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        {
            "slug": "how-states-are-enforcing-coronavirus-stay-home-ord",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "How states are enforcing coronavirus stay-at-home orders",
            "entry": "<p>Millions of Americans are staying home under the orders of state and local officials due to the coronavirus pandemic.</p>\n\n<p>Well, they&rsquo;re supposed to be. Without a federal lockdown policy, people who break state and local restrictions face a patchwork of penalties for their non-essential pursuits.</p>\n\n<p>The goal of stay-at-home policies is to slow the spread of the virus by restricting Americans to their most &quot;essential&quot; trips, such as groceries, medicine pick-up and medical treatment.</p>\n\n<p>Officials have said they expect voluntary compliance. But some are also imposing fines, charging and arresting people who authorities say are not following orders.</p>\n\n<p>So far, a pastor in Florida, a party host in New Jersey, and tobacco shops in California are among those facing charges or fines for challenging local orders.</p>\n\n<p>Given the mix of policies in place, we wanted to explain the scope of penalties and enforcement &mdash; and the potential constitutional challenges therein.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Summons, charges, arrests</strong></div>\n\n<p>In lieu of federal guidance, states are left to do what they think is best, with varying levels of severity and enforcement.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We&rsquo;re just trying to take the best advice we can from the scientists and all of the experts and making the decisions that we believe are necessary for our states,&quot; said Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan, a Republican who leads the National Governors Association, in a statement.</p>\n\n<p>At least 36 states, Washington, D.C. and the U.S. Virgin Islands had some form of a <a href=\"https://www.nga.org/coronavirus/#glance\">stay-at-home order</a>, as of April 1 (though some only apply to specific counties or specific age groups, or were only a guidance). Others have put caps on the number of people who can gather in one place or have restricted operations at restaurants, gyms, salons and entertainment venues.</p>\n\n<p>Hogan&rsquo;s stay-at-home <a href=\"https://governor.maryland.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Gatherings-FOURTH-AMENDED-3.30.20.pdf\">order</a> for Maryland says that people who violate the order are guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to one year in jail or a fine up to $5,000, or both. <a href=\"https://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/198-20/transcript-mayor-de-blasio-holds-media-availability-covid-19\">Other jurisdictions</a> have also warned that they&rsquo;ll levy fines for violations.</p>\n\n<p>Facing the highest number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, Gov. Andrew Cuomo&rsquo;s &quot;<a href=\"https://coronavirus.health.ny.gov/new-york-state-pause\">New York State on Pause</a>&quot; <a href=\"https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/no-2028-continuing-temporary-suspension-and-modification-laws-relating-disaster-emergency\">order</a> closed on March 22 all non-essential businesses statewide and told people to stay home unless they are workers providing <a href=\"https://esd.ny.gov/guidance-executive-order-2026\">essential services</a>. A penalty for people violating the order wasn&rsquo;t specified. But the governor has <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/20/politics/new-york-workforce-stay-home/index.html\">said</a> that businesses that do not comply will face a civil fine and mandatory closure.</p>\n\n<p>New York City is doing <a href=\"https://www1.nyc.gov/office-of-the-mayor/news/203-20/mayor-de-blasio-surges-supplies-resources-hospitals-citywide\">spot checks</a> on subway cars to make sure people are not overcrowding cars and are staying apart. The city has also taken down at least 80 basketball hoops at public playgrounds and said it would take down nets from tennis courts or soccer fields where people are violating orders.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>Subway riders wear protective masks and gloves on a sparsely populated car during morning hours due to COVID-19 concerns that are driving down ridership, March 19, 2020, in New York. (AP/John Minchillo)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n</div>\n\n<p>In Florida, local authorities on March 30 <a href=\"https://teamhcso.com/News/PressRelease/bea53702-e647-4b0b-af34-38cbb31f6224/20-091\">arrested</a> the pastor of a Tampa megachurch, saying he held church services repeatedly in violation of local orders that restrict large gatherings and advise people to stay home. Rodney Howard-Browne was charged with two second-degree misdemeanors for unlawful assembly and violation of public health emergency rules.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I&rsquo;d remind the good pastor of Mark 12:31, which said there&rsquo;s no more important commandment than to love thy neighbor as thyself,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/HCSOSheriff/videos/230907918296583/\">said</a> Hillsborough County State Attorney Andrew Warren at the announcement of an arrest warrant for the pastor, referring to the Bible verse. &quot;Loving your neighbors is protecting them, not jeopardizing their health by exposing them to this deadly virus.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Like other Florida <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/us/coronavirus-stay-at-home-order.html\">cities and counties</a>, Hillsborough County had moved ahead of the state in issuing its own stay-at-home restrictions. Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis on April 1 <a href=\"https://twitter.com/ABC/status/1245401420867698693?s=20\">announced</a> a statewide order directing Floridians to &quot;limit movements and personal interactions outside the home,&quot; with exceptions for essential services and activities. The <a href=\"https://www.flgov.com/wp-content/uploads/orders/2020/EO_20-91.pdf\">order</a>, effective April 3, included going to religious services in churches, synagogues and houses of worship as essential activities.</p>\n\n<p>In New Jersey, the state with the second-highest number of cases, police in a Trenton suburb had to break up a party with 47 people crammed into a 550-square-foot apartment. The host, a 54-year-old man, was <a href=\"https://twitter.com/MercerCoPros/status/1244000252379705345\">charged</a>; the partygoers were dispersed but not charged.