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    "results": [
        {
            "id": 325,
            "slug": "pretty-much-yes-but-its-not-special",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "john-mccain",
                "full_name": "John McCain",
                "first_name": "John",
                "last_name": "McCain"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "<p>\"He told gay organizers in Massachusetts he would be a stronger advocate for special rights than even Ted Kennedy.\"</p>",
            "ruling_slug": "mostly-true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-31T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "<p>\n A day ahead of the Florida primary, John McCain unleashed an attack on rival Mitt Romney in an automatic phone call to Republican voters.\n</p>\n<p>\n It's identical to something Rudy Giuliani said about Romney when the former New York mayor was still in the race. We examined the Giuliani charge and concluded it was\n <a href=\"http://politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/219/\" target=\"_blank\">\n  Mostly True.\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n As reported by\n <em>\n  Politico.com\n </em>\n , the McCain robocall is a woman apparently concerned about Romney's social conservative record. A McCain spokesman confirmed for us that the call came from the campaign but did not provide the official text.\n</p>\n<p>\n Here is the transcript of the call courtesy of\n <em>\n  Politico\n </em>\n :\n</p>\n<p>\n \"I'm calling with an urgent Mitt Romney [unintelligible]\"\n</p>\n<p>\n \"We care deeply about traditional values and protecting families. And we need someone who will not waver in the White House: ending abortion, preserving the sanctity of marriage, stopping the trash on the airwaves and attempts to ban God from every corner of society. These issues are core to our being.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"Mitt Romney thinks he can fool us. He supported abortion on demand, even allowed a law mandating taxpayer funding for abortion. He says he changed his mind, but he still hasn't changed the law. He told gay organizers in Massachusetts he would be a stronger advocate for special rights than even Ted Kennedy. Now, it's something different.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"Unfortunately, on issue after issue Mitt Romney has treated social issues voters as fools, thinking we won't catch on. Sorry, Mitt, we know you aren't trustworthy on the most important issue and you aren't a conservative.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"Paid for by John McCain 2008.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n The statement the the call refers to comes from Romney's 1994 U.S. Senate campaign against Kennedy. During the race, Romney wrote a letter to the Log Cabin Republicans, a group of gay Republicans, thanking them for their support.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"For some voters it might be enough for me to simply match my opponent's record in this area,\" Romney wrote in October 1994. \"But I believe we can and must do better. If we are to achieve the goals we share, we must make equality for gays and lesbians a mainstream concern. My opponent cannot do this. I can and will.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n As with our previous ruling on this same attack, we find it Mostly True. McCain is right that Romney promised to be more supportive of gay rights than Kennedy had been, but he loses some points by using the term \"special rights.\" What Romney actually advocated was equality for gay and lesbian Americans; nothing \"special.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n Yes, it's a small point. But for a politician like McCain, who took such grief over the misuse by his opponents of the term \"amnesty\" to describe his proposal for illegal immigrants, it's reasonable to expect a little more precision.\n</p>\n<p>\n &nbsp;\n</p>",
            "sources": "<p>\n Politico.com,\n <a href=\"http://www.politico.com/blogs/jonathanmartin/0108/McCain_sends_out_harsh_robocall_hitting_Mitt_from_Right.html\" target=\"_blank\">\n  McCain sends out harsh robocall hitting Mitt from right\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Bay Windows,\n <a href=\"http://www.baywindows.com/index.php?ch=columnists&amp;sc=the_romney_files\" target=\"_blank\">\n  The Romney Files\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Boston Globe, \"New Romney Brochure Rips Rivals' Stance on Marriage,\" Nov. 28, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n New York Times,\n <a href=\"http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/08/us/politics/08romney.html?_r=2&amp;oref=slogin&amp;oref=slogin\" target=\"_blank\">\n  Romney's Tone on Gay Rights is Seen as Shift\n </a>\n , Sept. 8, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n Interview with Brian Rogers, McCain campaign staffer, Jan. 30, 2008\n</p>\n<p>\n <a href=\"http://online.logcabin.org/romney_us_senate_letter_-122590-1_12_08_2006_02_30_30_pm.pdf\" target=\"_blank\">\n  Letter from Mitt Romney to Log Cabin Club of Massachusetts\n </a>\n , Oct. 6, 1994\n</p>\n<p>\n &nbsp;\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 315,
            "slug": "americans-consume-a-lot-",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "mitt-romney",
                "full_name": "Mitt Romney",
                "first_name": "Mitt",
                "last_name": "Romney"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "\"Two-thirds of our economy is a consumer economy.\"",
