GET /api/stories/
HTTP 200 OK
Allow: GET, HEAD, OPTIONS
Cache-Control: public, max-age=900
Content-Type: application/json
Vary: Accept

{
    "count": 6144,
    "next": "http://www.politifact.com/api/stories/?page=2",
    "previous": null,
    "results": [
        {
            "slug": "what-we-know-about-mike-bloomberg-and-his-non-disc",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "michael-bloomberg",
                    "full_name": "Michael Bloomberg",
                    "first_name": "Michael",
                    "last_name": "Bloomberg"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "elizabeth-warren",
                    "full_name": "Elizabeth Warren",
                    "first_name": "Elizabeth",
                    "last_name": "Warren"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "What we know about Mike Bloomberg and nondisclosure agreements",
            "entry": "<p>U.S. Sen. Elizabeth Warren stood next to Mike Bloomberg on the debate stage in Las Vegas. It made her pointed questioning of him on whether his workplace was hostile for women all the more intense.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The mayor has to stand on his record. And what we need to know is exactly what&#39;s lurking out there,&quot; Warren said. &quot;He has gotten some number of women, dozens, who knows, to sign nondisclosure agreements both for sexual harassment and for gender discrimination in the workplace.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;So, Mr. Mayor,&quot; Warren continued, &quot;are you willing to release all of those women from those nondisclosure agreements, so we can hear their side of the story?&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg did not give in as the pair went back and forth on the issue.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I&#39;ve said we&#39;re not going to end these agreements because they were made consensually, and they have every right to expect that they will stay private,&quot; Bloomberg said during the Feb. 19 Democratic presidential primary debate.</p>\n\n<p>Nondisclosure agreements, commonly called NDAs, are legally binding contracts that prevent parties from disclosing information. PolitiFact is not privy to those agreements, so we don&rsquo;t know exactly what they detail. Still, we wanted to give readers an overview of the allegations made against Bloomberg and his company, Bloomberg L.P., based on available news reports.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>What Bloomberg said about the nature of the NDAs</strong></div>\n\n<p>Bloomberg said there were &quot;very few&quot; NDAs and that they involved things he said, and not things he did.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;None of them accuse me of doing anything, other than maybe they didn&#39;t like a joke I told,&quot; Bloomberg said.</p>\n\n<p>He suggested that his reluctance to end the NDAs was based on what other parties preferred. &quot;The company and somebody else, in this case &mdash; a man or a woman, or it could be more than that &mdash; they decided when they made an agreement they wanted to keep it quiet for everybody&#39;s interests,&quot; Bloomberg said.</p>\n\n<div>&quot;There are no NDAs in which Mike is a party, only the company and individuals,&quot; Natalie Harland, a spokeswoman for Bloomberg L.P., told PolitiFact Feb. 21.</div>\n\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div>Harland said no one has approached the company asking to be released from the NDAs.</div>\n\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div>Bloomberg on Feb. 21 <a href=\"https://twitter.com/MikeBloomberg/status/1230959194825797632\">tweeted</a> that his company had identified three NDAs &quot;signed over the past 30+ years with women to address complaints about comments they said I had made.&quot; Bloomberg said that if any of them wanted to be released from their NDAs, they should reach out to the company.</div>\n\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div>Bloomberg&#39;s tweet linked to a <a href=\"https://www.mikebloomberg.com/news/statement-from-mike-bloomberg-on-non-disclosure-agreements?utm_source=twitter&amp;utm_medium=social&amp;utm_campaign=&amp;utm_content=\">statement</a> posted to his campaign website.</div>\n\n<div>\n<p>&quot;I&rsquo;ve done a lot of reflecting on this issue over the past few days and I&rsquo;ve decided that for as long as I&rsquo;m running the company, we won&rsquo;t offer confidentiality agreements to resolve claims of sexual harassment or misconduct going forward,&quot; Bloomberg&#39;s statement said.</p>\n\n<p>He added: &quot;I recognize that NDAs, particularly when they are used in the context of sexual harassment and sexual assault, promote a culture of silence in the workplace and contribute to a culture of women not feeling safe or supported. It is imperative that when problems occur, workplaces not only address the specific incidents, but the culture and practices that led to those incidents. And then leaders must act.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg also said he asked his company to consult with experts to review and reform policies &quot;where necessary with regard to equal pay and promotion, sexual harassment and discrimination, and other legal tools that prevent culture change.&quot;</p>\n</div>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED</em>: </strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2019/dec/03/who-michael-bloomberg-bio-democratic-presidential-/\">Who is Michael Bloomberg? A bio of the Democratic presidential candidate</a></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>News reports on accusations against Bloomberg and his company</strong></div>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/bloomberg-digs-doesnt-female-employees-freed-ndas/story?id=68307778\">ABC News</a> in January reported that the news organization reviewed court records showing that at least 17 women had taken legal action against Bloomberg&rsquo;s company over the past 30 years.</p>\n\n<p>Several lawsuits contend that Bloomberg fostered a hostile workplace for women in the 1990s, and three cases specifically claimed that Bloomberg made lewd remarks, such as &quot;I&#39;d like to do that piece of meat,&quot; and &quot;I would do you in a second,&quot; ABC News reported.</p>\n\n<p>Three active cases involve alleged misconduct between 2012 and 2016, and Bloomberg is a named defendant in two of those cases. One of those two cases involves a woman who accused her manager of sexual assault (the manager was fired before the lawsuit&rsquo;s filing), and the other involves a former sales executive who accused the company of age and gender discrimination, according to ABC News. The third case is about a woman accusing the company of wrongful termination. Bloomberg and his company denied those allegations.</p>\n\n<p>During a Jan. 15 appearance on &quot;The View,&quot; Bloomberg said he had nothing to hide and that the nondisclosure agreements had to be respected.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Did I ever tell a bawdy joke? Yeah, sure I did. Do I regret it? Yes, it&#39;s embarrassing,&quot; Bloomberg said. &quot;But, you know, that&#39;s the way I grew up.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The Washington Post on Feb. 15 <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2020/politics/michael-bloomberg-women/\">outlined</a> an unspecified number of lawsuits against Bloomberg and his company filed over the years alleging discrimination against women.</p>\n\n<p>The cases the Post reviewed did not involve accusations of inappropriate sexual conduct, but were about things Bloomberg said and the workplace culture he created. The story said Bloomberg was blamed for &quot;creating a culture of sexual harassment and degradation.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The Post also told of a present Bloomberg got for his 48th birthday in 1990: a <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/context/the-portable-bloomberg-the-wit-wisdom-of-michael-bloomberg/ba5281b4-886d-42dc-a28d-e67eceb60719/\">booklet</a> titled &quot;The Portable Bloomberg: The Wit &amp; Wisdom of Michael Bloomberg.&quot; It included sexist quotes attributed to Bloomberg.</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg&#39;s spokesman told the Post both that Bloomberg &quot;simply did not say the things somebody wrote in this gag gift&quot; and that Bloomberg &quot;openly admits that his words have not always aligned with his values and the way he has led his life and some of what he has said is disrespectful and wrong.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED</em>: </strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/feb/20/fact-checking-las-vegas-democratic-debate-bloomber/\">Bloomberg on the defensive, fact-checking the Las Vegas Democratic debate</a></p>\n\n<p><em><strong>RELATED</strong>: </em><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/feb/14/stump-speech-analyzer-michael-bloomberg/\">The Stump Speech Analyzer: Michael Bloomberg</a></p>\n\n<p><em>This story was updated Feb. 21 at 4:19 p.m. to include a statement and tweet posted by Bloomberg after our story published.</em></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-21T14:42:29-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "fastest-growing-and-fastest-declining-jobs-us",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "The fastest-growing, and fastest-declining, jobs in the US",
            "entry": "<p>What are the fastest-growing &mdash; and fastest-declining &mdash; jobs in the United States?</p>\n\n<p>According to federal data, there&rsquo;s plenty of upside for solar panel installers, but times could be tough for parking attendants and watch repairers.</p>\n\n<p>We looked at the most recent Bureau of Labor Statistics <a href=\"https://www.bls.gov/ooh/about/ooh-faqs.htm\">projections</a>, which are federal economists&rsquo; best guesses at which jobs will be expanding and contracting between 2018 and 2028. Several academic and industry economists say the BLS projections are the best data source available.</p>\n\n<p>The aging of the Baby Boom generation is producing a need for workers in health care and long-term care. Roughly half of the 20 <a href=\"https://www.bls.gov/ooh/fastest-growing.htm\">fastest-growing jobs</a> fall into one of these two categories.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Growth in health care jobs is a safe bet since the aging population is a near-certainty,&quot; said Jed Kolko, the chief economist for the jobs site Indeed.com.</p>\n\n<p>Renewable energy &mdash; notably solar and wind power &mdash; is also poised to expand significantly.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But as renewable energy jobs expand, jobs in coal mining will continue to decline. Coal mining jobs have <a href=\"https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/CES1021210001\">declined by 71%</a> from their 1985 peak.</p>\n\n<p>Another trend from the 20 <a href=\"https://www.bls.gov/emp/tables/fastest-declining-occupations.htm\">fastest-shrinking jobs</a>: The march of technology continues. Jobs in legacy sectors &mdash; such as telephones, mail and non-digital photography &mdash; are all projected to shrink through 2028. And continuing automation in manufacturing is poised to decrease the number of workers in aircraft and vehicle assembly.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The projections show that there will be continued demand for internet and quantitative skills, in such sectors as cybersecurity, statistics and software development.</p>\n\n<p>And climate change is expected to have an effect by increasing the demand for forest fire inspectors and prevention specialists.</p>\n\n<p>Economists caution that percentage increases such as those on the two lists above don&rsquo;t tell the whole story. Some of the jobs on these lists will see a large percentage increase from a small initial number. More modest increases (or decreases) in jobs that start with a lot of workers can make a bigger difference on the job pool as a whole.</p>\n\n<p>BLS offers an <a href=\"https://www.bls.gov/emp/tables/occupations-most-job-growth.htm\">additional statistic</a> that addresses this question, tracking the largest projected increases in the number of jobs, rather than the highest percentage increases.</p>\n\n<p>There is some overlap between these two lists, other jobs will see large numerical increases even though they don&rsquo;t crack the list of percentage increases.</p>\n\n<p>&bull; Food service workers (including general workers, cooks, and first-line supervisors)</p>\n\n<p>&bull; Janitors</p>\n\n<p>&bull; Landscaping and groundskeepers</p>\n\n<p>&bull; Construction laborers</p>\n\n<p>&bull; Truck drivers</p>\n\n<p>&bull; Carpenters and electricians</p>\n\n<p>&bull; Market research analysts and marketing specialists</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What about pay?