at a White House event on Tuesday.</p>\n\t</li>\n</ul>\n\n<p>Those statements line up with what other health experts have said. But they don&rsquo;t specifically support Melendez&rsquo;s broad claim &quot;There is no science or data to suggest that kids are at risk from COVID.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>A day after Goza&rsquo;s remarks, White House health advisor Dr. Deborah Birx disputed the idea that children have been proven to be less likely to spread COVID-19, saying there&rsquo;s not enough data to arrive at that conclusion, <a href=\"https://www.cnbc.com/2020/07/08/cdc-director-says-theres-no-data-children-drive-coronavirus-spread-but-the-us-isnt-testing-many-kids.html\">CNBC</a> reported.</p>\n\n<p>Looking at the age groups tested in the United States, &quot;the lowest tested portion is the under-10-year-olds,&quot; Birx said Wednesday.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There&rsquo;s no data one way or the other right now,&quot; to determine how much children will spread the disease, added UC Berkeley&rsquo;s Dr. Riley, in a follow-up phone interview.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Our rating&nbsp;</strong></p>\n\n<p>California State Sen. Melissa Melendez recently claimed there is &quot;no science or data to suggest that kids are at risk from COVID.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Medical experts say that&rsquo;s just plain wrong. There are studies that have examined children and found they are at risk of COVID-19, albeit less risk than adults.</p>\n\n<p>As one infectious disease expert put it, some &quot;children have died of COVID, some have been in ICUs.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>While children aren&rsquo;t at a high risk for complications of the coronavirus, experts said the data is not yet clear about their role in transmitting it. There&rsquo;s a tense debate nationally about whether reopening schools will lead to a greater spread of COVID-19 not just among children but also among family members and wider communities.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>That debate is still playing out. What&rsquo;s clear is that Melendez went too far in her claim, reducing a complicated topic to an oversimplified, unsupported tweet.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>We rate her claim False.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><em><strong>FALSE </strong>&ndash; The statement is not accurate.</em></p>",
            "sources": "<p>State Sen. Melissa Melendez, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/senatormelendez/status/1281366669659648002\">tweet</a>, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Jared Yoshiki, chief of staff for Sen. Melendez, email exchange, July 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Lee Riley, professor and chair of infectious disease and vaccinology, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, email and zoom interviews, July 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Erin Mordecai, assistant professor in biology, Stanford University, email exchange, July 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Benjamin Linas, associate professor of epidemiology and an infectious disease physician, Boston University School of Medicine, email exchange July 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Vox, <a href=\"https://www.vox.com/2020/7/9/21318560/covid-19-coronavirus-us-testing-children-schools-reopening-questions\">I&rsquo;m an epidemiologist and a dad. Here&rsquo;s why I think schools should reopen.</a>, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>CNBC, <a href=\"https://www.cnbc.com/2020/07/08/cdc-director-says-theres-no-data-children-drive-coronavirus-spread-but-the-us-isnt-testing-many-kids.html\">CDC director says there&rsquo;s no data children drive coronavirus spread &mdash; but the U.S. isn&rsquo;t testing many kids</a>, July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>U.S. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6914e4.htm\">Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children &mdash; United States, February 12&ndash;April 2, 2020</a>, April 10, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Mayo Clinic, <a href=\"https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-in-babies-and-children/art-20484405\">COVID-19 (coronavirus) in babies and children</a>, July 1, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18870,
            "slug": "yes-science-led-new-zealand-currently-has-no-local",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "facebook-posts",
                "full_name": "Facebook posts",
                "first_name": "",
                "last_name": "Facebook posts"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "“New Zealand let health experts” rather than politicians make decisions about how to deal with COVID-19, “and as of today they have zero COVID cases.”",
            "ruling_slug": "mostly-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T14:10:20-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>Do the Kiwis have something exceptional to show the world on how to fight COVID-19?</p>\n\n<p>A Facebook account called &quot;God&quot; with more than <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/TheGoodLordAbove/\">3.94 million</a> followers shared an image of a tweet that made this claim:</p>\n\n<p>&quot;today i learned that new zealand let health experts make the decisions about how to deal w the pandemic rather than politicians and as of today they have 0 covid cases. wow almost as if science and common sense works.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The July 7 <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/TheGoodLordAbove/photos/a.157796790974699/3955928917828115/?type=3&amp;theater\">post</a> was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about our <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\">partnership</a> with Facebook.)</p>\n\n<p>The country has earned headlines <a href=\"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/2020/04/what-new-zealand-did-right-in-battling-coronavirus/\">such as</a>, &quot;New Zealand has &lsquo;effectively eliminated&rsquo; coronavirus&quot; in National Geographic <a href=\"https://www.politico.eu/article/kiwis-vs-coronavirus-new-zealand-covid19-restrictions-rules/\">and</a> &quot;How New Zealand beat the coronavirus&quot; in Politico.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>So, let&rsquo;s see what&rsquo;s happening there.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">The numbers</div>\n\n<p>The number zero is accurate in terms of the number of active cases in which the coronavirus was contracted within New Zealand.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In fact, the New Zealand Ministry of Health told PolitiFact on July 9 it had been 69 days since the last case of COVID-19 was confirmed as &quot;acquired locally from an unknown source.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>This isn&rsquo;t to say New Zealand, which has a population of 5 million, has had no cases.</p>\n\n<p>As of July 7, the date of the Facebook post, there were 22 active cases in the country &mdash; all detected at the port of entry among New Zealanders who were returning from overseas travel, the ministry told us. In total, the country has counted <a href=\"https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/diseases-and-conditions/covid-19-novel-coronavirus\">1,540</a> confirmed and probable cases during the outbreak, including <a href=\"https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/diseases-and-conditions/covid-19-novel-coronavirus/covid-19-current-situation/covid-19-current-cases\">22</a> deaths.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>A <a href=\"https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/diseases-and-conditions/covid-19-novel-coronavirus/covid-19-current-situation/covid-19-current-cases\">probable</a> case does not have a positive laboratory result, but &quot;is treated like a confirmed case based on its exposure history and clinical symptoms.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Health experts vs. politicians</div>\n\n<p>As for the whys of New Zealand&rsquo;s success, both health experts and politicians can be credited &mdash; along with New Zealanders&rsquo; willingness to abide by stay-at-home orders &mdash; according to a number of news analyses.