            "ruling_slug": "true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-30T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "Mitt Romney discussed his detailed economic proposals at a Republican debate in Boca Raton, Fla., prefacing his comments with the need to get money into the hands of people who will spend it.\n<p>\n Speaking favorably of the Bush stimulus plan, Romney said, \"What's effective is, first, he's getting money back to consumers. And given the fact that two-thirds of our economy is a consumer economy, getting money back into the hands of our citizens, a lot of them paying a lot for gasoline, a lot for heating oil, a lot of people concerned about how to make ends meet, that makes sense to me.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n It made us wonder: Two-thirds of our economy geared to consumption? Is that true?\n</p>\n<p>\n Consumption includes pretty much everything we spend our money on. The major components of consumption include things like food, apparel and services, transportation, health care and entertainment.\n</p>\n<p>\n The latest data available from the third quarter of 2007 show that personal consumption expenditures in the United States made up 70 percent of the gross domestic product, with a split of 7.7 percent for durable goods, 20.4 percent for nondurable goods, and 41.9 percent for services.\n</p>\n<p>\n Turns out Romney is on the money. We rate his statement True.\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>",
            "sources": "U.S. Commerce Department Bureau of Economic Analysis,\n<a href=\"http://www.bea.gov/scb/pdf/2008/01%20January/0108_gdpecon.pdf\">\n GDP and the Economy:\r\nFinal Estimates for the Third Quarter of 2007\n</a>\n, January 2008\n<p>\n MSNBC,\n <a href=\"http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/24/us/politics/24text-debate.html\">\n  Republican debate transcript\n </a>\n , Jan. 25, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 322,
            "slug": "it-might-whack-you--in-20-or-30-years",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "mitt-romney",
                "full_name": "Mitt Romney",
                "first_name": "Mitt",
                "last_name": "Romney"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "\"Gasoline would rise in price by approximately 50 cents a gallon\" if the McCain-Lieberman bill became law.",
            "ruling_slug": "barely-true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-28T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "Mitt Romney set up camp at a Texaco station in West Palm Beach, Fla., on Monday to take a poke at the McCain-Lieberman bill that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.\n<p>\n \"On a very different topic, we're at a gas station,\" Romney told reporters. \"And the reason for that is that I want to underscore the fact that Senator McCain's McCain-Lieberman (bill) would be a very expensive bill for the people of Florida. By our calculation, a family of four would have to spend about an extra $1,000 a year if McCain-Lieberman became law. And again that's because gasoline would rise in price by approximately 50 cents a gallon and natural gas would rise about 20 percent. The burden on Florida homeowners would obviously be excessive.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n The McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007 requires that greenhouse gas emissions be reduced to 2004 levels by 2012, 1990 levels by 2020, and 60 percent below 1990 by 2050. It is a so-called cap-and-trade plan because it includes a market-driven plan in which companies that significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions can sell emission allowances to other companies struggling to meet required standards. The plan also would provide some support for low-carbon alternative fuels, including nuclear power.\n</p>\n<p>\n We're not taking sides on whether the McCain-Lieberman plan makes economic sense, or even whether it would help to solve global warming. But there's enough research in to judge Romney's numbers.\n</p>\n<p>\n Lots of assumptions go into various projections about the impact of the McCain-Lieberman plan (or any other, for that matter), so you could probably find a study to say about anything. But take a look at the information Romney cites as background material in a press release about his attack on McCain's plan.\n</p>\n<p>\n First off, the Romney camp switches back and forth between analyses of the 2003 and 2007 versions of the McCain-Lieberman plan. For example, it cites an American Council for Capital Formation study that concluded the McCain plan could increase gas prices 30 to 50 cents by 2020. But that was an analysis of the 2003 plan.\n</p>\n<p>\n More on point are two government analyses of the 2007 McCain-Lieberman bill, one by the EPA and the other by the Energy Information Administration, which produces the official energy statistics from the U.S. government.\n</p>\n<p>\n The EPA concluded in July 2007 that if the bill passed, it would increase gasoline prices about 26 cents per gallon by 2030; 68 cents per gallon by 2050.\n</p>\n<p>\n The Energy Information Administration analysis, released in August 2007, concluded the price of gas would increase 34 cents per gallon by 2030.\n</p>\n<p>\n Romney's claim that gas prices would rise 50 cents per gallon is grossly misleading considering these two reports conclude the increase would be 26 cents or 34 cents\n <i>\n  in 22 years.\n </i>\n Romney's projection of the plan costing Florida families $1,000 a year rests on a 50-cent increase. Sure, the projections may come into Romney's wheelhouse in 30 or 40 years, but c'mon.\n</p>\n<p>\n Both plans do, however, suggest that the price of electricity would rise (22 percent according to the EPA projections; 21 percent according to the EIA). But again, that's a projection for 2030.\n</p>\n<p>\n Janet Peace, a senior economist with the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, doesn't take issue with either the EPA or EIA projections &mdash; based on the assumptions they made &mdash; but she argues that the farther out you go in years, the more difficult it is for the government to anticipate energy technology that may significantly alter the picture. The whole idea is to decrease Americans' reliance on fossil fuels through alternative energy sources.\n</p>\n<p>\n Romney's claims didn't give a time frame, but we bet voters would be surprised to hear that he's talking about 20, 30, maybe even 40 years from now. We rate his statement Barely True.\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>\n\n<br/><br/><i>Editor's note: This statement was rated Barely True when it was published. On July 27, 2011, we changed the name for the rating to Mostly False.</i>",