</div>\n\n<p>Also important for gauging the economic implications are the income prospects in the growing and shrinking sectors.</p>\n\n<p>On the whole, the top 20 jobs for growth have a higher average wage ($61,818) than do the 20 jobs that are shrinking the fastest ($43,115).</p>\n\n<p>That said, lower-paying medical jobs are mainstays of the &quot;gaining&quot; list, especially in health and personal care. Some of these jobs are paid even less than the average for shrinking jobs.</p>\n\n<p>According to Indeed.com, middle-wage jobs are growing more slowly than either higher- or lower-wage jobs, and that jobs requiring higher and lower levels of education were growing faster than jobs for people with a high school degree only.</p>\n\n<p><img src=\"https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/mj_m51XLE9n6kFWwVbnY1eg92-X0epdPVk19LWTVLK5AEu_fMrAr6zJuDlmv0lzP2KXvhS8e2XCdNPRC7LO9PJHh31GthpV3LX93yPGf-ohZFZHiR8OpuiTS29A3k0tNjroE6ImT\"></p>\n\n<p>Indeed also found that BLS employment projections favor urban areas, with rural areas growing the most slowly and suburban areas in the middle.</p>\n\n<p><img src=\"https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/M4TBxIak58SrGvS5AJHaPvaqUJnRWOBRdhcEmM2i7XZxFfFykQit4zbCfgV_nyzUs4S11iRfYlitzL3yw7fpKUarLeV4zvwWVD3MFlw7zZycrE-qloxRqF6YGqfHxhTKIu01jzBT\"></p>\n\n<p>A final caveat: Some occupations include a lot of older workers, many of whom would be expected to retire during the next five to 10 years, said Brookings Institution economist Gary Burtless. Taking these retiring workers into account &mdash; which the data above does not do &mdash; it&rsquo;s possible that some shrinking industries could still end up hiring new workers, and that some growing industries may ultimately hire at an even faster clip than the basic projections indicate.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-21T12:08:29-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "fact-checking-las-vegas-democratic-debate-bloomber",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Bloomberg on the defensive, fact-checking the Las Vegas Democratic debate",
            "entry": "<p>After saying he wouldn&rsquo;t run and then changing his mind, after altogether skipping Iowa and New Hampshire, after spending <a href=\"https://www.cnbc.com/2020/02/10/bloomberg-ad-spending-spree-is-a-bonanza-for-local-broadcasters.html\">$250 million of his fortune on television and radio</a> ads, Mike Bloomberg stood at the end of a debate stage in Las Vegas days before Democrats vote there and got battered by his five opponents.</p>\n\n<p>The talk was a bit different than the &quot;Mike will get it done&quot; line you might have heard on TV.</p>\n\n<ul>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>&quot;A billionaire who calls women &lsquo;fat broads&rsquo; and &lsquo;horse-faced lesbians&rsquo; &mdash; and no, I&rsquo;m not talking about Donald Trump. I&rsquo;m talking about Mayor Bloomberg.&quot; &mdash; Sen. Elizabeth Warren, D-Mass.</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>&quot;From the moment we passed that signature legislation (Obamacare), Mike called it a disgrace.&quot; &mdash; former Vice President Joe Biden</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>&quot;Our party has a tradition that includes excellent presidents like Barack Obama who Mayor Bloomberg opposed.&quot; &mdash; former South Bend, Ind., Mayor Pete Buttigieg</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>&quot;Mayor Bloomberg was busy blaming blacks and Latinos for the housing crisis.&quot; &mdash; Warren</p>\n\t</li>\n</ul>\n\n<p>PolitiFact&rsquo;s team of fact-checkers examined the veracity of each of those attacks, as well misleading or incomplete claims about the candidate&rsquo;s health care plans, Bloomberg&rsquo;s defense of New York&rsquo;s stop-and-frisk policy, and the donors of the candidates&rsquo; campaigns.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;A billionaire who calls women &lsquo;fat broads&rsquo; and &lsquo;horse-faced lesbians&rsquo; &mdash; and no, I&rsquo;m not talking about Donald Trump. I&rsquo;m talking about Mayor Bloomberg.&quot; &mdash; Sen. Elizabeth Warren, D-Mass.</div>\n\n<p>These descriptions came from a booklet distributed in 1990 as part of Bloomberg&rsquo;s 48th birthday, and were reported as words said by Bloomberg.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Images of every page have been posted by the <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/context/the-portable-bloomberg-the-wit-wisdom-of-michael-bloomberg/ba5281b4-886d-42dc-a28d-e67eceb60719/\">Washington Post</a>. According to the <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2020/politics/michael-bloomberg-women/?itid=hp_hp-top-table-main_bloomberg-9a%3Ahomepage%2Fstory-ans\">Washington Post</a>, the booklet was produced by Elisabeth DeMarse, Bloomberg L.P.&rsquo;s former chief marketing officer. She wrote in the introduction, &quot;Yes, these are all actual quotes. No, nothing has been embellished or exaggerated. And yes, some things were too outrageous to include.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>In the booklet, the remark is described as referring to members of the British royal family. In full, the quotation reads, &quot;The Royal family &mdash; what a bunch of misfits &mdash; a gay, an architect, that horsey faced lesbian, and a kid who gave up Koo Stark for some fat broad.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The Guardian, the British newspaper, <a href=\"https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/feb/15/michael-bloomberg-booklet-sexist-remarks-abortion\">translated</a> the identities of the royals cited in the quotation as being, in order, Prince Edward, Prince Charles, Princess Anne and Prince Andrew. (We had to refresh our memory on who Koo Stark was. She is an <a href=\"https://www.msn.com/en-au/lifestyle/lifestyleroyals/when-prince-andrew-met-koo-stark-his-most-scandalous-girlfriend/ar-BBYCkit\">American actress and photographer who once dated Prince Andrew</a>.)</p>\n\n<p>So it&rsquo;s clear that the quotation appeared in the booklet.</p>\n\n<p>Despite what&rsquo;s written in the introduction, Bloomberg and his spokespersons have disputed that he actually said that quote, though with somewhat evolving explanations over time.</p>\n\n<p>Neither the Bloomberg campaign nor the Warren campaign responded to PolitiFact on debate night. However, Bloomberg spokesman Stu Loeser told the Post that &quot;Mike simply did not say the things somebody wrote in this gag gift, which has been circulating for 30 years and has been quoted in every previous election Mike has been in.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>He added, &quot;Mike openly admits that his words have not always aligned with his values and the way he has led his life, and some of what he has said is disrespectful and wrong.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The Post also reported that a Bloomberg spokesman had said in 2001 that Bloomberg apologized to &quot;anyone that was offended by&quot; the comments, which Bloomberg himself once referred to as &quot;a bunch of Borscht Belt jokes.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Louis Jacobson</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;From the moment we passed that signature legislation (Obamacare), Mike called it a disgrace.&quot; &mdash; former Vice President Joe Biden</div>\n\n<p>Bloomberg said exactly that in a speech at Dartmouth College a few months after the Affordable Care Act passed in March 2010. This claim rates <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/feb/20/joe-biden/obamacare-disgrace-biden-highlights-bloombergs-neg/\">True</a>.</p>\n\n<p>In a video of the speech we reviewed, Bloomberg was unsparing. &quot;We passed a health care bill that does absolutely nothing to fix the big health care problems in this country. It is just a disgrace,&quot; he said. &quot;The president, in all fairness, started out by pointing out what the big problems were, but then turned it over to Congress, which didn&#39;t pay any attention to any of those big problems and just created another program that&#39;s going to cost a lot of money.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Those aren&rsquo;t standalone remarks. As recently as 2014, Bloomberg called the law <a href=\"https://money.cnn.com/2014/11/10/investing/bloomberg-financial-regulation-obamacare/index.html\">&quot;really dysfunctional&quot;</a> during remarks to a financial industry trade group.</p>\n\n<p>It is worth noting that Bloomberg&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.mikebloomberg.com/policies/health-coverage-plan\">current health care plan</a> would build on the Affordable Care Act, largely by increasing subsidies for people buying private insurance on the exchanges, and by installing a Medicare-like public option.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Victoria Knight and Shefali Luthra, Kaiser Health News</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;Our party has a tradition that includes excellent presidents like Barack Obama who Mayor Bloomberg opposed.&quot; &mdash; former South Bend, Ind., Mayor Pete Buttigieg</div>\n\n<p>You might not know it from watching Bloomberg&rsquo;s ads, but Bloomberg did not endorse Obama during the 2008 presidential campaign. Bloomberg, who was registered as an Independent at the time, did not endorse Obama or Republican John McCain in that race.</p>\n\n<p>In a July 2008 <a href=\"https://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/288-08/mayor-bloomberg-proposes-taxpayers-stop-paying-political-party-primaries-address-the\">speech</a> to the Independence Party Of Minnesota, Bloomberg said that both Obama and McCain had shown &quot;on at least some issues, that they are capable of thinking and acting independently of the special interests.&quot; Bloomberg said both candidates needed to state where they stood on issues and how they&rsquo;d get them through Congress.</p>\n\n<p>He said this of Obama: &quot;Sen. Obama &mdash; whether you support him or not &mdash; has shown a willingness, I think it&#39;s fair to say, to stand up to the ideological police on some important issues, such as ending the gun show loophole which puts guns in the hands of criminals, and he is- willing to stand up and say we should maintain the federal gasoline tax during the summer when there was a cry to reduce it.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg did <a href=\"https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2012-11-01/a-vote-for-a-president-to-lead-on-climate-change\">endorse Obama&rsquo;s re-election</a> in 2012, but not until a week before the election. And the endorsement included criticism. Bloomberg said Obama failed to develop and sustain a coalition of centrists that could work on key issues, including immigration and tax reform. <a href=\"https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2020-election/bloomberg-obama-more-complicated-relationship-ads-suggest-n1138366\">Bloomberg also said Obama</a> &quot;engaged in partisan attacks&quot; and &quot;embraced a divisive populist agenda focused more on redistributing income than creating it.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash;&nbsp;Miriam Valverde</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>Associated Press</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;Mayor Bloomberg was busy blaming African Americans and Latinos for the housing crisis in 2008.&quot; &mdash; Sen. Elizabeth Warren, D-Mass.</div>\n\n<p>This rates <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/feb/20/elizabeth-warren/mike-bloombergs-redlining-remarks-distorted-elizab/\">Mostly False</a>.</p>\n\n<p>The Warren campaign pointed to <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/13/us/politics/michael-bloomberg-redlining.html\">what Bloomberg said</a> at a forum in <a href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXhND01U734\">September 2008 at Georgetown University</a>. At various points in the hourlong <a href=\"https://www.c-span.org/video/?281174-1/urban-economics\">interview</a>, Bloomberg spoke broadly about loose lending as a factor in the financial crisis. Bloomberg identified pressure by Congress to expand lending after the ban on <a href=\"https://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/supmanual/cch/fair_lend_fhact.pdf\">redlining</a> as one of those causes. The term &quot;redlining&quot; comes from when bankers would draw lines on maps indicating poorer neighborhoods where they would avoid offering mortgages. Those areas often include large minority populations.</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg did not talk about the racial aspects of redlining or bring up any minority groups. He seemed to define redlining narrowly as excluding loan applicants in poor neighborhoods. And he described a system in which, by enacting a ban on redlining, Congress encouraged banks to give mortgages to people whether or not they could afford them.