</p>\n\n<p>National Geographic <a href=\"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/2020/04/what-new-zealand-did-right-in-battling-coronavirus/\">credited</a> New Zealand&rsquo;s success to mandatory quarantines for all visitors beginning March 15, which it called one of the strictest policies in the world at the time &mdash; even though there were just six cases nationwide. Just 10 days later, it instituted a complete, countrywide lockdown, including a moratorium on domestic travel. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern &quot;made clear, concise statements about the situation to the nation, bolstered by a team of scientists and health professionals&quot; and citizens abided by the restrictions, wrote a reporter who became one of the quarantined visitors.</p>\n\n<p>How strict? The lockdown from March 24 to April 9 allowed non-essential workers to leave home only for essential exercise within close proximity to their residences, Forbes <a href=\"https://www.forbes.com/sites/alexandrasternlicht/2020/06/08/how-new-zealand-eliminated-coronavirus/#68d800901bbd\">reported</a>.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;New Zealanders didn&rsquo;t complain, they didn&rsquo;t protest, they simply followed the rules,&quot; another foreign reporter who was in New Zealand for the lockdowns, <a href=\"https://www.politico.eu/article/kiwis-vs-coronavirus-new-zealand-covid19-restrictions-rules/\">wrote</a> in Politico. When Ardern&rsquo;s health minister took his family for a 20-minute ride to the beach, he was demoted, the reporter wrote.</p>\n\n<p>Ardern <a href=\"https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/11/ardern-announces-new-zealand-will-reopen-schools-offices-and-restaurants-this-week\">announced</a> the reopening of schools in May.</p>\n\n<p>The BBC <a href=\"https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-52344299\">credited</a> Ardern&rsquo;s leadership as well as the presence of New Zealand Director-General of Health Ashley Bloomfield at Ardern&rsquo;s daily briefings. Bloomfield effectively explained complex health issues, and that made New Zealanders more compliant in following orders, the network reported.</p>\n\n<p>The New York Times <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/08/world/australia/new-zealand-coronavirus-ardern.html\">reported</a> June 8, the day the New Zealand lifted its lockdown and declared the virus eliminated, that Ardern &quot;has been praised internationally for her approach to New Zealand&rsquo;s outbreak, which was among the most stringent in the world.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Her live video updates on Facebook, streamed from her own home, offered a relatable understanding of the impact of the coronavirus lockdown on the lives of New Zealanders, but a firm resolve to eradicate the disease from the country.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>A Facebook post claimed that &quot;New Zealand let health experts&quot; rather than politicians make decisions about how to deal with COVID-19, &quot;and as of today they have zero COVID cases.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>As of July 7, the date of the post, New Zealand reported having 22 active cases of COVID-19 &mdash; but each had been detected at the port of entry among people returning from travel abroad. In other words, the country had zero active, locally transmitted cases.</p>\n\n<p>Health experts, along with New Zealanders&rsquo; compliance with stay-home orders, are partly credited for the success. But Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern&rsquo;s decisions to order strict early lockdowns, following scientists&rsquo; advice, have won wide praise.</p>\n\n<p>For a statement that is accurate but needs a little more information, our rating is Mostly True.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>Facebook, <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/TheGoodLordAbove/photos/a.157796790974699/3955928917828115/?type=3&amp;theater\">post</a> (archived <a href=\"http://archive.is/eKzRN\">here</a>), July 7, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Associated Press, <a href=\"https://apnews.com/76e66ee47e63720d10a854b6bc8a2e73\">&quot;New Zealand is no longer coronavirus-free,&quot; </a>June 15, 2020</p>\n\n<p>National Geographic, <a href=\"https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/2020/04/what-new-zealand-did-right-in-battling-coronavirus/\">&quot;New Zealand has &lsquo;effectively eliminated&rsquo; coronavirus. Here&rsquo;s what they did right,&quot;</a> April 30, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Politico, <a href=\"https://www.politico.eu/article/kiwis-vs-coronavirus-new-zealand-covid19-restrictions-rules/\">&quot;How New Zealand beat the coronavirus,&quot;</a> May 15, 2020&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Forbes, <a href=\"https://www.forbes.com/sites/alexandrasternlicht/2020/06/08/how-new-zealand-eliminated-coronavirus/#68d800901bbd\">&quot;How New Zealand &lsquo;Eliminated&rsquo; Coronavirus,&quot;</a> June 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>New Zealand Ministry of Health, <a href=\"https://www.health.govt.nz/our-work/diseases-and-conditions/covid-19-novel-coronavirus\">&quot;COVID-19 (novel coronavirus) --&nbsp;Current situation,&quot;</a> July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>BBC, <a href=\"https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-52344299\">&quot;Coronavirus: How New Zealand relied on science and empathy,&quot;</a> April 20, 2020</p>\n\n<p>New York Times, <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/08/world/australia/new-zealand-coronavirus-ardern.html\">&quot;New Zealand Lifts Lockdown as It Declares Virus Eliminated, for Now,&quot;</a> June 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email,&nbsp;Blair Cunningham, senior media advisor, New Zealand Ministry of Health, July 9, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18868,
            "slug": "msnbcs-chris-hayes-right-economic-impact-internati",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "chris-hayes",
                "full_name": "Chris  Hayes",
                "first_name": "Chris ",
                "last_name": "Hayes"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "\"Higher education is one of America's strongest export sectors. Over 1 million international students studied at American universities, (in the) 2018-19 school year. They contributed over $40 billion to the economy.”",
            "ruling_slug": "true",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T11:32:44-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>A new Trump administration directive targeting international students at U.S. colleges is being <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/08/us/harvard-mit-trump-ice-students.html\">challenged by universities</a> in court &mdash; and by pundits on the cable news channels.</p>\n\n<p>The <a href=\"https://www.ice.gov/news/releases/sevp-modifies-temporary-exemptions-nonimmigrant-students-taking-online-courses-during\">new Immigration and Customs Enforcement guidance</a> would bar foreign college students from staying in the country if they take all their courses online.</p>\n\n<p>International students enrolled at <a href=\"https://www.fas.harvard.edu/fas-decision-2020-2021-academic-year\">Harvard University</a> and <a href=\"https://www.chronicle.com/article/Here-s-a-List-of-Colleges-/248626\">other U.S. colleges</a> that have moved fall-semester classes entirely online due to the coronavirus pandemic will have to leave the U.S. or transfer to a school with in-person teaching, according to the new rule.</p>\n\n<p>The rule, if put into effect, could trim the number of foreign students in the U.S. and at specific universities. It could also deal a blow to the U.S. economy, said MSNBC host Chris Hayes, who argued on his primetime TV show that the policy has &quot;no upside.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Higher education is one of America&#39;s strongest export sectors,&quot; Hayes said, while displaying a <a href=\"https://www.visualcapitalist.com/international-students-impact-u-s-economy/\">chart on U.S. education exports</a>. &quot;Over 1 million international students studied at American universities, (in the) 2018-19 school year. They contributed over $40 billion to the economy.