            "sources": "U.S. Senate,\n<a href=\"http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s110-280\">\n Senate Bill 280,\n</a>\nthe McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007\n<p>\n Mitt Romney,\n <a href=\"http://www.mittromney.com/News/Press-Releases/McCainonomics_1.28\">\n  \"Sen. McCain: Pay at the Pump,\"\n </a>\n press release from Mitt Romney campaign, Jan. 28, 2008\n</p>\n<p>\n Energy Information Administration,\n <a href=\"http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/csia/execsummary.html\">\n  \"Energy Market and Economic Impacts of S.280, the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007,\"\n </a>\n August 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n Environmental Protection Agency,\n <a href=\"http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/downloads/s280fullbrief.pdf\">\n  \"EPA Analysis of The Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007,\"\n </a>\n July 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n National Center for Policy Analysis,\n <a href=\"http://downloads.heartland.org/17077.pdf\">\n  \"Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions,\"\n </a>\n by H. Sterling Burnett, Nov. 18, 2004\n</p>\n<p>\n Interview with Janet Peace, a senior economist with the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Jan. 28, 2008\n</p>\n<p>\n Interview with Antonia Herzog, staff scientist at the Natural Resources Defense Council, Jan. 28, 2008\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 320,
            "slug": "romney-used-to-support-gun-control",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "john-mccain",
                "full_name": "John McCain",
                "first_name": "John",
                "last_name": "McCain"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Romney used to favor gun control, and said he didn't want to go back to Reagan-Bush.",
            "ruling_slug": "true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-28T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "Mitt Romney says he is a supporter of gun rights and a fan of Ronald Reagan. But he didn't always tout those positions, a fact that John McCain uses to mock Romney in a new Internet ad.\n<p>\n Romney took positions favorable to gun control in previous races in Massachusetts, a state with strict gun control laws.\n</p>\n<p>\n In 1994, Romney ran for U.S. Senate against incumbent Democrat Ted Kennedy.  During that campaign, Romney supported two gun control measures: the Brady Bill, which required background checks for gun purchases, and a ban on certain types of assault weapons.\n</p>\n<p>\n In 2002, Romney ran for governor, successfully beating Shannon P. O'Brien. During that campaign Romney said, \"We have tough gun laws in Massachusetts; I support them.\" The McCain ad accurately quotes Romney on this point.\n</p>\n<p>\n Also during the 1994 race, Kennedy attacked Romney as a conservative similar to Ronald Reagan. (He didn't mean it as a compliment.) That's when Romney responded, \"I was an independent during the time of Reagan-Bush. I'm not trying to return to Reagan-Bush.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n Romney made his most detailed defenses to these apparent flip-flops in an interview with Bob Schieffer on CBS News'\n <i>\n  Face the Nation\n </i>\n on Oct. 21, 2007.\n</p>\n<p>\n On the gun issue, Romney said, \"I support Second Amendment rights, but I don't line up 100 percent with the NRA. ... But my positions are the same as my positions have been with regards to guns for a long, long time, and that is that I respect the right of people to bear arms, and whether that's for hunting or personal protection. I sought the support of the NRA when I ran for governor, and I got it.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n Unfortunately for Romney, he later had to revise his statement that he had the support of the NRA in the governor's race. The NRA did not endorse in that race. (See our previous check on that statement\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/251/\">\n  here\n </a>\n .)\n</p>\n<p>\n On his Reagan comment: \"Well, when I was running in '94 I wasn't trying to return to Reagan-Bush because that was characterized as a very different posture than what I was running for. ... And Senator Kennedy in the debate was saying, `Oh, you're just turning yourself into Reagan-Bush.' I said, 'No, I'm my own person.' \"\n</p>\n<p>\n Romney has been attacked on these issues before; we checked an earlier claim\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/141/\">\n  here\n </a>\n .\n</p>\n<p>\n McCain's ad accurately conveys Romney's positions now and during the previous times Romney has run for office. The ad clearly labels which statements were made during which campaign. For this reason, we find the ad's statements True.\n</p>\n<p>\n For more on McCain's ad attacking Romney, see our story\n <a href=\"http://pub.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2008/jan/28/another-flap-over-flip-flops/\">\n  here\n </a>\n .\n</p>",