</p>\n\n<p>In the same interview, Bloomberg talked about how the mortgage crisis accelerated after mortgages were approved too easily for borrowers who didn&rsquo;t have the means to repay them.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There was pressure to open up the spigot and to sell mortgages to everyone,&quot; he said.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Amy Sherman</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;When we discovered, I discovered, that we were doing many, many, too many stop and frisks, we cut 95% of it out.&quot; &mdash; former New York Mayor Mike Bloomberg</div>\n\n<p>The number of stop-and-frisk searches ballooned 600% while Bloomberg was mayor. They later declined 95%. We rated Bloomberg&rsquo;s claim <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/feb/20/michael-bloomberg/fact-checking-mike-bloombergs-claim-95-decline-sto/\">Half True</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg&rsquo;s campaign told PolitiFact his claim relied on data for the first quarter of 2012 and the last quarter of 2013. From January to March 2012, the New York Police Department recorded 203,500 stops, compared with approximately 12,500 stops from October to December 2013. That&rsquo;s close to a 95% drop.</p>\n\n<p>What happened in the years before that while Bloomberg was still mayor?</p>\n\n<p>The New York Civil Liberties Union compiled data using NYPD&rsquo;s annual reports and found that, in Bloomberg&rsquo;s first 10 years in office, stop and frisk numbers increased significantly. In 2002, there were 97,296 stops recorded &mdash; that <a href=\"https://www.nyclu.org/en/press-releases/nyclu-analysis-reveals-nypd-street-stops-soar-600-over-course-bloomberg\">increased more than 600%</a> by 2011, when there were nearly<a href=\"https://www.nyclu.org/en/stop-and-frisk-data\"> 686,000 stops</a>. Stops fell dramatically in 2013 to just under 192,000.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Miriam Valverde</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>Associated Press</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;You don&#39;t start out by saying, I have 160 million people, I&#39;m going to take away the insurance plan that they love.&quot; &mdash; former New York Mayor Mike Bloomberg</div>\n\n<p>It is true that Medicare for All, Sanders&rsquo; signature health proposal, would eliminate private health insurance, replacing it with a single public plan that covers everybody. That would include the roughly 160 million Americans who get employer-sponsored insurance</p>\n\n<p>But Bloomberg&rsquo;s argument that those people &quot;love&quot; their plans is complicated.</p>\n\n<p>When we previously checked a similar claim that 160 million people &quot;like their health insurance&quot; we rated it <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/nov/21/joe-biden/do-160-million-americans-like-their-health-insur/\">Half True</a>. Cursory polling suggests people with that coverage are mostly satisfied.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But most isn&rsquo;t all. And once Americans try to use that coverage, many find it lacking. In a Kaiser Family Foundation/ Los Angeles Times poll, for instance, 40% of people with employer-sponsored insurance still reported having trouble paying for medical bills, premiums or out-of-pocket costs. In that same poll, about half said they skipped or delayed health care because, even with coverage, they couldn&rsquo;t afford it.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Shefali Luthra, Kaiser Health News</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>Associated Press</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;Last year the health care industry made $100 billion in profits.&quot; &mdash; Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt.</div>\n\n<p>This is <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jan/15/bernie-sanders/sanders-medicare-all-plan-targets-health-industrys/\">True</a>. The number comes from adding the 2018 net revenues from 10 pharmaceutical companies and 10 health insurance companies. We redid the numbers and they added up. Experts said it was even likely that the figure was an underestimate.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Victoria Knight, Kaiser Health News</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;Amy, I looked online at your (health care) plan. It&rsquo;s two paragraphs.&quot; &mdash; Sen. Elizabeth Warren, D-Mass.</div>\n\n<p>This is highly misleading.</p>\n\n<p>Warren&rsquo;s campaign told PolitiFact that she was referring specifically to Klobuchar&rsquo;s plan for &quot;universal health care.&quot; It pointed to the two paragraphs at the end of this Klobuchar campaign web page, which come under the heading &quot;Propose legislation to get us to universal health care.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But that ignores most of Klobuchar&rsquo;s health care plan, which she outlines in quite a bit of detail on four different web pages &mdash; <a href=\"https://amyklobuchar.com/issue/health-care/\">a main health care policy page</a>, <a href=\"https://amyklobuchar.com/turning-ideas-into-action-senator-klobuchar-on-health-care-and-prescription-drugs/\">a more detailed sub-page</a>, <a href=\"https://amyklobuchar.com/turning-ideas-into-action-senator-klobuchar-on-health-care-and-prescription-drugs/\">a sub-page on prescription drugs</a> and <a href=\"https://medium.com/@AmyforAmerica/amys-plan-to-combat-addiction-and-prioritize-mental-health-b0207531c9ab\">a sub-page on mental health</a>.&nbsp;Klobuchar supports building on the Affordable Care Act and adding a public option that expands Medicare and Medicaid.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Louis Jacobson</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;Those CEOs are contributing to Pete&#39;s campaign and other campaigns up here.&quot; &mdash; Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt.</div>\n\n<p>When discussing the profits of the pharmaceutical industry, Sanders also charged that drug companies are donating to Buttigieg and other campaigns. We previously fact-checked Sanders&rsquo; claim that Buttigieg was a &quot;favorite of the health care industry&quot; and rated it <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/feb/19/bernie-sanders/sanders-claim-buttigieg-favorite-health-care-indus/\">Half True</a>.</p>\n\n<p>This is in part because Sanders has received the most donations of any Democratic candidate from the entire health care sector, which includes the pharmaceutical industry, health insurance industry, hospitals/nursing homes and health professionals. But, while checking this claim we also found that Buttigieg has received donations from employees and executives of pharmaceutical and health insurance companies such as AbbVie, Aetna, Anthem, Eli Lilly and Co., Merck &amp; Co. and Pfizer.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><em>&nbsp;&mdash; Victoria Knight, Kaiser Health News</em></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-19T21:54:41-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "live-fact-checking-las-vegas-democratic-presidenti",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Live fact-checking the Democratic presidential debate in Las Vegas",
            "entry": "<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-19T20:18:22-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "mike-bloombergs-record-stop-and-frisk",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "michael-bloomberg",
                    "full_name": "Michael Bloomberg",
                    "first_name": "Michael",
                    "last_name": "Bloomberg"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Mike Bloomberg’s record on stop and frisk",
            "entry": "<p>Mike Bloomberg&rsquo;s rise as a presidential contender has pushed one controversial New York policy to the forefront of attacks in the Democratic primary: stop and frisk.</p>\n\n<p>The practice allowed police to stop, question and frisk any person they believed was involved in criminal activity or in possession of a weapon. It expanded in New York under Mayor Rudy Giuliani in the 1990s, and Bloomberg continued the policy during his three terms as mayor.</p>\n\n<p>Data shows that police disproportionately targeted African Americans and Latinos. <a href=\"https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/750446/stop-and-frisk-memoranda.pdf\">A federal judge in 2013 ruled</a> that the New York Police Department&rsquo;s stop-and-frisk tactics violated the constitutional rights of minorities in the city.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.mikebloomberg.com/news/statement-from-mike-bloomberg\">Bloomberg</a> has defended himself as other Democrats and <a href=\"https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/02/11/nation/trump-posts-deletes-tweet-calling-bloomberg-racist-over-stop-frisk-policy-he-has-endorsed/\">President Donald Trump</a> have bashed the tactic as racist and unconstitutional. Bloomberg says he &quot;inherited&quot; the stop-and-frisk policy and that he &quot;cut it back by 95%&quot; by the time he left office.</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg&rsquo;s messaging ignores his role in expanding the practice and the <a href=\"https://www.nyclu.org/en/publications/stop-and-frisk-during-bloomberg-administration-2002-2013-2014\">dramatic</a> <a href=\"https://www.nyclu.org/en/publications/stop-and-frisk-during-bloomberg-administration-2002-2013-2014\">increases</a> in stops during most of his tenure. He also omits that the decline in his last years as mayor came amid public outcry about the policy and an impending lawsuit.</p>\n\n<p>We put together this guide for understanding Bloomberg&rsquo;s defenses on the policy, as well as the attacks.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Bloomberg as mayor embraced, expanded stop and frisk</strong></div>\n\n<p>Like Bloomberg has said, he did not start the policy of stop, question and frisk.</p>\n\n<p>The term was created in 1964, when New York City <a href=\"https://www.jstor.org/stable/1339108?seq=1\">passed a law</a> allowing police to stop, interrogate and frisk any person based on a reasonable suspicion that they were involved in a crime. This was further supported in the Supreme Court&#39;s 1968 decision in <a href=\"https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=78657\">Terry vs. Ohio, </a>upholding the law.</p>\n\n<p>But Bloomberg obscures his consistent <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/19/us/politics/michael-bloomberg-stop-and-frisk.html\">support</a> of the policy during his time in office and for years after.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://gothamist.com/news/testy-bloomberg-blames-press-for-stop-and-frisk-controversy\">In May 2012</a>, toward the end of his 12 years in office, Bloomberg dismissed critics of the practice as a vocal minority.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;My understanding is that the polls show overwhelming support by the public for the tactics we&rsquo;ve been using to bring down crime,&quot; he said. &quot;I think you&rsquo;d find that it&rsquo;s a minority of people who don&rsquo;t like the tactic.<em> </em>We are very careful to follow the law. We go where the crime is.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg also suggested that the policy saved thousands of lives and that he would not apologize.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/151-13/mayor-bloomberg-delivers-address-public-safety-nypd-leadership\">In April 2013</a>, Bloomberg rebuked criticism that stop and frisk targeted people based on their race or ethnicity. He called it a &quot;common sense&quot; policing tactic that helped get guns off the streets.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/08/26/after-bloomberg\">In July 2013</a>, Bloomberg told the New Yorker: &quot;I would suggest to the next mayor, whoever it is, that saving lives is the most important thing, more so than pandering. Stop-and-frisk has been shown to be&mdash;not the only, but the most effective tool in getting guns out of the hands of kids.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/275-13/statements-mayor-bloomberg-commissioner-kelly-federal-court-ruling\">In August 2013</a>, after a <a href=\"https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/750446/stop-and-frisk-memoranda.pdf\">federal judge ruled</a> that the NYPD engaged in unconstitutional behavior under the policy, Bloomberg claimed the judge &quot;ignored the real-world realities of crime&quot; and that the city did not get a fair trial. &quot;You&rsquo;re not going to see any change in tactics overnight,&quot; he <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/13/nyregion/stop-and-frisk-practice-violated-rights-judge-rules.html\">told the New York Times</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg has defended it in <a href=\"https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-news/michael-bloomberg-isnt-afraid-of-the-nra-83455/\">one way</a> or <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/11/us/politics/bloomberg-stop-and-frisk.html\">another</a> over the years and was still backing the policy in <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/22/politics/bloomberg-stop-and-frisk/index.html\">January 2019</a>, saying it led to a decline in New York Cirty&rsquo;s murder rate. (Those numbers have <a href=\"https://eji.org/news/new-york-crime-falls-as-police-end-stop-and-frisk/\">continued to drop</a> even as the practice diminished.)