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Hayes&rsquo; statistics are accurate. In 2019, U.S. service exports from education totaled roughly $44 billion, according to the <a href=\"https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=62&amp;step=1#reqid=62&amp;step=9&amp;isuri=1&amp;6210=4\">Bureau of Economic Analysis</a>. That made education the sixth largest service export for the year, behind services such as personal travel and professional and management consulting, a spokesperson for the International Trade Administration said.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Academic experts and representatives from nonprofits focused on international education also backed Hayes&rsquo; claims. An ICE spokesperson said Hayes&rsquo; statement was accurate but declined to comment further due to <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/08/us/harvard-mit-trump-ice-students.html\">pending litigation</a>.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Higher education is one of the few areas in which we have a big surplus of exports over imports,&quot; said Dick Startz, professor of economics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who wrote about the economics of education in a <a href=\"https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/01/31/sealing-the-border-could-block-one-of-americas-crucial-exports-education/\">2017 article for the Brookings Institution</a>.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Education as an export</div>\n\n<p>All three of the statistics Hayes cited are correct.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>More than 1 million international students studied at U.S. institutions during the 2018-19 academic year, according to the <a href=\"https://www.iie.org/Why-IIE/Announcements/2019/11/Number-of-International-Students-in-the-United-States-Hits-All-Time-High\">Institute of International Education</a> and <a href=\"https://www.nafsa.org/sites/default/files/media/document/isev-2019.pdf\">NAFSA: Association of International Educators</a>, two nonprofits dedicated to international education.</p>\n\n<p>The two organizations reported that those international students contributed more than $40 billion to the U.S. economy during the year. Experts said higher education can be considered an export because international students pay their tuition and living expenses to colleges and universities using money from abroad.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;International students are buying an American education,&quot; Startz said. &quot;Hence it&rsquo;s an export.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Exports from education amounted to roughly $44 billion in 2019, up from about $42.6 billion in 2018, according to the <a href=\"https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=62&amp;step=1#reqid=62&amp;step=9&amp;isuri=1&amp;6210=4\">Bureau of Economic Analysis</a>. That&rsquo;s more than the U.S. made from exporting many <a href=\"https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=62&amp;step=1#reqid=62&amp;step=9&amp;isuri=1&amp;6210=4\">other goods</a> and services in the same timeframe.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Education ranked sixth among service exports in 2019, the International Trade Administration spokesperson told us. It was <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200709145903/https://www.trade.gov/education-service-exports\">fifth in 2018</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Those numbers make sense when you factor in the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2019/sep/05/numbers-college-worth-cost/\">cost of college</a>, said Judith Scott-Clayton, professor of economics and education at Columbia University&rsquo;s Teachers College.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;If there are 1.1 million international students in the country, and each of them spends about $40,000 on U.S. tuition and living expenses, that gets you to $44 billion,&quot; she said.</p>\n\n<p>In an email to PolitiFact, Hayes also cited the <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200709145903/https://www.trade.gov/education-service-exports\">International Trade Administration</a> and an <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/03/magazine/one-of-americas-most-vital-exports-education-never-goes-abroad-but-it-still-faces-threats.html\">article in the New York Times Magazine</a> in which an Institute of International Education adviser was quoted saying &quot;higher education is one of America&rsquo;s biggest exports.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>But the article said U.S. schools were losing their international appeal for a number of reasons, including rising tuition costs and various policies enacted under President Donald Trump.</p>\n\n<p>Rachel Banks, NAFSA&rsquo;s senior director for public policy and legislative strategy, said in a statement that new international student enrollment is down over 10% since the fall of 2016, a trend NAFSA <a href=\"https://www.nafsa.org/sites/default/files/media/document/nafsa-losing-talent.pdf#page=7\">estimates</a> has cost the U.S. economy $11.8 billion.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;That&rsquo;s before the impacts of a global pandemic and related travel restrictions, several presidential proclamations targeting immigrants and nonimmigrants, and this guidance,&quot; Banks said. &quot;Therefore, we don&rsquo;t anticipate this downward trajectory to reverse itself anytime soon.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>Hayes said, &quot;Higher education is one of America&#39;s strongest export sectors. Over 1 million international students studied at American universities, 2018-19 school year. They contributed over $40 billion to the economy.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Government agencies, academic experts and nonprofit organizations said Hayes&rsquo; statistics are correct. The money the U.S. gets from foreign students studying at its colleges and universities makes education one of the country&rsquo;s top service exports.</p>\n\n<p>We rate this statement True.</p>",
            "sources": "<p>MSNBC, &quot;All In With Chris Hayes,&quot; July 7, 2020</p>\n\n<p>International Trade Administration, <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20200709145903/https://www.trade.gov/education-service-exports\">&quot;U.S. Education Service Exports,&quot;</a> accessed July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>NAFSA: Association of International Educators, <a href=\"https://www.nafsa.org/sites/default/files/media/document/isev-2019.pdf\">&quot;The United States of America Benefits from International Students,&quot;</a> accessed July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The New York Times, <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/08/us/harvard-mit-trump-ice-students.html\">&quot;Harvard and M.I.T. Sue to Stop Trump Visa Rules for Foreign Students,&quot;</a> July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>CNBC, <a href=\"https://www.cnbc.com/2020/07/07/new-rules-for-international-students-could-cost-us-colleges-billions.html\">&quot;New rules for international students could cost U.S. colleges $41 billion,&quot;</a> July 7, 2020</p>\n\n<p>U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, <a href=\"https://www.ice.gov/news/releases/sevp-modifies-temporary-exemptions-nonimmigrant-students-taking-online-courses-during\">&quot;SEVP modifies temporary exemptions for nonimmigrant students taking online courses during fall 2020 semester,&quot;</a> July 6, 2020</p>\n\n<p>U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, <a href=\"https://apps.