            "sources": "YouTube video,\n<a href=\"http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mGur36uVWxA\">\n Web Ad: A Tale of Two Mitts\n</a>\n, posted Jan. 28, 2008\n<p>\n YouTube.com,\n <a href=\"http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kk1bJOpYUqE\">\n  Mitt Romney on Gun Control - 2002\n </a>\n , posted April 5, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n Boston Globe,\n <a href=\"http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/04/05/romneys_record_on_guns_questioned/\">\n  Romney's record on guns questioned,\n </a>\n April 5, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n Boston Globe,\n <a href=\"http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/02/19/romney_joined_nra_in_august/\">\n  Romney joins NRA in August; was advocate of gun control,\n </a>\n Feb. 19, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n Boston Herald, Key promises looming large, Nov. 10, 2002\n</p>\n<p>\n Face the Nation,\n <a href=\"http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/10/21/ftn/main3389333.shtml\">\n  Transcript\n </a>\n , Oct. 21, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 319,
            "slug": "romney-has-changed-his-stand-on-abortion",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "john-mccain",
                "full_name": "John McCain",
                "first_name": "John",
                "last_name": "McCain"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Mitt Romney previously believed \"that abortion should be safe and legal in this country.\" Now he is \"prolife.\"",
            "ruling_slug": "true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-28T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "A new ad from John McCain makes the case that Mitt Romney has not always opposed abortion. Romney has acknowledged that this is the case.\n<p>\n When Romney ran for office in Massachusetts &mdash; unsuccessfully for U.S. Senate in 1994 and successfully for governor in 2002 &mdash; he often said he supported abortion rights.\n</p>\n<p>\n McCain's ad highlights a few of those statements.\r\n\r\n\"I believe that abortion should be safe and legal in this country,\" Romney said in a 1994 debate with Democratic Sen. Ted Kennedy.\n</p>\n<p>\n In a 2002 debate, Romney said there was no difference between his views and that of his Democratic opponent, Shannon P. O'Brien. \"I will preserve and protect a woman's right to choose, and am devoted and dedicated to honoring my word in that regard,\" Romney said.\n</p>\n<p>\n In 2007, Romney said his views have changed. \"And I get tired of people that are holier than thou because they've been prolife longer than I have,\" he said at a Republican debate on Aug. 5, 2007.\n</p>\n<p>\n (\n <a href=\"http://politifact.com/truth-o-meter/\">\n  PolitiFact.com\n </a>\n looked at Romney's abortion record previously; check out our stories\n <a href=\"http://politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/33/\">\n  here\n </a>\n and\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/142/\">\n  here\n </a>\n .)\n</p>\n<p>\n McCain's ad accurately conveys Romney's positions now and during the previous times Romney has run for office. The ad clearly labels which statements were made during which campaign. For this reason, we find the ad's statements True.\n</p>\n<p>\n For more on McCain's ad attacking Romney, see our story\n <a href=\"http://pub.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2008/jan/28/another-flap-over-flip-flops/\">\n  here\n </a>\n .\n</p>",
            "sources": "YouTube video,\n<a href=\"http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mGur36uVWxA\">\n Web Ad: A Tale of Two Mitts\n</a>\n, posted Jan. 28, 2008\n<p>\n YouTube video,\n <a href=\"http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9IJUkYUbvI\">\n  The Real Romney?\n </a>\n , January 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n YouTube.com,\n <a href=\"http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P_w9pquznG4\">\n  Romney on Abortion - 2002,\n </a>\n posted Feb. 19, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n Massachusetts Telegram and Gazette, \"Debaters brawl on taxes and abortion; Candidates jab, accuse, deride,\" Oct. 30, 2002\n</p>\n<p>\n Boston Globe, \"The Kennedy-Romney Debates: Debate Excerpts,\" Oct. 26, 1994\n</p>\n<p>\n ABC News,\n <a href=\"http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/05/us/politics/05transcript-debate.html\">\n  Debate Transcript,\n </a>\n Aug. 5, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 321,
            "slug": "a-real-turnaround",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "rudy-giuliani",
                "full_name": "Rudy Giuliani",
                "first_name": "Rudy",
                "last_name": "Giuliani"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Said he's the only Republican candidate \"who's actually turned around a government economy.\" ",
            "ruling_slug": "mostly-true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-28T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "Rudy Giuliani has run his campaign on two basic themes &ndash; leadership on 9/11, and the turnaround of New York City. At the Republican debate at Florida Atlantic University on Jan. 24, 2008, he made the turnaround of New York a point of contrast with his opponents.\n<p>\n \"I'm the only one who's actually turned around a government economy,\" he said. \"And the reality is, when I became mayor of New York, the economy of New York was in very, very bad shape. Tremendous deficits, 10.5 percent unemployment, 300,000 jobs gone. We turned that around, cut unemployment by more than half, brought in 450,000 new jobs, and we cut taxes by 17 percent.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n And if you look at their records, at least in the fairly specific set of economic measures Giuliani listed, he is right.\n</p>\n<p>\n Two other Republican candidates held political offices that let them be compared on their \"turnaround\" ability: Mike Huckabee, who was governor of Arkansas for 10 years, and Mitt Romney, who was governor of Massachusetts for four years. Both men left office in January 2007. Giuliani was mayor of New York for eight years, 1994-2001. Sen. John McCain has never held an executive position and thus has no record of economic turnaround.\n</p>\n<p>\n The turnaround in New York is widely known. (We addressed it with this look at his luck with the\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/177/\">\n  budget deficit\n </a>\n and this look at his claim of\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/109/\">\n  cutting taxes.)