</p>\n\n<p>We reached out to Bloomberg&rsquo;s campaign but did not hear back.</p>\n\n<p>He publicly renounced the policy for the first time a week before launching his presidential campaign in November 2019.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Over time, I&rsquo;ve come to understand something that I long struggled to admit to myself: I got something important wrong. I got something important really wrong,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_wj8hTM15I&amp;feature=youtu.be&amp;t=500\">Bloomberg said</a> Nov. 17 at a church in Brooklyn.</p>\n\n<p>He added: &quot;I didn&rsquo;t understand that back then the full impact that stops were having on the black and Latino communities ... I now see that we could and should have acted sooner and acted faster to cut the stops. I wish we had. I&rsquo;m sorry that we didn&rsquo;t. But, I can&rsquo;t change history. However, today, I want you to know that I realize back then I was wrong, and I&rsquo;m sorry.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>He apologized again on Feb. 11, 2020, after <a href=\"https://www.essence.com/news/bloomberg-campaign-stop-frisk-audio-apologizes/\">audio surfaced</a> from 2015 where Bloomberg can be heard saying one method to seize guns from male minorities is to &quot;throw them up against the wall and frisk them.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg said in a <a href=\"https://www.mikebloomberg.com/news/statement-from-mike-bloomberg\">statement</a> that he should have ended the policy faster and sooner. &quot;I regret that and I have apologized &mdash; and I have taken responsibility for taking too long to understand the impact it had on Black and Latino communities.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>In this June 17, 2012 photo, Rev. Al Sharpton, center, walks with thousands along Fifth Avenue, during a silent march to end the &quot;stop-and-frisk&quot; program in New York. (AP/Seth Wenig)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Stop-and-frisk data shows spike during Bloomberg&rsquo;s tenure</strong></div>\n\n<p>Bloomberg as a presidential candidate has tried to downplay his enforcement of the policy. His <a href=\"http://web.archive.org/web/20200219210427/https://www.mikebloomberg.com/news/statement-from-mike-bloomberg\">campaign website said</a> stops fell by 95% by the time he left office.</p>\n\n<p>That defense ignores the upswing in stops while he was mayor.</p>\n\n<p>The New York Civil Liberties Union compiled data using NYPD&rsquo;s annual reports and found that, in Bloomberg&rsquo;s first 10 years in office, stop-and-frisk numbers <a href=\"https://www.nyclu.org/en/press-releases/nyclu-analysis-reveals-nypd-street-stops-soar-600-over-course-bloomberg\">increased by 600%,</a> reaching a peak of nearly <a href=\"https://www.nyclu.org/en/stop-and-frisk-data\">686,000 stops in 2011</a>. Stops fell dramatically in 2013 to nearly 192,000.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/09/21/it-looks-like-rudy-giuliani-convinced-donald-trump-that-stop-and-frisk-actually-works/\">Some data</a> also show that stop and frisk may not have had a significant impact, as crime was beginning to drop in New York before the policy was implemented. It <a href=\"https://eji.org/news/new-york-crime-falls-as-police-end-stop-and-frisk/\">continued to decline</a> after the practice dwindled.</p>\n\n<p>An <a href=\"https://crim.sas.upenn.edu/fact-check/does-stop-and-frisk-reduce-crime\">analysis</a> by the University of Pennsylvania&rsquo;s Criminology Department found that deploying more police officers to high-crime areas in New York reduced crime by as much as 15%, but the additional use of stop and frisk &quot;made almost no difference.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The stops only had a detectable impact on crime when the stops were based on probable cause, and these kinds of stops were very rare,&quot; the report said.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Is stop and frisk unconstitutional?</strong></div>\n\n<p>Other candidates vying for the Democratic presidential nomination are calling out Bloomberg for his handling of stop and frisk, calling the policy <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/17/us/politics/nevada-bloomberg-sanders-biden-trump.html\">racist</a> and <a href=\"https://twitter.com/TPMLiveWire/status/1229165974303236099\">unconstitutional</a>.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;As for what Michael Bloomberg did &mdash; stop and frisk &mdash; that is unconstitutional,&quot; Sen. Amy Klobuchar <a href=\"https://www.cbsnews.com/news/transcript-amy-klobuchar-on-face-the-nation-february-16-2020/\">said</a> on &quot;Face the Nation&quot; Feb. 16.</p>\n\n<p>There&rsquo;s more nuance needed for Klobuchar&rsquo;s broad label.</p>\n\n<p>A federal judge in 2013 found that the way the NYPD was carrying out its policy was unconstitutional, but the judge didn&rsquo;t say that stop and frisk as a general policy was unconstitutional.</p>\n\n<p>Judge Shira Scheindlin <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2016/sep/28/donald-trump/debate-donald-trump-says-stop-and-frisk-constituti/\">found</a> the city had been conducting unconstitutional stops and frisks on two grounds: Officers were stopping and frisking people without reasonable suspicion, in violation of a 1968 Supreme Court case, <em>Terry vs. Ohio</em>,<em> </em>and the Fourth Amendment; and a disproportionate number of those stopped and frisked were minorities, in violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact looked into the constitutionality of the stop-and-frisk policy back in 2016, when then-candidate Donald Trump defended it during a presidential debate. Trump&rsquo;s defense of the policy back then put him in line with Bloomberg&rsquo;s past position. We rated that Trump claim <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2016/sep/28/donald-trump/debate-donald-trump-says-stop-and-frisk-constituti/\">Mostly False</a>.</p>\n\n<p>In the ruling, Scheindlin <a href=\"https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/750446/stop-and-frisk-memoranda.pdf\">wrote</a> that the NYPD engaged in &quot;indirect racial profiling,&quot; leading officers to routinely stop &quot;blacks and Hispanics who would not have been stopped if they were white.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Scheindlin said the NYPD could do stops and frisks as long as it made some changes to its practices. Stop and frisk continues in New York City, though it has largely diminished.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-19T16:45:18-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "trump-attack-former-stone-prosecutors-ignores-crit",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "william-barr",
                    "full_name": "William Barr",
                    "first_name": "William",
                    "last_name": "Barr"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "roger-stone",
                    "full_name": "Roger Stone",
                    "first_name": "Roger",
                    "last_name": "Stone"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Trump attack on former Stone prosecutors ignores critical facts",
            "entry": "<p>President Donald Trump has been tweeting zealously about the trial of longtime friend Roger Stone, who was convicted of several charges and is scheduled for sentencing Feb. 20.</p>\n\n<p>The president has&nbsp;<a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227122206783811585\">condemned</a> <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227109357726445568\">Stone&rsquo;s situation</a>, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1229752039040782336\">called for</a> <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1229756038469079040\">a new trial</a>, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227939838751657984\">accused a juror of bias</a>, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227408775855976449\">blasted the judge</a> on the case and <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227561237782855680\">praised Attorney General William Barr</a> for his handling of it.</p>\n\n<p>He has <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1229756032693473280\">also</a> <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227423392078409728\">attacked</a> the four prosecutors who withdrew from the case after the Justice Department stepped in to scale back the seven-to-nine-year sentence they recommended.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Who are the four prosecutors (Mueller people?) who cut and ran after being exposed for recommending a ridiculous 9 year prison sentence to a man that got caught up in an investigation that was illegal, the Mueller Scam, and shouldn&rsquo;t ever even have started?&quot; Trump wrote <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227423392078409728\">Feb. 11</a>.</p>\n\n<p>See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>The tweet muddles many facts. The Justice Department&rsquo;s inspector general concluded that the Russia probe led by former special counsel Robert Mueller was <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/dec/11/william-barr/barr-disputes-inspector-generals-report/\">justified</a>, and <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2017/jun/26/donald-trump/trump-wrongly-calls-muellers-special-counsel-clint/\">two</a> of the four lawyers who quit the Stone case were on <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/mar/21/donald-trump/fact-checking-donald-trumps-claims-about-Mueller/\">Mueller&rsquo;s team</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Additionally, the prosecutors were not &quot;exposed&quot; in the sense that they were caught red-handed or hiding something, since they filed their sentencing recommendation in a public court memo.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>And while Trump may think the sentencing recommendation was &quot;ridiculous,&quot; it fell within the federal sentencing guidelines for Stone&rsquo;s offense.</p>\n\n<p>The White House did not respond to a request for comment.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What you need to know about Stone&rsquo;s case</div>\n\n<p>Stone was <a href=\"https://www.factcheck.org/2020/02/roger-stones-crimes/\">convicted</a> in November for witness tampering, lying to Congress and obstructing a congressional investigation after a jury found him guilty of seven counts related to his 2017 House testimony and efforts to access hacked Democratic emails ahead of the 2016 election.</p>\n\n<p>On Feb. 10, the Justice Department&rsquo;s prosecutors <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.279.0_5.pdf\">filed a sentencing memo</a> in court recommending that Stone serve a prison term lasting between 87 and 108 months, or 7.25 and 9 years. Trump sounded off on Twitter, calling the recommendation <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227109357726445568\">&quot;disgraceful&quot;</a> and a <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1227122206783811585\">&quot;miscarriage of justice.&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p>See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>On Feb. 11, a senior Justice Department official <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/justice-dept-to-reduce-sentencing-recommendation-for-trump-associate-roger-stone-official-says-after-president-calls-it-unfair/2020/02/11/ad81fd36-4cf0-11ea-bf44-f5043eb3918a_story.html\">told reporters</a> the department was &quot;shocked&quot; by the recommendation and found it &quot;extreme and excessive and grossly disproportionate to Stone&#39;s offenses.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In a rare move, the department submitted a <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.286.0_9.pdf\">new memo</a> undercutting the original recommendation and asking the court to sentence Stone to a shorter, unspecified term in prison.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED: <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/feb/19/ask-politifact-can-president-intervene-federal-cri/\">Can the president intervene in a federal criminal case?