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=62&amp;step=1#reqid=62&amp;step=9&amp;isuri=1&amp;6210=4\">&quot;Table 2.1. U.S. Trade in Services, by Type of Service,&quot;</a> June 30, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The Chronicle of Higher Education, <a href=\"https://www.chronicle.com/article/Here-s-a-List-of-Colleges-/248626\">&quot;Here&rsquo;s a List of Colleges&rsquo; Plans for Reopening in the Fall,&quot;</a> April 23, 2020</p>\n\n<p>NAFSA: Association of International Educators, <a href=\"https://www.nafsa.org/sites/default/files/media/document/nafsa-losing-talent.pdf\">&quot;Losing Talent 2020,&quot;</a> March 2020</p>\n\n<p>Visual Capitalist, <a href=\"https://www.visualcapitalist.com/international-students-impact-u-s-economy/\">&quot;The Impact of International Students on the U.S. Economy,&quot;</a> Feb. 24, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The Institute of International Education, <a href=\"https://www.iie.org/Why-IIE/Announcements/2019/11/Number-of-International-Students-in-the-United-States-Hits-All-Time-High\">&quot;Number of International Students in the United States Hits All-Time High,&quot;</a> Nov. 18, 2019</p>\n\n<p>The New York Times Magazine, <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/03/magazine/one-of-americas-most-vital-exports-education-never-goes-abroad-but-it-still-faces-threats.html\">&quot;One of America&rsquo;s Most Vital Exports, Education, Never Goes Abroad, but It Still Faces Threats,&quot;</a> Jan. 3, 2019</p>\n\n<p>The Brookings Institution, <a href=\"https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/01/31/sealing-the-border-could-block-one-of-americas-crucial-exports-education/\">&quot;Sealing the border could block one of America&rsquo;s crucial exports: Education,&quot;</a> Jan. 31, 2017</p>\n\n<p>Email interview with Chris Hayes, MSNBC host, July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email interview with Tim Truman, public affairs official with the International Trade Administration, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Statement from the Institute for International Education, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange with Carissa Cutrell, acting deputy press secretary for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email interview with <a href=\"https://econ.ucsb.edu/people/faculty/dick-startz\">Dick Startz</a>, professor of economics at the University of California, Santa Barbara, July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email interview with <a href=\"https://www.tc.columbia.edu/faculty/js3676/\">Judith Scott-Clayton</a>, professor of economics and education at Columbia University&rsquo;s Teachers College, July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Statement&nbsp;from&nbsp;Rachel Banks, NAFSA senior director for public policy and legislative strategy, July 8, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18869,
            "slug": "are-texas-education-officials-working-home-while-a",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "ken-zarifis",
                "full_name": "Ken Zarifis",
                "first_name": "Ken",
                "last_name": "Zarifis"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Says Texas Education Agency Commissioner Mike Morath is requiring teachers to return to classrooms while “he has closed his offices at TEA through January.”",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T11:02:54-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>This week, the Texas Education Agency announced it would give parents a choice of sending their kids to classrooms or continuing to teach them online for the fall semester. Regardless of what they choose, in-person instruction will be offered on a daily basis, the education agency said, meaning many teachers will be back in schools come August.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The news didn&rsquo;t sit well with many educators across the state, including members of Education Austin, the area&rsquo;s school employees&rsquo; union.</p>\n\n<p>During a July 8 press conference, Education Austin President Ken Zarifis criticized the agency&rsquo;s decision.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;What is selfish is a commissioner that requires teachers and workers returned to unsafe environments,&quot; he said. &quot;That is the person that is selfish. All the while he has closed his offices at TEA through January. The hypocrisy of this is palpable.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Similar allegations have circulated online since the TEA&rsquo;s announcement, but are they true? Is the Texas Education Agency requiring teachers to return to work while their office is closed through January?</p>\n\n<p><strong>TEA gives staffers choice to return this month</strong></p>\n\n<p>When asked about the source of the info, Zarifis said he had seen it referenced in several social media posts and on the TEA website. Later, Zarifis said he misspoke, and said he was unable to find any post that mentioned the offices staying closed through January.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The TEA website says agency employees began a mandatory telework policy on March 17, and the office is not accepting visitors at this time. But Morath and at least 30 other employees have been working in the office since March, according to TEA spokesman Frank Ward.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Commissioner Morath and other Texas Education Agency staff whose job duties require them to be in the office have been working from the William B. Travis Building since March &mdash; just as they did before the pandemic hit,&quot; Ward said in an email.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Also, starting this month, all TEA staff have the ability to return to the building on a voluntary basis this month, Ward said, but did not specify how many people had chosen to return so far.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Based on local public health conditions, the individual and the family needs of our team, and the agency&rsquo;s organizational needs, we are currently determining additional next steps for our staff for later this summer and beyond,&quot; he said.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Meanwhile, the number of teachers who will be physically in classrooms this fall depends on the local needs of students and parents in each individual district, said Ward.</p>\n\n<p>While the agency is requiring districts to offer in-person classes, some parents may opt to keep their children at home, and thus, lower the demand for teachers who are physically in classrooms.</p>\n\n<p>Under Gov. Greg Abbott&rsquo;s statewide mask mandate, all people on campus over 10 years old will be required to wear masks, presuming that the order is still in effect when classes resume.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Our ruling</strong></p>\n\n<p>The president of the Austin school employees&rsquo; union said the leader of the Texas Education Agency is requiring teachers to return to classrooms while keeping his offices closed through January.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>While the new rules for the fall semester do mean that some teachers will have to go back into school buildings, it doesn&rsquo;t look like Morath is hunkering down through January &mdash; in fact, he&rsquo;s been in-office since March, along with other staff who are deemed essential.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Although it&rsquo;s unknown how many TEA staffers are back in the office at this moment, they did have the option to begin returning this month.</p>\n\n<p>We rate this claim False.</p>",
            "sources": "<div>\n<div>\n<div>\n<p>Ken Zarifis, at an Education Austin press conference, July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Text message exchange with Ken Zarifis, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange with the press office in the Texas Education Agency, July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange with TEA spokesman Frank Ward, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Phone calls with TEA spokesman Frank Ward, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The Texas Education Agency, &quot;<a href=\"http://tea.texas.gov\">TEA office hours during COVID-19</a>.&quot; July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Tweet from<a href=\"https://twitter.com/frozennoober/status/1280623019946278912\"> user @FrozenNoober</a>, July 7, 2020&nbsp;</p>\n</div>\n</div>\n</div>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18867,
            "slug": "ad-wrongly-says-florida-republican-refused-ban-san",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "florida-republican-senatorial-campaign-committee",
                "full_name": "Florida Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee",
                "first_name": "",