\n </a>\n Giuliani had the wind at his back nationally: His years as mayor coincided with one of the longest national economic booms in American history, with the Wall Street boom was one of the headline stories of the era. Yet Giuliani clearly imposed greater financial discipline, and the economic measures support his claim that New York City outperformed the national boom during his years in office.\n</p>\n<p>\n It is hard to argue that New York did not enjoy a substantial turnaround during the Giuliani years. Whether Giuliani deserves as much credit as he claims has been widely debated. The specifics of his claims have been evaluated before. He did not inherit a \"tremendous\" deficit any more than he left one. City budgets are required to be balanced, and Giuliani's budget directors have argued that budgets routinely show deficits at midyear (when mayors take office) but are resolved by year-end. Giuliani likes to decry the \"deficit\" he inherited from his predecessor, but dismisses the one he left for his successor by the same accounting.\n</p>\n<p>\n It's worth noting, in all the talk of how they cut taxes and balanced budgets (all of their governments required balanced budgets, unlike the federal government), none of the former government executives is saying he'll produce a balanced budget in Washington.\n</p>\n<p>\n In Massachusetts, it is perhaps noteworthy that Romney's book called \"Turnaround\" is not about his governorship but his tenure as CEO of the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics of 2002, a job he took at the beginning of 1999 when the Olympics had endured an ethics scandal and was projecting a substantial deficit.\n</p>\n<p>\n The measures Giuliani picks as indicators of turnaround in New York don't look so good for Romney's four years as governor &ndash; which is probably one reason Giuliani picked them.\n</p>\n<p>\n Giuliani's unemployment rate, for example, fell from 8.8 percent in 1994, his first year as mayor, to \r\n6 percent his last year, though it held stubbornly around 9 percent for most of his first term. Romney, taking office a year after Giuliani left office, saw his unemployment rate fall from 5.7 percent to as low as 4.8 percent and then return to 5.3 percent.\n</p>\n<p>\n Employment hit a cyclical bottom a year after Romney came into office. In the South Carolina debate on Jan. 10, Romney said, \"I'm very proud of the fact that after many, many months of declining job growth, I took over the state and helped turn that around. And in my years as governor, we kept adding jobs every single month after we saw that turnaround.\" The turnaround, though, started only after a loss of well over 20,000 jobs his first year in office.\n</p>\n<p>\n The tax burden in Massachusetts, for state and local governments combined, grew under Romney from 10 percent of personal income to 10.6 percent. Romney fought for a reduction in the income-tax rate, but the Democratic-controlled state legislature wouldn't go along. Giuliani claims he more or less bludgeoned New York's Democratic city council into becoming tax cutters. The tax burden fell in New York City &ndash; by nearly 20 percent, in Giuliani's calculation. (We evaluated that calculation in a previous story,\n <a href=\"http://politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/300/\">\n  here,\n </a>\n and found it to be solid.)\n</p>\n<p>\n (Giuliani prefers to focus on the magnitude of change, rather than on national comparisons, because he says New York has traditionally underperformed the nation on many such economic measures.)\n</p>\n<p>\n Northeastern University's Center for Market Studies, looked at the economy three years into Romney's tenure and found it \"lackluster,\" trailing national performance on a number of measures. One was job growth: It had none after three years under Romney. It had just gotten back to even with where he started.\n</p>\n<p>\n Now, for Huckabee, the story is a bit different. His tenure in Arkansas continued on through the much tougher economy of the last four years. Huckabee has spent a lot of effort trying to persuade people he cut taxes (\"93 times,\" in his famous claim) when in fact the overall tax burden in Arkansas went up. If he talked more about turning around under-performance in the state's schools and roads, which he did to some extent and occasionally discussed, he might have claimed a different kind of \"turnaround\" mantle.\n</p>\n<p>\n Huckabee used a gas tax to rehab Interstate 40 through Arkansas &ndash; once designated as the worst stretch of road in the country by a survey of truckers &ndash; and a sales tax to reform an inefficient and unfair system of schools.\n</p>\n<p>\n Giuliani, on the other hand, did not significantly increase his city's investment in infrastructure.\n</p>\n<p>\n Giuliani's claim about being the \"only turnaround\" candidate does not incorporate the concept of additional investment and additional \"return\" in the form of better services. Comparing Arkansas and New York City \"turnarounds\" is almost imponderable. Huckabee, however, doesn't describe his tenure as a turnaround era in Arkansas.\n</p>\n<p>\n Giuliani's budget discipline did not allow for substantial new spending on infrastructure. Whether Huckabee's \"investment\" of higher taxes for better services was a good move is not is not a turnaround category Giuliani lists.\n</p>\n<p>\n It has to be kept in mind that the economic circumstances each chief executive faced were very different. Giuliani can't match Romney in the corporate turnaround business. And Giuliani's view of what constitutes a turnaround doesn't consider everything, but Giuliani clearly has clear accomplishments when it comes to a government turnaround. We find his claim Mostly True.\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>",