</a></em></strong></p>\n\n<p>The development spurred concerns that Barr was letting Trump guide his decision-making, which Barr and the <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/11/us/politics/roger-stone-sentencing.html\">Justice Department</a> have <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/barr-blasts-trumps-tweets-stone-case-impossible-job/story?id=68963276\">denied</a>. Thousands of former Justice Department attorneys signed a <a href=\"https://medium.com/@dojalumni/doj-alumni-statement-on-the-events-surrounding-the-sentencing-of-roger-stone-c2cb75ae4937\">letter</a> calling for Barr to resign.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Prosecutors&rsquo; actions were not taken in secret</div>\n\n<p>In the aftermath of the Justice Department&rsquo;s intervention, four <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/11/us/politics/roger-stone-federal-prosecutors.html\">career prosecutors</a> on Stone&rsquo;s case &mdash; <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.282.0_7.pdf\">Aaron Zelinsky</a>, <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.283.0_8.pdf\">Jonathan Kravis</a>, <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.285.0_12.pdf\">Adam Jed</a> and <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.287.0_17.pdf\">Michael Marando</a> &mdash; filed notices to withdraw from it. Kravis resigned from the Justice Department entirely.</p>\n\n<p>We were unable to reach Kravis and Jed, and Zelinsky and Marando declined to comment.</p>\n\n<p>Regardless of their motivations for withdrawing, it&rsquo;s misleading for Trump to say they &quot;cut and ran&quot; and were &quot;exposed&quot; for proposing a seven-to-nine-year sentence for Stone.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>There was <a href=\"https://apnews.com/da2b132d335daf00e292aa6c8b873940\">nothing secret</a> about their sentencing request, which was submitted in a <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.279.0_5.pdf\">public court filing</a> that all four attorneys signed.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Sentencing recommendation was within guidelines</div>\n\n<p>Trump called the recommended prison sentence &quot;ridiculous,&quot; and other conservative commentators have said the seven-to-nine-year penalty is more fitting of a violent offender.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But legal experts told us that federal prosecutors often recommend sentences for nonviolent criminals that are within federal sentencing guidelines but may seem extreme to outsiders.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There are thousands of cases where the recommended sentencing range under the guidelines would produce a sentence that most reasonable people would think is excessively long, but DOJ routinely asks for those guidelines sentences to be imposed,&quot; said Rachel Barkow, professor of law and policy at New York University Law.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>When a person is sentenced in federal court, <a href=\"https://www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/research-and-publications/research-projects-and-surveys/miscellaneous/201811_fed-sentencing-basics.pdf\">two factors</a> come into play: The punishment allowed under the law in question, and the U.S. Sentencing Commission&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/about/overview/Overview_Federal_Sentencing_Guidelines.pdf\">Federal Sentencing Guidelines</a>. Judges ultimately decide which punishments to hand down.</p>\n\n<p>The maximum and minimum punishments written into any law are binding, but since 2005, the federal sentencing guidelines have been considered advisory, rather than mandatory.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The Supreme Court <a href=\"https://www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/about/overview/Overview_Federal_Sentencing_Guidelines.pdf\">ruled</a> at that time that federal district courts, &quot;while not bound to apply the guidelines, must consult those guidelines and take them into account when sentencing.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>In Stone&rsquo;s case, obstruction of a congressional investigation and lying to Congress each provide for prison sentences of up to five years, while witness tampering provides for up to 20 years. Stone had no criminal history and decided to proceed with a trial rather than plead guilty.</p>\n\n<p>Following the federal sentencing guidelines, which use a point system to calculate an offense level and the corresponding sentencing range, the prosecutors in Stone&rsquo;s case <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.279.0_5.pdf\">calculated</a> that the longtime Trump ally deserved 87 to 108 months in jail.</p>\n\n<p>That recommendation relied on several &quot;enhancements&quot; that elevated Stone&rsquo;s punishment above the base level for his offenses because of the flagrant way in which he committed his crimes. Specifically, Stone threatened a witness&rsquo;s life and dog, posted a <a href=\"https://twitter.com/jonswaine/status/1097574608692264961?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1097574608692264961&amp;ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2019%2F02%2F19%2Fus%2Froger-stone-instagram-judge.html\">photo</a> of the judge with crosshairs beside her head, and repeatedly defied judges&rsquo; orders.</p>\n\n<p>Stone&rsquo;s defense argued against the threat-related enhancement because the witness testified that he didn&rsquo;t take Stone&rsquo;s threats seriously. Prosecutors rebutted that &quot;it is the threat itself, not the likelihood of carrying out the threat, that triggers the enhancement.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Legal experts said the prosecutors were not misguided in their original assessment. Stanford Law School professor Robert Weisberg told us the requested sentencing was &quot;harsh but not ridiculous,&quot; and Georgetown Law professor Rosa Brooks said it was &quot;entirely reasonable.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The recommended sentence was consistent with the sentencing guidelines,&quot; Barkow said.</p>\n\n<p>Even the Justice Department&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583/gov.uscourts.dcd.203583.286.0_9.pdf#page=2\">second memo</a> overruling the initial sentencing request acknowledged that the original recommendation was &quot;perhaps technically applicable.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There were a couple of arguable aspects in the government&rsquo;s calculation of the range in this case, but I don&rsquo;t think anything so patently unreasonable as to qualify as &lsquo;ridiculous,&rsquo;&quot; said Michael O&rsquo;Hear, professor of law at Marquette University Law School and an expert in criminal procedure and sentencing.</p>\n\n<p>Federal judges sentence below the guidelines range in <a href=\"https://www.ussc.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/research-and-publications/annual-reports-and-sourcebooks/2018/Table29.pdf\">nearly half of all cases</a>, O&rsquo;Hear said. But these lesser sentences typically occur when defendants plead guilty or are especially cooperative and helpful with the government&rsquo;s other investigations.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Since Stone did neither of these things, there was nothing extraordinary about the government&rsquo;s initial request that Stone be sentenced within the guideline range,&quot; O&rsquo;Hear said.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;If the Department of Justice now takes the position that sentences of 87-108 months are excessive in cases that do not involve serious violent crime, then the department will have to reconsider its recommendations in many more cases than just Stone&rsquo;s,&quot; he added.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-19T15:51:41-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "ask-politifact-can-president-intervene-federal-cri",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "william-barr",
                    "full_name": "William Barr",
                    "first_name": "William",
                    "last_name": "Barr"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Ask PolitiFact: Can the president intervene in a federal criminal case?",
            "entry": "<p>After President Donald Trump complained about the Justice Department&rsquo;s proposed seven-to-nine year sentence for longtime Trump ally Roger Stone, the department reduced the sentence it was proposing for Stone.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>This move alarmed Trump&rsquo;s critics, who perceived it as the president meddling in a criminal case &mdash; a breach of the usual arm&rsquo;s-length relationship on criminal cases between the White House and the Justice Department.</p>\n\n<p>With so much attention now focused on the Justice Department and its independence from politics, a PolitiFact reader asked us to take a closer look at how much influence the president is permitted to have on prosecutorial decisions at the Justice Department.</p>\n\n<p>It&rsquo;s actually a bit more nuanced than one would think from how the debate has played out so far, legal experts say. Trump does have the right to intervene &mdash; though within limits.</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>Do you have a question for us? Email us at <a href=\"mailto:[email protected]?subject=Ask%20PolitiFact\">[email protected]</a>, and we&rsquo;ll try to answer it. Put &quot;Ask PolitiFact&quot; in the subject line.</em></strong></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Roger Stone&rsquo;s sentencing</div>\n\n<p>The current controversy emerged after the initial Justice Department recommendation for Stone&rsquo;s sentencing was rescinded. Four prosecutors protested by withdrawing from the case. Meanwhile, hundreds of veterans of the Justice Department <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/16/us/politics/barr-trump-justice-department.html\">spoke out</a> in an open letter, calling for Attorney General William Barr to resign and <a href=\"https://medium.com/@dojalumni/doj-alumni-statement-on-the-events-surrounding-the-sentencing-of-roger-stone-c2cb75ae4937\">writing</a> that they &quot;strongly&quot; condemned Trump&rsquo;s and Barr&rsquo;s &quot;interference in the fair administration of justice.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Barr, meanwhile, sat for an <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/transcript-attorney-general-bill-barrs-exclusive-interview-abc/story?id=68975178\">ABC News interview</a> on Feb. 13 and <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2020/02/17/business/bc-us-fact-check-week.html\">urged</a> Trump to stop tweeting about Justice Department cases, saying it makes &quot;it impossible for me to do my job and to assure the courts and the prosecutors in the department that we&rsquo;re doing our work with integrity.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Trump responded in a <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/1228311415192215553\">tweet</a> that he has &quot;the legal right&quot; to intervene in cases handled by the Justice Department.</p>\n\n<p>Does he? Yes, within some limits.</p>\n\n<p>We asked Peter Zeidenberg, a partner at the law firm Arent Fox LLP who previously spent 17 years as a federal prosecutor, including in the Justice Department&rsquo;s public integrity section and in the U.S. Attorney&rsquo;s Office for the District of Columbia.</p>\n\n<p>He said the president &quot;has the legal right to ask the attorney general to intervene in a federal criminal case,&quot; though such actions are generally frowned upon.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There is strong precedent and custom that the Justice Department is meant to be apolitical and that it is unquestionably improper for the department to permit political considerations to affect its investigative, charging, or sentencing decisions,&quot; Zeidenberg said.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Presidential interventions: context matters</div>\n\n<p>Whether presidential involvement in a Justice Department case is allowed or prohibited depends heavily on the nature of the case.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The president has a constitutional duty to take care that the laws be faithfully executed,&quot; said Barbara L. McQuade, a University of Michigan law professor. &quot;It would be proper, for example, for a president to ask the attorney general to decline to file charges if it would interfere with a drone strike being planned by the Defense Department, or a treaty negotiation being conducted by the State Department.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>By contrast, actions that would benefit the president personally, or aid presidential friends and allies, would be problematic.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It would be improper for the president to ask the attorney general to investigate a political rival, or to be lenient on a friend or family member,&quot; McQuade said.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">The law on obstruction of justice</div>\n\n<p>The clearest barrier to presidential intervention in a case involves statutes against obstruction of justice.