                "last_name": "Florida Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Florida state Rep. Heather Fitzenhagen “turned her back on President Trump, refusing to ban sanctuary cities.”",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T10:13:29-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>An ad in a Florida Senate primary race portrays Republican Heather Fitzenhagen as a liberal who ignored an immigration enforcement priority of President Donald Trump.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Fitzenhagen turned her back on President Trump, refusing to ban sanctuary cities,&quot; says the <a href=\"https://floridapolitics.com/archives/344078-senate-republicans-put-planned-parenthood-favorite-heather-fitzenhagen-on-blast\">narrator</a>.</p>\n\n<p>The ad makes a series of other claims about her record on immigration and abortion, calling her &quot;Planned Parenthood&rsquo;s favorite politician.&quot; We wanted to focus on the sanctuary cities attack given its importance in Florida and to President Donald Trump, who promised to cancel all funding to sanctuary cities but <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1400/cancel-all-funding-sanctuary-cities/\">did not do it</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The ad is sponsored by the Florida Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee, which backs state <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Representatives/details.aspx?MemberId=4572\">Rep. Ray Rodrigues, R-Estero</a>, for the Senate seat. <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Representatives/details.aspx?MemberId=4574\">Fitzenhagen</a>, of Fort Myers, was running in a crowded primary for Congress but then <a href=\"https://floridapolitics.com/archives/340374-heather-fitzenhagen-files-for-sd-27-facing-off-with-ray-rodrigues\">switched at the last minute to challenge Rodrigues</a> in the August primary.</p>\n\n<p>In attacking Fitzhagen&rsquo;s sanctuary cities record, the admakers focused on a vote that Fitzhagen missed and ignored a later bill that she supported.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Fitzenhagen&rsquo;s votes on sanctuary cities</div>\n\n<p>There&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2017/mar/30/jeff-sessions/jeff-sessions-misleads-saying-inspector-general-fo/\">no federal definition</a> for a sanctuary city, and the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/nov/27/steve-daines/sanctuary-jurisdictions-violate-laws-our-nation-s-/\">details vary</a> from place to place.</p>\n\n<p>Broadly speaking, the term refers to any jurisdiction that refuses to continue holding people in local jails beyond their jail or prison sentence solely because federal Immigration and Customs Enforcement has asked the jurisdiction to do so. (ICE&rsquo;s request is formally known as a detainer.)</p>\n\n<p>In Florida, legislators debated various sanctuary cities bans starting <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=55609&amp;SessionId=80\">before Trump took office</a> and ultimately passed one in 2019.</p>\n\n<p>The ad cites a 2018 House vote on a sanctuary cities bill, <a href=\"https://myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=59819&amp;SessionId=86\">HB 9</a>, that would have required state and local governments and law enforcement agencies to support and cooperate with federal immigration enforcement. The final vote passed along party lines with Republican support <a href=\"https://myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/floorvote.aspx?VoteId=17821&amp;BillId=59819&amp;SessionId=86&amp;\">71-35</a>. It died in the Senate.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>So how did Fitzhagen vote? She didn&rsquo;t. Fitzenhagen told us that she was absent because her father was in the hospital.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The next year, state Sen. Joe Gruters, chairman of the Republican Party of Florida, sponsored <a href=\"https://www.flsenate.gov/Session/Bill/2019/00168/?Tab=VoteHistory\">SB 168 </a>to ban sanctuary cities. At the outset of the 2019 legislative session, Gov. Ron DeSantis called on legislators to <a href=\"https://www.flgov.com/2019/03/05/governor-desantis-state-of-the-state-address/\">&quot;prohibit sanctuary cities in Florida.&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p>The bill required local law enforcement and state agencies to honor a federal enforcement&rsquo;s request for an immigration detainer. The bill also gave the state Attorney General the power to pursue civil action against any entity that violates the law. A spokesperson for the attorney general told PolitiFact that the office had not received any complaints that merited action.</p>\n\n<p>Fitzenhagen <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/floorvote.aspx?VoteId=19073&amp;BillId=62991&amp;&amp;\">voted in favor of SB 168 </a>on May 1, 2019, and it passed 69-45. The bill then passed a vote in the state Senate and returned to the House for final passage. <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/floorvote.aspx?VoteId=19123&amp;BillId=62991&amp;SessionId=87&amp;\">Fitzenhagen voted in favor of it again</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I support prohibiting sanctuary cities,&quot; Fitzenhagen told us in an email. &quot;Further, I fully stand behind my vote on SB 168 from 2019, which is a strong immigration bill that supports Trump&rsquo;s federal immigration mandates and bans sanctuary cities.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>We also found that Fitzenhagen voted in support of bills that would have prohibited sanctuary cities in <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=55609&amp;SessionId=80\">2016 </a>and <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=57688\">2017</a>. A spokeswoman for the Florida Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee said those bills were not included since they did not become law.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>An ad said that Fitzenhagen &quot;turned her back on President Trump, refusing to ban sanctuary cities.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The ad cites a vote on a sanctuary cities bill that Fitzenhagen was absent for in 2018. It&rsquo;s not accurate to say that because Fitzenhagen was absent for a vote that she refused to ban sanctuary cities. Fitzenhagen told us that she missed the vote because her father was in the hospital.</p>\n\n<p>Counter to the ad&rsquo;s message, Fitzenhagen voted in favor of a sanctuary cities ban in 2019.</p>\n\n<p>We rate this statement False.&nbsp;</p>",
            "sources": "<p>Florida House, <a href=\"https://myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=59819&amp;SessionId=86\">HB 9</a> <a href=\"https://myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/floorvote.aspx?VoteId=17821&amp;BillId=59819&amp;SessionId=86&amp;\">vote 501</a>, 2018</p>\n\n<p>Florida Senate, <a href=\"https://www.flsenate.gov/Session/Bill/2019/00168/?Tab=VoteHistory\">SB 168</a>, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Florida House, <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=55609&amp;SessionId=80\">HB 675</a>, 2016</p>\n\n<p>Florida House, <a href=\"https://www.myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=57688\">HB 697</a>, 2017</p>\n\n<p>Gov. Ron DeSantis, <a href=\"https://www.flgov.com/2019/03/05/governor-desantis-state-of-the-state-address/\">Governor DeSantis&rsquo; State of the State Address</a>, March 5, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Florida Politics, <a href=\"https://floridapolitics.com/archives/344078-senate-republicans-put-planned-parenthood-favorite-heather-fitzenhagen-on-blast\">Senate Republicans put &lsquo;Planned Parenthood favorite&rsquo; Heather Fitzenhagen on blast</a>, June 26, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Florida Politics, <a href=\"https://floridapolitics.com/archives/296559-ray-rodrigues-announces-state-senate-bid\">Ray Rodrigues ready for &lsquo;next chapter,&rsquo; announces state Senate bid</a>, May 16, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Florida Politics, <a href=\"https://floridapolitics.com/archives/340374-heather-fitzenhagen-files-for-sd-27-facing-off-with-ray-rodrigues\">Heather Fitzenhagen files for SD 27, setting up clash with Ray Rodrigues</a>, June 13, 2020</p>\n\n<p>AP, <a