            "sources": "The Tax Foundation,\n<a href=\"http://www.taxfoundation.org/taxdata/show/460.html\">\n Massachusetts' State and Local Tax Burden\n</a>\n<p>\n Bureau of Economic Analysis,\n <a href=\"http://www.bea.gov/regional/sqpi/default.cfm?sqtable=SQ1\">\n  State Quarterly Personal Income, 2003-2007\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Citizens Budget Commission,\n <a href=\"http://www.cbcny.org/NYC_Fiscal_Outlook.pdf\">\n  Managing the Budget in the Bloomberg Administration, December 2001\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Bureau of Labor Statistics,\n <a href=\"http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet?series_id=LASST25000006&amp;data_tool=%2522EaG%2522\">\n  Massachusetts\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Bureau of Labor Statistics,\n <a href=\"http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet?series_id=LASST05000006&amp;data_tool=%2522EaG%2522\">\n  Arkansas\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Massachusetts Office of Labor and Workforce Development,\n <a href=\"http://lmi2.detma.org/lmi/lmi_lur_a.asp#4\">\n  Labor force and unemployment data\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 310,
            "slug": "mccain-switched-tax-vote",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "mitt-romney",
                "full_name": "Mitt Romney",
                "first_name": "Mitt",
                "last_name": "Romney"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "\"Now, I also support the Bush tax cuts. Sen. McCain voted against them originally. He now believes they should be made permanent. I'm glad he agrees they should be made permanent.\"\r\n",
            "ruling_slug": "true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-27T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "Mitt Romney has repeatedly charged John McCain with flip-flopping on tax cuts. He points out that McCain twice voted against President Bush's tax changes before deciding to support them. He repeated his attack at the Republican debate in Boca Raton.\n<p>\n Though Romney omits some important details, we again find that he is accurately summarizing McCain's record.\n</p>\n<p>\n In 2001, McCain voted against a $1.35-trillion tax cut package, arguing that the tax cuts didn't do enough for the middle class, and because of a need for increased defense spending. Two years later, McCain again citied spending for opposing $350-billion in additional tax cuts, specifically citing the unknown costs for the war in Iraq.\n</p>\n<p>\n But in 2006, McCain changed position and voted to extend the Bush tax cuts for five years. He said not to do so would be tantamount to raising taxes at a time when the economy was sputtering.\n</p>\n<p>\n McCain said he supported the tax-cut extensions, which reduced tax rates on capital gains and dividend income, because \"American businesses and investors need a stable and predictable tax policy to continue contributing to the growth of our economy. These considerations lead me to the conclusion that we should not reverse course by letting higher tax rates take effect.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n In an interview on Fox News on Dec. 28, 2007, he expressed no regrets about his tax votes against Bush. He said he would have preferred a plan that included spending cuts as well as tax cuts, but added that he believes the tax cuts should now be made permanent.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"We presided over the greatest increase in the size of government since the Great Society,\" McCain said. \"Spending went completely out of control. It's still out of control. Wasteful earmark spending is a disgrace, and it caused us to alienate our Republican base. So these tax cuts need to be made permanent. Otherwise, they would have the effect of tax increases. But, look, if we had gotten spending under control, we'd be talking about more tax cuts today.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n McCain has responded by calling Romney a flip-flopper on taxes and other issues, but the fact remains: McCain voted the way Romney says. We find Romney's claim to be True. And if you'd like to see our previous same rulings on this issue, see\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/258/\">\n  here\n </a>\n and\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/14/\">\n  here.\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n <b>\n  Updated:\n </b>\n This post has been updated to correct the reasons McCain gave at the time for opposing tax cuts in 2001. Our initial posting attributed his reasons to statements he made later about fiscal restraint.\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>",
            "sources": "<a href=\"http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=107&amp;session=1&amp;vote=00170\">\n McCain 2001 vote opposing tax cuts\n</a>\n<p>\n <a href=\"http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=108&amp;session=1&amp;vote=00196\">\n  McCain 2003 vote opposing tax cuts\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n <a href=\"http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=109&amp;session=2&amp;vote=00010\">\n  McCain 2006 vote favoring tax cuts\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n CQ Weekly,  \"John McCain: Softening the Skeptics,\" by David Nather, May 8, 2006\n</p>\n<p>\n Washington Times,  \"McCain Looks Presidential on Taxes,\" by Donald Lambro, Feb. 27, 2006\n</p>\n<p>\n CQ Today, \"Senate Approaches Showdown on Tax Cuts,\" Joseph J. Schatz, March 18, 2003\n</p>\n<p>\n Sen. John McCain,\n <a href=\"http://mccain.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressOffice.PressReleases&amp;ContentRecord_id=59aa03d3-3bd3-4b4d-a375-e6262abdd776&amp;Region_id=&amp;Issue_id=\">\n  McCain statement on final tax reconciliation bill\n </a>\n , May 26, 2001.\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 316,
            "slug": "hes-right-but-clinton-quote-isnt-hers-exactly",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "barack-obama",