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Three elements are generally <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2019/mar/25/martha-stewart-donald-trump-can-there-be-obstructi/\">required</a> for a conviction on obstruction of justice: the existence of a pending federal judicial proceeding; the defendant&rsquo;s knowledge of the proceeding; and the defendant&rsquo;s corrupt intent to interfere with, or attempt to interfere with, the proceeding.</p>\n\n<p>Presumably, the president in this example would know about a pending federal proceeding. So the question would be whether the presidential action was undertaken with corrupt intent, said Robert Weisberg, director of the Stanford University Criminal Justice Center.</p>\n\n<p>However, even if a president&rsquo;s corrupt intent seemed clear, longstanding Justice Department guidelines would block the indictment of a sitting president. This would mean that the only immediate remedy is impeachment &mdash; a process that has already been tried against Trump. Trump has already been impeached, but the Senate voted against removing him.</p>\n\n<p>The attorney general would not have to obey an order they believed was improper, though if they didn&rsquo;t, they would risk being fired, said Vanderbilt University law professor Christopher Slobogin.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Norms and traditions</div>\n\n<p>So if there isn&rsquo;t much of a legal bar against presidential involvement in Justice Department decisions, why the outcry? It has to do with the erosion in longstanding norms and traditions.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The backlash to President Richard Nixon&rsquo;s efforts to influence law enforcement actions during the Watergate scandal led presidents of both parties to put more distance between themselves and the Justice Department.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Nixon was criticized for telling his attorney general to drop an antitrust prosecution of ITT, and his attorney general, Richard Kleindienst, actually pled guilty to lying to Congress about the affair,&quot; said James Robenalt, an attorney who teaches a course about Watergate.</p>\n\n<p>To affirm the separation, attorneys general have issued memos that set limits on the communications between the Justice Department and the White House.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>For instance, a memo released in <a href=\"https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/ag/legacy/2008/04/15/ag-121907.pdf\">2007</a> under President George W. Bush prefaced the policy by saying that communications on pending criminal and civil-enforcement matters &quot;must be limited&quot; to situations &quot;where it is important for the performance of the president&#39;s duties and where appropriate from a law enforcement perspective.&quot; The goal, the memo said, is to ensure that there is &quot;public confidence that the laws of the United States are administered and enforced in an impartial manner.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>A <a href=\"https://lawfare.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/staging/2017/2009%20Eric%20Holder%20memo.pdf\">2009</a> memo released under President Barack Obama used even stronger language to support the idea of distance between the White House and the Justice Department to ensure impartiality.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The rule of law depends upon the evenhanded administration of justice,&quot; the 2009 memo said. &quot;The legal judgments of the Department of Justice must be impartial and insulated from political influence. It is imperative that the department&#39;s investigatory and prosecutorial powers be exercised free from partisan consideration. It is a fundamental duty of every employee of the department to ensure that these principles are upheld in all of the department&#39;s legal endeavors.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The memo issued by the Trump administration in <a href=\"https://www.politico.com/f/?id=0000015a-dde8-d23c-a7ff-dfef4d530000\">2017</a> upheld the gist of the previous memos, but its prefacing language was more restrained.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;These rules exist to ensure both efficient execution of the administration&rsquo;s policies and the highest level of integrity with respect to civil or criminal enforcement proceedings handled by DOJ,&quot; the 2017 memo said. &quot;In order to ensure that DOJ exercises its investigatory and prosecutorial functions free from the fact or appearance of improper political influence, these rules must be strictly followed.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Ultimately, Zeidenberg said, interventions like Trump&rsquo;s &quot;infect&quot; the process and weaken public confidence in how the Justice Department comes to its decisions.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;But it is not, strictly speaking, illegal.&quot;</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-19T12:25:26-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "fact-checking-democratic-us-senate-debate-texas",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Fact-checking the Democratic U.S. Senate debate in Texas",
            "entry": "<p>As Texas voters took to the polls on Tuesday, the first day of early voting in the state&rsquo;s March 3 primary, all but one of the Democratic candidates running for the U.S. Senate participated in their second debate of the race.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The debate featured 11 candidates, each hoping to be the one voters choose to challenge Republican Sen. John Cornyn in the general election: Chris Bell, Michael Cooper, Amanda Edwards, Jack Daniel Foster Jr., Annie &quot;Mam&aacute;&quot; Garcia, Victor Hugo Harris, MJ Hegar, Sema Hernandez, Adrian Ocegueda, Cristina Tzinzt&uacute;n Ramirez and Royce West.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The 90-minute debate featured questions targeted to each candidate, with an emphasis on those with the<a href=\"https://www.texastribune.org/2020/02/17/mj-hegar-leads-democratic-us-senate-candidates-texas-poll-finds/\"> highest recent polling numbers</a>: Hegar, Tzinzt&uacute;n Ramirez, Bell, Edwards and West. Even these candidates, however, are widely unknown &mdash; a recent University of Texas/Texas Tribune Poll found that most voters hadn&rsquo;t heard of any of the candidates in the race.</p>\n\n<p>Responses during Tuesday&rsquo;s debate were limited to 45 or 30 seconds, but candidates still found time to make claims to check.</p>\n\n<p>Here are a few statements from the debate, in context:&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Royce West: &quot;When you began to think about our federal prison system, some 2.3 million people incarcerated at a cost of about $31,000 per year&hellip;&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>When moderators asked each candidate to identify an action President Donald Trump has taken that they support, West, a state senator from Dallas, pointed to the Republican&rsquo;s actions on criminal justice reform.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;When you began to think about our federal prison system &mdash; some 2.3 million people incarcerated at a cost of about $31,000 per year &mdash;the First Step Act was an act that was a step in the right direction, but there&rsquo;s still more to do.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>West&rsquo;s statement needs clarification.</p>\n\n<p>The latest federal figures on &quot;correctional populations in the United States&quot; are available in a <a href=\"https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus16.pdf\">2018 report from the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics</a> examining 2016 figures. In 2016, the incarcerated population in the United States was more than 2.16 million</p>\n\n<p>But not all of those individuals are in the federal prison system, as West said. The same report shows that, at the end of 2016, there were 188,300 people in federal prisons, 1,228,800 in state prisons and 740,700 in local jails.</p>\n\n<p>In terms of cost, <a href=\"https://www.vera.org/publications/price-of-prisons-2015-state-spending-trends/price-of-prisons-2015-state-spending-trends/price-of-prisons-2015-state-spending-trends-prison-spending\">a 2015 estimate on prison spending from the Vera Institute of Justice</a> found that, on average, the annual cost per inmate in the United States was $33,274, for a grand total of more than $42.8 billion annually.</p>\n\n<p>In Texas, the average annual cost per inmate was estimated at $22,012 in 2015.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Jack Daniel Foster Jr.: &quot;Ten to 15 counties in the state of Texas are urban; the rest are rural.&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>Foster, who teaches GED classes to state prison inmates in Dayton, said his Democratic opponents are too focused on representing issues of interest to urban voters and don&rsquo;t focus enough on the needs of voters in rural communities.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Ten to 15 counties in the state of Texas are urban; the rest are rural,&quot; he said. &quot;Most of our candidates are out of touch with rural counties.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Of the state&rsquo;s 254 counties, 34 counties are members of the<a href=\"https://cuc.org/\"> Texas Conference of Urban Counties</a>. Counties are eligible to join the conference if they have a population of 100,000 people or more or are part of an urban cluster with neighboring counties.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The 34 counties in the organization contain 79% of the state&rsquo;s population, according to the group.</p>\n\n<p>The <a href=\"https://www.dshs.texas.gov/chs/hprc/counties.shtm\">Texas Department of State Health Services</a> uses &quot;non-metropolitan and metropolitan&quot; classifications from the U.S. Office of Budget and Management interchangeably with &quot;rural and urban,&quot; and says Texas has 82 urban counties and 172 rural counties.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Chris Bell: &quot;When you mention failed campaigns, I&rsquo;m really in pretty good company there: Abraham Lincoln, Ronald Reagan, Bernie Sanders, Sheila Jackson Lee&hellip;&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>Moderators asked Bell: &quot;You&rsquo;re running on your experience, but that experience only includes two years in Congress and a series of failed campaigns. If voters are looking for experience, why should they select you over someone like state Sen. Royce West?&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Before entering the Senate race, Bell ran for elected office numerous times at the city, state and federal level.</p>\n\n<p>Bell served on the Houston City Council from 1997 but lost a bid to be mayor of Houston in 2001. The following year, he was elected to the U.S. House, where he served one term. He was defeated in his re-election bid by Rep. Al Green.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In 2006, he was the Democratic nominee in the Texas governor&rsquo;s race and lost the general election to Republican Rick Perry. In 2015, he ran for Houston mayor again but was unsuccessful.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>What about the politicians Bell named? Did they lose races during their political careers?&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><em>Abraham Lincoln: </em>Before being elected president in 1860, Lincoln ran for a seat in the Illinois state legislature, Congress and the U.S. Senate, according to an <a href=\"https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/abraham-lincoln-failure/\">account of his election history from Snopes</a>. He lost his campaign for a seat in the statehouse in 1832 and then won election there two years later.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>While serving in the legislature, he ran two unsuccessful campaigns to be speaker of the Illinois House of Representatives. Lincoln served one term as a congressman from Illinois, following the Whig Party practice of the time of not seeking re-election.</p>\n\n<p>Lincoln also expressed interest in serving in the U.S. Senate, which at the time were positions appointed by the Illinois state legislature.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Lincoln withdrew from consideration for a Senate seat in 1854 after the process was deadlocked and he didn&rsquo;t receive a majority of votes. In 1858, when he was again interested in a Senate seat, his party did not gain control of the state legislature and he was not appointed.</p>\n\n<p><em>Ronald Reagan: </em>Reagan served as governor in California before he was elected president in 1980, but his winning campaign wasn&rsquo;t his first bid for the White House.