href=\"https://apnews.com/6050825803c647869a39a37517cc968b/Florida-House-passes-bill-aimed-at-'sanctuary-cities'\">Florida House passes bill aimed at &#39;sanctuary cities,&#39; </a>Jan. 12, 2018</p>\n\n<p>Miami Herald,<a href=\"https://www.tampabay.com/florida-politics/buzz/2018/01/12/house-passes-sanctuary-city-ban-appears-dead-in-senate/\"> House passes &#39;sanctuary city&#39; ban, but it appears dead in the Senate</a>; Jan. 12, 2018</p>\n\n<p>Florida Times-Union, GOP senator seeks ban on &lsquo;sanctuary cities,&rsquo; Feb. 11, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Tampa Bay Times, <a href=\"https://www.tampabay.com/florida-politics/2019/03/12/florida-sanctuary-cities-bill-clears-second-hurdle-but-it-gets-ugly/\">Florida &lsquo;sanctuary cities&rsquo; bill clears second hurdle, but it gets ugly,</a> March 13, 2019</p>\n\n<p>Tampa Bay Times, <a href=\"https://www.tampabay.com/florida-politics/buzz/2019/05/02/sanctuary-cities-to-become-florida-law-after-anguished-debate/\">Ban on &lsquo;sanctuary cities&rsquo; to become Florida law after anguished debate</a>, May 2, 2019</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact&rsquo;s Trump-O-Meter, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1400/cancel-all-funding-sanctuary-cities/\">Despite efforts, Donald Trump fails to cut funding from sanctuary cities</a>, Jan. 14, 2019</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2018/feb/22/no-sanctuary-cities-florida-s-not-settled-andrew-g/\">No sanctuary cities in Florida? That&rsquo;s not as settled as Andrew Gillum claims</a>, Feb. 22, 2018</p>\n\n<p>Email interview, Lyndsey Blagrave, spokesperson for state Rep. Heather Fitzenhagen&rsquo;s senate campaign, July 1, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email interview, Erin Isaac, spokesperson for the Florida Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee, July 1, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email interview, Whitney Ray, Florida attorney General spokesperson, July 7, 2020</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18866,
            "slug": "did-pa-send-more-black-troops-fight-union-during-c",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "joe-biden",
                "full_name": "Joe Biden",
                "first_name": "Joe",
                "last_name": "Biden"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "\"Three hundred sixty thousand Pennsylvanians fought on the side of the Union to defeat the flag, that Confederate flag, including more Black soldiers coming from Pennsylvania than any other state in the nation.\"",
            "ruling_slug": "mostly-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T06:00:00-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>Speaking to a group of ironworkers about his new <a href=\"https://www.inquirer.com/politics/pennsylvania/joe-biden-mike-pence-pa-visit-economy-20200709.html\">$700 billion economic revival plan</a>, Joe Biden on Thursday criticized President Donald Trump over his <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/06/us/politics/trump-bubba-wallace-nascar.html\">defense of the Confederate flag</a> and touted the prominent role Pennsylvanians played in the Civil War.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Three hundred sixty thousand Pennsylvanians fought on the side of the Union to defeat the flag, that Confederate flag, including more Black soldiers coming from Pennsylvania than any other state in the nation,&quot; Biden, the former vice president and presumptive Democratic nominee, said in Dumore, Pa.</p>\n\n<p>We wondered whether Biden&rsquo;s telling of the state&rsquo;s Civil War history was accurate.</p>\n\n<p>Biden is correct that about 360,000 Pennsylvanians fought for the Union Army during the war, according to a <a href=\"https://www.visitpa.com/article/civil-war-and-pennsylvania\">Civil War tourism website</a> maintained by Pennsylvania and several <a href=\"http://pacivilwar150.com/Understand/FactsFigures.html\">history websites</a> dedicated to commemorating the recent 150th anniversary of the war&rsquo;s end.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>He&rsquo;s also right that more Black soldiers hailed from the Keystone State than <a href=\"https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/31/organizing-black-soldiers/\">any other free state in the Union</a>.</p>\n\n<p>During the war, roughly 185,000 Black men served in what was then known as the United States Colored Troops or the United States Colored Infantry, even though Black men couldn&rsquo;t serve at all when the war began in 1861. And 8,612 of those men called Pennsylvania home, <a href=\"https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/blacks-civil-war/article.html\">army records maintained by the National Archives</a> show.</p>\n\n<p>According to those records, the first three Union regiments of Black soldiers formed in New Orleans in the fall of 1862, after the Second Confiscation and Militia Act was signed earlier that summer. But it was not until President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863 that the Union Army could use Black soldiers in combat.</p>\n\n<p>Six months later, in June 1863, <a href=\"http://housedivided.dickinson.edu/grandreview/category/us-colored-troops/\">Camp William Penn in Cheltenham</a> opened as a training facility for Black troops. More than 11,000 Black soldiers trained there. They fought at Fort Wagner, the Battle of Olustee, and the Battle of New Market Heights. Frederick Douglass occasionally visited troops stationed at the camp.</p>\n\n<p>In the end, Pennsylvania had more Black Union soldiers than any other northern free state, with 8,612.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Kentucky had more Black Union soldiers than any other Union state where slavery was legal, with 23,703. And Louisiana had the largest number of Black Union soldiers among the Confederate states, whose economies depended on the inhumane practice of slavery.</p>\n\n<p>When the Civil War ended, the Union Army snubbed its Black soldiers and declined to invite them to march in a victory parade held in Washington. In fact, some Black soldiers were still standing guard in the South when the parade took place.</p>\n\n<p>But six months later, Pennsylvania officials invited Black soldiers to march through Harrisburg, making <a href=\"https://www.yorkdispatch.com/story/news/2016/02/18/black-civil-war-soldiers-honored-only-pennsylvania/80562000/\">Pennsylvania the only state to honor Black troops</a> this way.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>Biden said that 360,000 Pennsylvanians fought for the Union Army during the Civil War and that more of the army&rsquo;s Black soldiers hailed from Pennsylvania than any other state. Those statistics both check out. But Biden failed to explain the distinction between the number of Black Union soldiers who hailed from Union free states where slavery was illegal, the number who hailed from Union states where slavery was legal, and the number who hailed from Confederate states whose economies revolved around enslaving people.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>We rate Biden&rsquo;s statement Mostly True.&nbsp;</p>",
            "sources": "<p>The Philadelphia Inquirer, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.inquirer.com/politics/pennsylvania/joe-biden-mike-pence-pa-visit-economy-20200709.html\">Biden promised to build the &lsquo;economy of the future&rsquo; and criticized Trump as &lsquo;singularly focused&rsquo; on the stock market in a Pa. visit</a>,&quot; July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>The New York Times, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/06/us/politics/trump-bubba-wallace-nascar.html\">Trump Adds to Playbook of Stoking White Fear and Resentment</a>,&quot; July 6, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.visitpa.com/article/civil-war-and-pennsylvania\">The Civil War and Pennsylvania</a>,&quot; accessed on July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Pennsylvania Civil War 150, &quot;<a href=\"http://pacivilwar150.com/Understand/FactsFigures.html\">Fact and Figures</a>,&quot; accessed on July 9, 2020&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The New York Times, &quot;<a href=\"https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/31/organizing-black-soldiers/\">Organizing Black Soldiers</a>,&quot; May 31, 2013</p>\n\n<p>National Archives, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/blacks-civil-war/article.html\">Black Soldiers and the Civil War</a>,&quot; 1997</p>\n\n<p>Pennsylvania Grand Review, &quot;<a href=\"http://housedivided.dickinson.edu/grandreview/category/us-colored-troops/\">Camp William Penn</a>,&quot; June 11, 2010</p>\n\n<p>York Dispatch, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.yorkdispatch.com/story/news/2016/02/18/black-civil-war-soldiers-honored-only-pennsylvania/80562000/\">Black Civil War soldiers honored only in Pennsylvania</a>,&quot; Feb. 18, 2016</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 18865,