                "full_name": "Barack Obama",
                "first_name": "Barack",
                "last_name": "Obama"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "\"But it was Hillary Clinton, in an interview with Tom Brokaw, who quote 'paid tribute' to Ronald Reagan's economic and foreign policy.\"",
            "ruling_slug": "half-true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-25T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "Ronald Reagan is back on the campaign trail.\n<p>\n And this time, it's not the Republicans vying to claim his political DNA. It's the leading Democratic candidates, running as far as they can from the former president.\n</p>\n<p>\n The latest claim in this debate comes from Barack Obama, who hits Hillary Clinton's Reagan record as he fights off\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/301/\">\n  false attacks from Bill Clinton\n </a>\n on the very same thing.\n</p>\n<p>\n Obama tries turning the tables on Clinton in a radio ad that makes passing reference to her views on Reagan.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"But it was Hillary Clinton, in an interview with Tom Brokaw, who quote 'paid tribute' to Ronald Reagan's economic and foreign policy,\" an announcer says in an\n <a href=\"http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ya9U1xZ-HIQ\">\n  Obama radio advertisement\n </a>\n that aired in South Carolina.\n</p>\n<p>\n The Illinois senator made a similar point during the Jan. 21, 2008, Democratic debate in Myrtle Beach, S.C.\n</p>\n<p>\n On both counts, Obama's assertion about Clinton's praise of Reagan is basically true. But a couple of significant points need to be made. First, Clinton didn't use the words \"paid tribute,\" which the radio announcer says in quotations. That's how Brokaw summarized Clinton's remarks.\n</p>\n<p>\n (It's worth noting that the Obama campaign said it pulled this ad from the air shortly after Clinton's campaign did the same with one bashing Obama's remarks on Reagan.)\n</p>\n<p>\n And second, you have to read what Brokaw actually attributes to Clinton. Clinton's comments in question come from Brokaw's book,\n <i>\n  Boom: Voices of the Sixties\n </i>\n . Brokaw notes Clinton's '60s rhetoric from her college days and writes about the current political climate.\n</p>\n<p>\n Then this passage from page 403 and 404:\n</p>\n<p>\n \"She also believes modern conservatives such as Karl Rove are 'obsessed' with defeating her.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"She prefers the godfather of the modern conservative movement, Ronald Reagan. He was, she says, 'a child of the Depression, so he understood it [economic pressures on the working and middle class]. When he had those big tax cuts and they went too far, he oversaw the largest tax increase. He could call the Soviet Union the Evil Empire and then negotiate arms-control agreements. He played the balance and the music beautifully.'\n</p>\n<p>\n \"In 1969, who would have imagined that the Hillary Rodham on the Wellesley commencement stage would find herself 38 years later paying tribute to Ronald Reagan?\"\n</p>\n<p>\n Compare that text with Obama's ad, and you'll see that Clinton didn't offer overall praise for Reagan's economic record. In fact, what she did was single out what she saw as his appreciation for the challenges of the working class and his willingness to reverse course when taxes were cut too much.\n</p>\n<p>\n It's true that Brokaw summarized this as paying tribute, but it still looks to us like the Obama ad somewhat mischaracterizes what Clinton said about Reagan. This leads us to rate it Half True.\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>",
            "sources": "Associated Press,\n<a href=\"http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5hlFdPJ4D4ncOJs-9502I6q99Pg5wD8UCHE9O0\">\n Ad Watch: Dueling Obama, Clinton Ads\n</a>\n<p>\n CNN Transcript,\n <a href=\"http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/21/us/politics/21demdebate-transcript.html?_r=1&amp;pagewanted=all&amp;oref=slogin\">\n  South Carolina Democratic Debate Jan. 21, 2008\n </a>\n , New York Times\n</p>\n<p>\n Tom Brokaw, Boom: Voices of the Sixties, Random House, 2007\n</p>\n<p>\n Interview with Jen Psaki, Obama spokeswoman, Jan. 25, 2008\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 307,
            "slug": "a-white-flag-has-a-literal-meaning-too",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "john-mccain",
                "full_name": "John McCain",
                "first_name": "John",
                "last_name": "McCain"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "Hillary Clinton wants to \"wave the white flag of surrender and set a date for withdrawal.\"",
            "ruling_slug": "half-true",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-25T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "John McCain has attacked Hillary Clinton, saying she wants to \"wave the white flag of surrender\" in Iraq. He said it again in response to a question about Iraq at the Jan. 24, 2008, Republican debate in Boca Raton. (His comments come near the end of the YouTube video, at 9:45.)\n<p>\n It's hard to believe Hillary Clinton would say something so impolitic. Did she?\n</p>\n<p>\n It's a harsh paraphrase of what she actually said in the Jan. 21, 2008, Democratic debate in Myrtle Beach, S.C.\n</p>\n<p>\n Here's the full exchange:\n</p>\n<p>\n Question: \"Last week, you said the next president will, quote, 'have a war to end in Iraq.' In light of the new military and political progress on the ground there in Iraq, are you looking to end this war or win it?\"\n</p>\n<p>\n Clinton: \"I'm looking to bring our troops home, starting within 60 days of my becoming president, and here's why, Joe. I have the greatest admiration for the American military. I serve on the Senate Armed Services Committee. I've been to Iraq three times. I've met with the leaders of the various factions. But there is no military solution, and our young men and women should not remain as the referees of their conflict.