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Reagan first sought his party&rsquo;s nomination for the presidency in 1968, but Richard Nixon secured the nomination. In 1976, Reagan lost the nomination to Gerald Ford.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><em>Bernie Sanders:</em> <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jan/15/elizabeth-warren/democratic-debates-biggest-electoral-losers-number/\">PolitiFact looked at the election history</a> of Democratic presidential nominees in January, including Vermont&rsquo;s senator. Sanders has lost seven elections during his political career, including campaigns for governor of Vermont and seats in Congress.</p>\n\n<p><em>Sheila Jackson Lee: </em>The U.S. representative has represented Texas&rsquo; 18th Congressional District since the 1995 election, which came after years of service at the city level and some unsuccessful election bids.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"http://www.sheilajacksonlee18.com/wordpress/bio/early-career/\">On her campaign website</a>, Jackson Lee&rsquo;s biography glosses over these early losses: &quot;In 1983, Jackson Lee chose to pursue elected office to become Harris County judge. After several close races, she was appointed to the City of Houston Municipal Court to serve as judge in 1987.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Annie &quot;Mam&aacute;&quot; Garcia: &quot;In this country, we are such an outlier compared to any other country in the world. We have more people that die at the end of a barrel every week than most countries experience in an entire year.&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact has examined a number of similar claims.</p>\n\n<p>As a presidential candidate, Democrat Beto O&rsquo;Rourke said that &quot;no other country comes even close to&quot; the number of people who die due to gun violence in the United states. <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/aug/02/beto-orourke/are-there-more-gun-deaths-united-states-any-other-/\">We rated that Claim Mostly False</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Studies show that the United States experiences more firearm injury deaths than other countries, but only countries of <a href=\"https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343%2815%2901030-X/fulltext#tbl4\">similar socioeconomic standing</a>. Garcia&rsquo;s claim, like O&rsquo;Rourke&rsquo;s remark, was about &quot;any other country in the world.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>A study of <a href=\"https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2698492\">worldwide firearm deaths in 2016</a> shows that Brazil experienced more firearm injury deaths, and <a href=\"https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/theres-a-new-global-ranking-of-gun-deaths-heres-where-the-u-s-stands\">a separate analysis</a> of the study found that more than a dozen countries had more firearm deaths per capita than the United States.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Cristina Tzinzt&uacute;n Ramirez: &quot;When LBJ was our president, the highest income bracket in this country paid 70%. Today it is just 37%.&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>Tzinzt&uacute;n Ramirez&rsquo;s statement about the current tax rate for the highest income bracket, <a href=\"https://taxfoundation.org/2019-tax-brackets/\">based on 2019 figures</a>. The 37% rate is for people with taxable income higher than $510,300 for single filers and $612,350 for married couples.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>What about under President Lyndon B. Johnson?</p>\n\n<p>When Johnson took office in 1963, the tax rate for the highest income bracket was at 91% for people with taxable income higher than $300,000, or $400,000 for married couples, according to historical figures from the <a href=\"https://files.taxfoundation.org/legacy/docs/fed_individual_rate_history_nominal.pdf\">Tax Foundation.</a></p>\n\n<p>In 1964, the rate was 77%. Then the rate for the highest income bracket fell to 70%, where it stayed for the remainder of Johnson&rsquo;s presidency.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The rate stayed at 70% until 1982, when it dropped to 50% for the highest income bracket. It fell to 38.5% in 1987 and has fluctuated in the intervening years.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-19T11:09:13-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "housing-health-care-homelessness-after-year-where-",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "gavin-newsom",
                    "full_name": "Gavin Newsom",
                    "first_name": "Gavin",
                    "last_name": "Newsom"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "antonio-villaraigosa",
                    "full_name": "Antonio  Villaraigosa",
                    "first_name": "Antonio ",
                    "last_name": "Villaraigosa"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Housing, Health Care, Homelessness: After A Year, Where Does Gavin Newsom Stand On His Key Promises",
            "entry": "<p>On the campaign trail, Gavin Newsom made bold promises: He would boost California&rsquo;s housing supply by millions of units, solve the state&rsquo;s homelessness crisis and create universal health care financed through a single-payer system.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>After one year as governor, PolitiFact California found Newsom has taken significant initial action through executive orders, record financial investments and pushing through new laws. But on homelessness and housing especially, the on-the-ground results have been limited at best.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>And some promises already have been scaled back: Late last year, Newsom stepped back from his ambitious pledge about building 3.5 million new housing units by 2025.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Political observers say the governor may have promised too much and is learning he can&rsquo;t accomplish his goals as quickly as he&rsquo;d like.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I think that Gov. Newsom made an error &mdash; an error that all politicians make when they come to office &mdash; in promising so much,&quot; said Sherry Bebich Jeffe, a political analyst and retired professor of public policy at USC.</p>\n\n<p>Robin Swanson, Democratic political consultant, added: &quot;When you&rsquo;re governing a state of 40 million people, essentially a nation state that is California, change takes a little longer.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact California is tracking the governor&rsquo;s promises through our <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2019/jan/03/introducing-politifact-californias-newsom-meter-tr/\">Newsom-Meter project</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The Democrat and former San Francisco mayor has long-defended his decision to make bold promises.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I&rsquo;d rather be accused of (having) those audacious stretch goals than be accused of timidity,&quot; Newsom <a href=\"https://calmatters.org/articles/gavin-newsom-profile-california-governor-election/\">told CALmatters</a> in October 2018. &quot;Because I just don&rsquo;t think the world demands timidity.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>A &lsquo;Disconnect&rsquo; On Governor&rsquo;s Housing Promise</strong></p>\n\n<p>During his campaign, Newsom pledged to &quot;lead the effort to develop 3.5 million new housing units&quot; by 2025 to address the state&rsquo;s affordability crisis. That would mean quadrupling the <a href=\"https://growthzonesitesprod.azureedge.net/wp-content/uploads/sites/833/2020/02/Housing-Production-in-California-2005-2019.pdf\">state&rsquo;s annual pace of home construction</a> over the past decade. Newsom listed it on his <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20181104000238/https://gavinnewsom.com/housing\">campaign website</a> as one of the many items that &quot;As Governor, Gavin will&quot; accomplish.</p>\n\n<p>But in his first year, rather than soaring, statewide home production dropped 7 percent to 110,000 units, according to <a href=\"https://www.cirbreport.org/2019-housing-shortage/\">figures from the California Building Industry Association</a>. It was the first decline in a decade.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>This lack of progress represents the biggest disconnect between what Newsom promised and what he&rsquo;s achieved so far, said Wesley Hussey, associate professor of political science at Sacramento State.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Even the governor has admitted now, the 3.5 million new housing units is not a number that we&rsquo;re going to remotely have by the day he promised [in 2025],&quot; Hussey said.</p>\n\n<p>He also questioned whether Newsom was sufficiently prioritizing new housing above all else.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>During the debate the last two years over Senate Bill 50, legislation that supporters say would have dramatically increased the state&rsquo;s housing supply, Newsom offered &quot;very vague statements&quot; of support, Hussey said.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;He was not willing to take a bold stand and back it up,&quot; he added.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The &quot;upzoning&quot; bill would have required local governments to allow apartments and other high-density housing near job and transit centers, but it failed in the Legislature each of the past two years.</p>\n\n<p>Despite the slight drop in housing production, Newsom has clearly taken steps to try to achieve his goal.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>His first budget invested nearly $2 billion to spur cities and counties to plan and build more housing, including affordable homes. Notably, it included $500 million to expand the state&rsquo;s low-income housing tax credit, up from $85 million.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>During his campaign, Newsom pledged to greatly expand that credit, which is considered California&#39;s largest source of funding for affordable housing and has followed through on that campaign promise.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Swanson, the Democratic political consultant, said voters will hold Newsom accountable for his promises, but not until his first term is over.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;He&rsquo;s just out of the starting blocks,&quot; she said. &quot;And he did set a really ambitious agenda, and so we&rsquo;ll see what that follow-through looks like [after] four years. But I think there&rsquo;s definitely still a sense of optimism.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Solving Homelessness</strong></p>\n\n<p>During his first year as governor, Newsom took major steps to tackle California&rsquo;s increasingly visible homelessness crisis. He approved <a href=\"http://www.capradio.org/articles/2019/05/09/california-gov-gavin-newsom-proposes-213-billion-budget-including-1-billion-for-homelessness-and-increased-rainy-day-reserves/\">$1 billion in his first budget</a> to help cities build emergency shelters and <a href=\"https://www.gov.ca.gov/2019/09/26/building-off-historic-investment-action-to-help-cities-and-counties-tackle-homelessness-governor-newsom-signs-series-of-bills-addressing-homelessness/\">signed 13 bills</a> last fall, many to speed up shelter construction.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In January, he ordered state agencies to find government property and land as a way to get people off the streets. He also proposed a <a href=\"http://www.capradio.org/articles/2020/01/08/a-real-emergency-newsom-issues-executive-order-to-use-state-land-travel-trailers-hospitals-for-california-homeless-crisis\">new $750 million fund</a> to pay for rent and build housing for homeless people, along with another nearly $700 million to address health needs for the state&rsquo;s chronically homeless residents.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;These kind of commitments, we&rsquo;ve never seen before in state government,&quot; Chris Martin, a legislative advocate on homelessness at the nonprofit Housing California, said in January. &quot;He came in and really made an impact right away.</p>\n\n<p>But even with the early efforts, Californians are growing more concerned about the issue.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>A Public Policy Institute of California <a href=\"https://www.ppic.org/publication/ppic-statewide-survey-californians-and-their-government-september-2019/\">survey</a> in October found 15 percent of state residents cited homelessness as the biggest problem, tied with the economy for the top overall. It was the first time homelessness has ever been ranked at the top in more than two decades of PPIC surveys.