            "slug": "unions-limit-police-accountability-discipline",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "gwen-moore",
                "full_name": "Gwen Moore",
                "first_name": "Gwen",
                "last_name": "Moore"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Says police unions have it “written into a contract that (officers) are not going to be accountable” for misconduct.",
            "ruling_slug": "barely-true",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-10T00:47:15-04:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>What should happen to police officers who injure or kill someone while making an arrest?</p>\n\n<p>That&rsquo;s the crux of a debate that played out in Congress and streets across America in the wake of the May 25, 2020, death of George Floyd. He died after a Minneapolis police officer kneeled on his neck for nearly 9 minutes as three other officers declined to step in.</p>\n\n<p>The U.S. House of Representatives<a href=\"https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2020/06/25/george-floyd-house-approve-sweeping-police-reforms-banning-chokeholds/3251990001/\"> passed the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act</a> on June 25, 2020, which would crack down on excessive force and create a national database of officer misconduct. But a similar policing bill<a href=\"https://www.politico.com/news/2020/06/24/how-police-reform-collapsed-in-the-senate-338332\"> failed to pass</a> the U.S. Senate the day before, leaving the future of federal police reform in doubt.</p>\n\n<p>In the leadup to that<a href=\"https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/7120/actions\"> House vote</a>, U.S. Rep.<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/personalities/gwen-moore/\"> Gwen Moore</a>, D-Milwaukee, weighed in on police misconduct, criticizing the role of police unions in the accountability process.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I think it&rsquo;s outside of the scope of a union to be able to negotiate lack of accountability, to be able to negotiate those kinds of things away.&quot; Moore said in a June 12, 2020, appearance on PBS Wisconsin&rsquo;s &quot;<a href=\"https://player.pbs.org/viralplayer/3043692380/\">Here &amp; Now</a>.&quot; &quot;You can&rsquo;t train out of a person the propensity to kill, to, if that is, in fact, written into a contract that they are not going to be accountable. And so I think that we have to get rid of that provision in union contracting.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The contract language description caught our eye. Do police unions really have it written into contracts &quot;that they are not going to be accountable&quot;?</p>\n\n<p>That&rsquo;s a vague and loaded statement, which leaves us with a lot of ground to cover.</p>\n\n<p>Let&rsquo;s get started.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Types of accountability</div>\n\n<p>When asked for clarification of her remarks, Moore said she backs the ability of unions in general and police unions to negotiate hours and wages. But &quot;the power of collective bargaining should not be used to negotiate contracts or special benefits that shield police officers from accountability for misconduct and thus subvert the fair, impartial administration of justice and rule of law.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Moore&rsquo;s claim and explanation don&rsquo;t specify what kind of accountability she&rsquo;s referring to, so we&rsquo;ll break this down by the three primary ways law enforcement officers can be held accountable: Internal police discipline, criminal charges and civil lawsuits.</p>\n\n<p>Several of these elements were addressed in the House-passed Justice in Policing Act. The measure would lower the criminal intent standard &mdash; from &quot;willful&quot; actions to &quot;knowing&quot; or &quot;reckless&quot; actions &mdash; needed to convict an officer in a federal criminal case, and it limited the use of qualified immunity as a defense against liability when an officer is sued in a civil action.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Qualified immunity is a judicial standard under which officers acting in their official capacity are protected from lawsuits unless they have violated a &quot;<a href=\"https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/qualified_immunity\">clearly established</a>&quot; statutory or constitutional right.</p>\n\n<p>But Moore&rsquo;s claim was that union contracts ban accountability, so we&rsquo;ll look specifically at how those three elements are affected. And since her claim was broad rather than limited to a single department, we&rsquo;ll look generally at police union power around the country.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Internal police discipline</div>\n\n<p>Experts in police accountability say unions wield considerable power in many departments, having negotiated rules and limitations that give police protections the general public doesn&rsquo;t have and limit some elements of accountability.</p>\n\n<p>These protections apply primarily to internal investigations.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Union contracts can impede internal investigations into police conduct,&quot; said<a href=\"https://www.luc.edu/law/faculty/facultyandadministrationprofiles/rushin-stephen.shtml\"> Stephen Rushin</a>, an associate law professor at Loyola University Chicago who has reviewed more than 650 police union contracts while studying police labor law. &quot;While this might not be uniformly true across all agencies in the United States, it appears to be the case in many.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Here are some common protections, as detailed by Rushin and<a href=\"https://sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/law/faculty_and_staff/directory/stoughton_seth.php\"> Seth Stoughton</a>, associate professor of law at the University of South Carolina. They noted many contracts have language in this vein, but not all.</p>\n\n<p style=\"margin-left: 40px;\"><strong>Interview delays</strong> &mdash; Some contracts require agencies to wait a set amount of time (typically 24 or 48 hours) before they can interview an officer about an incident.</p>\n\n<p style=\"margin-left: 40px;\"><strong>Information access</strong> &mdash; Some contracts require an agency to provide the officer with the complaint, witness statements and other documentation prior to being interviewed &mdash; access that wouldn&rsquo;t be allowed to any civilian criminal suspect.</p>\n\n<p style=\"margin-left: 40px;\"><strong>Complaint limitations</strong> &mdash; Some contracts ban anonymous complaints or require complaints to be made within a certain time period.</p>\n\n<p style=\"margin-left: 40px;\"><strong>Disciplinary history</strong> &mdash; Some contracts require agencies to destroy disciplinary records after a set amount of time (in some cases less than a year) or mandate prior discipline not be considered in future cases.</p>\n\n<p style=\"margin-left: 40px;\"><strong>Arbitration/grievance requirements</strong> &mdash; Some contracts allow officers to contest disciplinary findings through an arbitration process.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.unomaha.edu/college-of-public-affairs-and-community-service/criminology-and-criminal-justice/about-us/samuel-walker.php\">Samuel Walker</a>, emeritus professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Nebraska Omaha, noted the arbitration process consistently tends to find a middle ground. In other words, a reduction of department-ordered discipline.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There&rsquo;s been a long record of officers who were fired and went to arbitration and got their jobs back,&quot; he said.