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"I believe what you're seeing happen is twofold. Of course the surge, the so-called surge, was able to pacify certain parts of Iraq. If we put enough of our men and women and equipment in, we're going to be able to have some tactical military success. But the whole purpose of the surge was to force the Iraqi government to move quickly towards the kind of resolution that only it can bring about.\n</p>\n<p>\n \"I think what is motivating the Iraqi government is the debate in the political campaign here. They know they will no longer have a blank check from George Bush, that I will withdraw troops from Iraq. And I believe that will put even more pressure on the Iraqis to finally make the decisions that they have to make.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n McCain is right that Clinton is setting a time frame to start withdrawing troops, and that does imply giving up and waving a metaphorical white flag. Saying there is no military solution as she does could be seen as a form of surrender. But technically, there is no ruling army to surrender to, which is really what a white flag means. Clinton just wants the troops to come home.\n</p>\n<p>\n So McCain is right when he says Clinton is advocating withdrawal from Iraq. But he uses a highly charged term that somewhat overstates the conditions to which she's referring to end U.S. involvement in Iraq.  For this reason, we rate his attack Half True.\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>",
            "sources": "CNN,\n<a href=\"http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/21/us/politics/21demdebate-transcript.html?_r=1&amp;oref=slogin&amp;pagewanted=all\">\n Democratic Debate Transcript\n</a>\n, Jan. 21, 2008\n<p>\n World Book Encyclopedia, \"Flag of truce\"\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        },
        {
            "id": 314,
            "slug": "he-should-check-their-resumes",
            "speaker": {
                "slug": "mitt-romney",
                "full_name": "Mitt Romney",
                "first_name": "Mitt",
                "last_name": "Romney"
            },
            "targets": [],
            "statement": "\"I was pretty proud of being the only guy on the stage that ever had a job in the private sector.\"",
            "ruling_slug": "false",
            "publication_date": "2008-01-25T00:00:00-05:00",
            "ruling_comments": "Mitt Romney likes to trumpet his experience in the private sector. He was the head of the 2002 Winter Olympics and founder of Bain Capital, a venture capital and investment firm.\n<p>\n During a campaign rally in Pensacola on Jan. 25, 2008, the day after a Republican debate, Romney boasted, \"I was pretty proud of being the only guy on the stage that ever had a job in the private sector.\"\n</p>\n<p>\n He needs to check the resumes of his rivals.\n</p>\n<p>\n Three of the four other candidates on the stage with Romney at the Boca Raton debate have private sector experience.\n</p>\n<p>\n Rep. Ron Paul was an obstetrician from 1968 to 1996 and has delivered more than 4,000 babies. That sounds like the private sector to us.\n</p>\n<p>\n Mike Huckabee has held several private sector jobs. He was a minister at Immanuel Baptist Church in Pine Bluff, Ark., the producer of radio and TV ads and a founder of KBSC-TV, a Christian TV station in Texarkana, Ark., now known as KLFI-TV. He served as the station's president from 1987 through 1992. He hosted a show called\n <i>\n  Positive Alternatives\n </i>\n and, during his tenure, the station started airing Texarkana football.\n</p>\n<p>\n Rudy Giuliani has spent much of his career in public service, but he practiced law with the firm of Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler from 1977 to 1981. When he stepped down from being mayor of New York in 2002, he founded Giuliani Partners, a consulting firm in emergency preparedness, public safety, crisis management, energy and health care. In 2005, he became a partner in Bracewell & Giuliani, a large law firm.\n</p>\n<p>\n When we inquired with a spokeswoman for the Romney campaign about the remark, she said Romney was referring to\n <i>\n  business\n </i>\n experience. But we find plenty of the private-sector experience of the other candidates to be in business &ndash; especially Giuliani's work for the consulting firm, Huckabee's work at the Christian TV station and Paul's work running a medical practice. And so we find Romney's statement to be False.\n</p>\n<p>\n (For a PolitiFact chart summarizing the candidates' experience, click\n <a href=\"http://www.politifact.com/media/experience.html\">\n  here.)\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>",
            "sources": "<p>\n Project Vote Smart,\n <a href=\"http://www.votesmart.org/bio.php?can_id=1657\">\n  Mike Huckabee bio\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Encylclopedia of Arkansas,\n <a href=\"http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=108\">\n  Mike Huckabee\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n <a href=\"http://www.beechstreetfbc.org/klfi/history.htm\">\n  History of KLFI\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n City of New York,\n <a href=\"http://www.nyc.gov/html/records/rwg/html/bio.html\">\n  Mayor Rudy Giuliani\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Giuliani Campaign,\n <a href=\"http://www.joinrudy2008.com/about/\">\n  About Rudy Giuliani\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Almanac of American Politics 2002, bio of Rep. Ron Paul\n</p>\n<p>\n Office of Rep. Ron Paul,\n <a href=\"http://www.house.gov/paul/bio.htm\">\n  Bio of Ron Paul\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n Romney Campaign,\n <a href=\"http://www.mittromney.com/Learn-About-Mitt/Mittxs_Biography\">\n  Mitt Romney bio\n </a>\n</p>\n<p>\n</p>"
        }
    ]
}