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In the year before Newsom took office, California&rsquo;s homeless population jumped 16 percent to 151,278 people, according to a <a href=\"https://files.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/2019-AHAR-Part-1.pdf\">report</a> released last month by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. During the same period, January 2018 to January 2019, the nation&rsquo;s total increased just 3 percent. Figures showing how the numbers have changed during the governor&rsquo;s first year in office have yet to be released.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>While advocates for homeless people are encouraged by the governor&rsquo;s commitment, others say Newsom over-promised when he said he could solve the issue.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I don&rsquo;t see the problem as&nbsp;solvable,&quot; said Jeffe, the retired USC professor. &quot;It ought not to have been portrayed as solvable. It will follow the governor both in terms of policy and politics.&quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Newsom has made progress on several specific promises on homelessness, such as expanding health care and housing services for those without a permanent home.</p>\n\n<p>But he&rsquo;s yet to take action on his pledge to appoint a cabinet-level homelessness czar. Last fall, we rated that promise as<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/california/promises/newsom-meter/promise/1458/appoint-state-homelessness-secretary/\"> &lsquo;Stalled</a>.&rsquo; Newsom said at a news conference in January: &quot;You want to know who the homeless czar is? I&rsquo;m the homeless czar in the state of California.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Health Care</strong></p>\n\n<p>Newsom&rsquo;s promise to create universal health care &quot;financed through a single-payer model like Medicare,&quot; as his <a href=\"https://web.archive.org/web/20181023165730/https://gavinnewsom.com/california_values\">campaign website</a> reads, was as ambitious as any pledge.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>He&rsquo;s made some progress expanding health care access. In July, Newsom <a href=\"http://www.capradio.org/articles/2019/07/09/california-becomes-first-in-nation-to-expand-medicaid-to-undocumented-young-adults/\">signed a law</a> expanding Medi-Cal to income-eligible undocumented adults up to age 26, making it the first state in the nation to cover this group. The state expects to spend $98 million on the expansion and estimates 138,000 young adults will become insured.</p>\n\n<p>Newsom has won praise for the moves.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Our communities will be healthier and more families will be able to thrive thanks to these expansions of access and affordability in California,&quot; said Anthony Wright, director of advocacy group Health Access, in a statement last month.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Dan Schnur, a longtime Republican political strategist, said Newsom started making the single-payer pledge a longer-term prospect even during his campaign.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Then-candidate Newsom cautioned it won&rsquo;t happen anytime soon, given that it would require federal approval from President Trump, who doesn&rsquo;t support it.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In December, Newsom <a href=\"https://www.gov.ca.gov/2019/12/18/governor-newsom-announces-healthy-california-for-all-commission/\">announced</a> the creation of a task force to explore creating a statewide universal health care plan. It would be paid for &quot;through a unified financing system, including but not limited to a single payer financing system,&quot; according to a news release from the governor&rsquo;s office.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Schnur said a single-payer system is &quot;not happening anytime soon.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Mike Madrid is a political consultant who typically works with Republicans, though he advised Democrat and former Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa during his run for governor against Newsom.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Madrid said he&rsquo;s skeptical that Democrats will truly hold Newsom accountable for some of his bigger promises, especially on creating a single-payer healthcare system.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It&rsquo;s like Donald Trump and building a wall,&quot; Madrid said, citing the president&rsquo;s signature campaign promise. &quot;You know that it&rsquo;s not going to get done and Mexico is not going to pay for it. But if you are a hardcore right-wing Republican, you enjoy being lied to. You enjoy the fantasy of it because you want that partisan, ideological warrior of your stripe advocating for you and bringing that perspective.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It&rsquo;s really the same thing with single-payer and Democrats. And that&rsquo;s what Gavin Newsom was playing into,&quot; Madrid added.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-18T17:57:11-05:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "bloomberg-registered-democrat-he-accepted-one",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "michael-bloomberg",
                    "full_name": "Michael Bloomberg",
                    "first_name": "Michael",
                    "last_name": "Bloomberg"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "rudy-giuliani",
                    "full_name": "Rudy Giuliani",
                    "first_name": "Rudy",
                    "last_name": "Giuliani"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "mark-pocan",
                    "full_name": "Mark Pocan",
                    "first_name": "Mark",
                    "last_name": "Pocan"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "bernie-sanders",
                    "full_name": "Bernie Sanders",
                    "first_name": "Bernie",
                    "last_name": "Sanders"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Bloomberg is registered as a Democrat, but is he accepted as one?",
            "entry": "<p>Michael Bloomberg is a leading contender for the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination despite being first elected mayor of New York as a Republican, and later switching his party affiliation to independent.</p>\n\n<p>Indeed, he <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/10/nyregion/michael-bloomberg-democrat-president.html\">announced</a> his re-registration as a Democrat only in October 2019 &mdash; just weeks before unveiling his presidential bid.</p>\n\n<p>That history and the billionaire businessman&rsquo;s penchant for donating to Republicans has led to consternation among some Democrats who wonder whether Bloomberg is really one of them.</p>\n\n<p>So is he?</p>\n\n<p>&quot;He&rsquo;s never been as good a Democrat as Ronald Reagan was a Republican,&quot; Jim Frasier, former member of the Executive Committee of the Democratic National Committee, told PolitiFact. &quot;He&rsquo;s every bit as good a Democrat as Bernie Sanders is.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>In 1980, Reagan was elected president as a Republican, after having spent much of his early political life as a Democrat. In 2016, Sanders was runner-up for the Democratic presidential nomination, though he <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2016/feb/23/bernie-sanders-democrat/\">hasn&rsquo;t always identified</a> as a member of the party.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg&rsquo;s campaign didn&rsquo;t offer comment for this article. But in a June 2018 <a href=\"https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2018-06-20/michael-bloomberg-why-i-m-supporting-democrats-in-2018-midterms\">column</a>, Bloomberg explained why he was supporting Democrats in their attempts to win control of the U.S. House of Representatives that year.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I&rsquo;ve never much liked political parties,&quot; Bloomberg wrote. &quot;I&rsquo;ve always believed that we should put country before party. Too many politicians practice the reverse, with terrible consequences for the American people.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg, who turned 78 on Feb. 14, said in announcing his re-registration that he has been a Democrat most of his life. But he moved to the GOP in 2001, when he ran to succeed Republican Rudy Giuliani as New York&rsquo;s mayor, the first of his three successful campaigns. About midway into his 12-year tenure, in 2007, he <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129282092\">became</a> an independent.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg&rsquo;s form of bipartisanship, seen by some as a <a href=\"https://www.politico.com/news/2019/11/26/bloomberg-republican-endorsement-2020-073807\">pattern of contradictions</a>, can be confusing:&nbsp;</p>\n\n<ul>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>On <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129282092\">one</a> day in 2010, Bloomberg gave speeches for Washington, D.C.&rsquo;s Democratic mayor and a Democrat running for U.S. Senate in Pennsylvania &mdash; and held a fundraiser for a Republican running for U.S. Senate in Delaware.&nbsp;</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>In 2016, he spoke for presidential nominee Hillary Clinton at the Democratic National Convention &mdash;&nbsp; but also spent millions to help re-elect U.S. Sen. Pat Toomey, a Pennsylvania Republican.</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>In 2018, he wrote the op-ed announcing he was supporting a Democratic takeover of the U.S. House. Eight days later he <a href=\"https://www.politico.com/news/2019/11/26/bloomberg-republican-endorsement-2020-073807\">held</a> a fundraiser for a Republican House member, Peter King of New York.</p>\n\t</li>\n</ul>\n\n<p>Bloomberg will have to answer questions about his GOP past and about supporting positions not backed by most Democrats, said U.S. Rep. Mark Pocan, a Democrat in the swing state of Wisconsin and <a href=\"https://cpc-grijalva.house.gov/caucus-members/\">co-chair</a> of the Congressional Progressive Caucus.</p>\n\n<p>Bloomberg addressed one such issue a week before announcing his bid, <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/17/us/politics/michael-bloomberg-speech.html\">apologizing</a> for his support as mayor of the New York Police Department&rsquo;s stop-and-frisk policy. It led to the disproportionate detentions of black and Latino people across the city.</p>\n\n<p>But despite such questions, Pocan, who is supporting Sanders, is open to unconventional Democrats.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I never try to exclude anyone,&quot; Pocan said in an interview. &quot;If they say they&rsquo;re a Democrat, they can show it with their values. And that&rsquo;s what primaries are for, for voters to make that determination.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;You can call yourself a member of the Hello Kitty party, right? You can say whatever affiliation you see yourself as,&quot; he added. &quot;But at the end of the day, if you talk about universal health care, you talk about college affordability, you talk about climate change, then you&rsquo;re talking about issues that Democrats care about, and that&rsquo;s what&rsquo;s going to make people vote for you.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>(On health care, Bloomberg <a href=\"https://www.mikebloomberg.com/policies/health-coverage-plan\">backs</a> building on Obamacare. He <a href=\"https://www.mikebloomberg.com/policies/education-college-access\">touts</a> his proposals to help low-income students go to college. And he <a href=\"https://www.mikebloomberg.com/policies/climate-change\">calls</a> climate change &quot;the greatest threat of our time.&quot;)</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The man is eminently qualified, certainly by today&rsquo;s standards, to be president of the United States,&quot; said <a href=\"https://www.frasierlaw.com/attorney/james-e-frasier/\">Frasier</a>, the former DNC member and a Tulsa lawyer who is supporting Biden. &quot;I&rsquo;m not offended by [Bloomberg&rsquo;s party switch] at all. It just raises my eyebrow of suspicion.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>On one stance, Frasier has no quibbles: Bloomberg&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.axios.com/mike-bloomberg-staff-general-election-democratic-nominee-8148b285-5108-4470-b8e4-577b3ca07a75.html\">pledge</a> to pay for nearly 500 staffers on his presidential campaign to continue working through November to support whoever wins the nomination.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;That is one hell of a promise,&quot; he said, &quot;and it makes my old jaws water.&quot;</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-02-18T09:15:17-05:00"
        }
    ]
}