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://wppa.com/staff/\">Jim Palmer</a>, executive director of the Wisconsin Professional Police Association, said arbitration clauses are rare in Wisconsin.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Criminal prosecution</div>\n\n<p>Union contracts don&rsquo;t have a direct impact on criminal charges since those decisions are made by prosecutors.</p>\n\n<p>Police officers are &quot;supposed to get the same rights as any private citizen during the criminal investigation,&quot; Rushin said.</p>\n\n<p>One complication is that departments may have an internal investigation running at the same time as a criminal investigation. A <a href=\"https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1874&amp;context=facpub\">1967 Supreme Court decision</a> (Garrity v. New Jersey) said statements compelled as part of an internal investigation can&rsquo;t be used against the officer in criminal court. So there are procedural hoops to make sure statements given by officers would be admissible.</p>\n\n<p>But this is a protection afforded by case law, not union contracts.</p>\n\n<p>The bigger impact, potentially, is that protections afforded as part of the internal investigation &mdash; particularly the delayed interview and access to case information beforehand &mdash; can give officers a chance to strategize how they present their version of events, which could affect the outcome of both the internal and criminal cases.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;No civilian would have the right to do that,&quot; said<a href=\"https://www.law.pitt.edu/people/david-harris\"> David Harris</a>, a professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. &quot;Of course, one can&#39;t make the civilian answer questions; civilians could shut up or lawyer up. But the police officer, in the same situation, can&#39;t be approached.&nbsp; They call it a &lsquo;cooling off&rsquo; period. One might also call it a &lsquo;get your story straight&rsquo; period.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Civil lawsuits</div>\n\n<p>Rushin said it is common for union contracts to make sure officers aren&rsquo;t held personally liable in the event of a civil judgment against them, and to require the municipality to provide legal representation for the officer.</p>\n\n<p>But that practice, called indemnification, is so widespread it&rsquo;s not necessarily fair to assume unions are the reason for that, Rushin said.</p>\n\n<p>A<a href=\"https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2297534\"> 2014 study of civil rights claims</a> against 81 police agencies around the country found governments paid 99.98% of the $730 million plaintiffs received in lawsuits alleging civil rights violations by law enforcement between 2006 and 2011.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Officers did not contribute to settlements and judgments even when they were disciplined, terminated, or criminally prosecuted for their misconduct,&quot; the study says. &quot;And officers were not required to contribute to settlements and judgments even when applicable law prohibited indemnification.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Putting it all together</div>\n\n<p>So the evidence is clear that union contracts have an impact on police accountability.</p>\n\n<p>Contract language varies between jurisdictions, but many union contracts give officers rights during investigations that a civilian would not have. They are given time and material to prepare statements, they are shielded from certain types of complaints, they can&rsquo;t have some past misconduct held against them, and they have the right to appeal discipline leveled against them.</p>\n\n<p>But these impacts are largely limited to internal investigations, which are just one of three main ways police can be held accountable.</p>\n\n<p>The protections can have an impact on how criminal cases proceed, but contracts can&rsquo;t keep officers from being prosecuted. And civil lawsuits are still filed against officers, though officers are almost never held personally liable. Other civil-related protections such as qualified immunity don&rsquo;t come from union contracts.</p>\n\n<p>And Moore&rsquo;s claim wasn&rsquo;t simply that union contracts limit accountability. She said police are banned from being held accountable.</p>\n\n<p>Walker, the Nebraska professor, called that a &quot;gross exaggeration.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Our ruling</div>\n\n<p>Moore said police unions have it &quot;written into a contract that (officers) are not going to be accountable&quot; for misconduct. The context implies that this is referring in particular to deaths they cause.</p>\n\n<p>This is a sweeping claim that implies by its lack of specificity that officers are shielded from internal, criminal and civil liability by language in their union contract.</p>\n\n<p>Unions simply don&rsquo;t have that kind of power.</p>\n\n<p>Police unions do offer protections that can make it more difficult to discipline officers, or result in lesser punishments. But officers protected by union contracts are routinely fired, criminally charged and successfully sued in civil court.</p>\n\n<p>There&rsquo;s a point to be made about union contract influence, but Moore&rsquo;s attempt to make it was greatly exaggerated.</p>\n\n<p>We rate this claim Mostly False.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>",
            "sources": "<p>PBS Wisconsin, &quot;<a href=\"https://player.pbs.org/viralplayer/3043692380/\">Here &amp; Now for June 12, 2020</a>,&quot; June 12, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange with Office of Rep. Gwen Moore, June 25, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange with<a href=\"https://www.luc.edu/law/faculty/facultyandadministrationprofiles/rushin-stephen.shtml\"> Stephen Rushin</a>, associate law professor at Loyola University Chicago, July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange with<a href=\"https://sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/law/faculty_and_staff/directory/stoughton_seth.php\"> Seth Stoughton</a>, associate professor of law at the University of South Carolina, June 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange with<a href=\"https://www.law.pitt.edu/people/david-harris\"> David Harris</a>, law professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, July 8, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Interview with<a href=\"https://www.unomaha.edu/college-of-public-affairs-and-community-service/criminology-and-criminal-justice/about-us/samuel-walker.php\"> Samuel Walker</a>, emeritus professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Nebraska Omaha, July 7, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Joanna C. Schwartz,<a href=\"https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2297534&amp;download=yes\"> Police Indemnification (study)</a>, June 2014</p>\n\n<p>Email exchange with Jim Palmer, executive director of the Wisconsin Professional Police Association, June 25, 2020.</p>\n\n<p>USA Today, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/06/12/george-floyd-police-unions-stand-way-reform-experts-say/5347136002/\">The major stumbling block: Powerful police unions stand in the way of structural reform, experts say</a>,&quot; June 12, 2020</p>\n\n<p>USA Today &quot;<a href=\"https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2020/06/25/george-floyd-house-approve-sweeping-police-reforms-banning-chokeholds/3251990001/\">House approves sweeping police reform package that would ban chokeholds, end qualified immunity after George Floyd death,</a>&quot; June 25, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Politico,<a href=\"https://www.politico.com/news/2020/06/24/how-police-reform-collapsed-in-the-senate-338332\"> How police reform collapsed in the Senate</a>, June 24, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute,<a href=\"https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/qualified_immunity\"> Qualified immunity</a>, accessed July 9, 2020</p>\n\n<p>Cornell Law School, <a href=\"https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1874&amp;context=facpub\">Compelled Statements from Police Officers and Garrity Immunity</a>, November 2011</p>"
        }
    ]
}