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The organizer was charged, as they should have been and deserved to be,&quot; Gov. Phil Murphy <a href=\"https://twitter.com/GovMurphy/status/1243948012956798978?s=20\">tweeted March 28</a>. &quot;This is not a game. Stay home. Be smart.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Murphy went on Twitter again that day to say he was serious.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Can&rsquo;t believe I have to say this at all, let alone for the second time. But here we are. NO CORONA PARTIES,&quot; <a href=\"https://twitter.com/GovMurphy/status/1243988789057466368?s=20\">Murphy tweeted</a>. &quot;They&rsquo;re illegal, dangerous, and stupid. We will crash your party. You will pay a big fine. And we will name &amp; shame you until EVERYONE gets this message into their heads.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>In Newark, N.J., police have issued at least <a href=\"https://www.nj.com/coronavirus/2020/03/newark-cops-shut-down-15-businesses-ticketed-161-people-in-1-night-for-coronavirus-lockdown-violations.html\">161 summonses</a> and shut down at least 15 non-essential businesses that authorities say violated the governor&rsquo;s directive, according to nj.com.</p>\n\n<p>In Hawaii, the Star Advertiser <a href=\"https://www.staradvertiser.com/2020/03/26/breaking-news/kauai-police-launch-checkpoints-to-enforce-lockdown-compliance/\">reported</a> that Honolulu police had issued at least 70 citations and arrested two people for allegedly violating stay-at-home orders. Violation of the state <a href=\"https://governor.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/2003162-ATG_Third-Supplementary-Proclamation-for-COVID-19-signed.pdf\">order</a> is a misdemeanor, which can lead to a fine up to $5,000, up to one year in jail, or both.</p>\n\n<p>Police in Kaua&lsquo;i <a href=\"http://kauai.gov/Portals/0/Mayor/PIO/20200326%20Kauai%20police%20to%20conduct%20islandwide%20checkpoints.pdf?ver=2020-03-26-125320-087\">said</a> they would conduct islandwide checkpoints in support of the governor&rsquo;s stay-at-home order.</p>\n\n<p>In Fresno, Calif., authorities issued <a href=\"https://www.yourcentralvalley.com/news/3-fresno-businesses-fined-1000-for-allegedly-staying-open-temporarily-closed-2/?fbclid=IwAR21t-Efq0c0R708FrHnmyCF2TiQRs0YcK2L0RbzIjtkD2yP9DUz8LCrvng\">$1,000 fines</a> to three tobacco stores that allegedly stayed open in defiance of a shelter in place order. The stores have temporarily closed down, reported yourcentralvalley.com.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Are the stay-at-home orders open to legal challenges?</strong></div>\n\n<p>In Florida, the state attorney said the Tampa pastor was &quot;hiding behind the First Amendment,&quot; even though &quot;it&rsquo;s absolutely clear that emergency orders like this are constitutional and valid.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>But Liberty Counsel, a litigation group representing Howard-Browne, <a href=\"https://lc.org/newsroom/details/033020-fl-pastor-arrested-for-holding-church-service\">said</a> the church complied with the county&rsquo;s order and that police actions were &quot;discriminatory against religion and church gatherings.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>There is little modern experience regarding restrictions on religious gatherings during stay-at-home orders.</p>\n\n<p>But if churches were to sue states and municipalities over their orders, law professors told PolitiFact they might argue that the orders violate the Free Exercise Clause in the First Amendment or a state Religious Freedom Restoration Act.</p>\n\n<p>Governments are more likely to win legal challenges if their stay-at-home orders address a compelling government interest, don&rsquo;t target religious groups, and are evenly applied, with exceptions for only the most essential functions, experts said.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-02T14:50:58-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "ask-politifact-when-will-we-be-able-buy-hand-sanit",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Ask PolitiFact: When will we be able to buy hand sanitizer again?",
            "entry": "<p>By early March, the COVID-19 pandemic created an unprecedented shortage of hand sanitizers at stores and online.</p>\n\n<p>A reader asked us, when will we be able to buy hand sanitizer again?&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The short answer is, it doesn&rsquo;t appear anytime soon.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The issue is we have a huge surge in demand across all sectors, so supply cannot keep up,&quot; said Nada Sanders, a professor of supply chain management at Northeastern University.</p>\n\n<p>The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends washing hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not accessible, the CDC recommends using hand sanitizers. Hand sanitizers are especially useful when people are outside the home on necessary chores, like grocery shopping, where soap and water isn&rsquo;t readily available.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/show-me-the-science-hand-sanitizer.html\">Studies show</a> hand sanitizers <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Fprevention.html\">with at least 60% alcohol</a> are more effective at killing germs than those with a lower alcohol concentration or none at all. Yet despite that guidance, <a href=\"https://www.propublica.org/article/coronavirus-hand-sanitizers-cdc-recommended-alcohol\">alcohol-free hand sanitizers</a> flew off the shelves in the United States.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/03/facebook-posts/hand-sanitizer-can-be-used-prevent-coronavirus-inf/\"><em><strong>RELATED: </strong></em>Hand sanitizer can be used to prevent coronavirus infection</a></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Sanitizer is being produced, but largely for hospitals and first responders</div>\n\n<p>A spokeswoman for GoJo, the Akron, Ohio, company that produces the hand sanitizer Purell, said the company doesn&rsquo;t disclose sales or production numbers, but the company is operating around the clock. But it&rsquo;s only shipping the product for hospitals, first responders and critical infrastructure, company spokeswoman Samantha Williams told PolitiFact.</p>\n\n<p>Williams provided no timeline for making products available to individuals. Spokespersons for retailers like Publix and Target also had no timeline for when consumers can easily find hand sanitizer on their shelves.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We are receiving limited quantities of hand sanitizer. As you might imagine, what we receive sells very quickly,&quot; said Maria Brous, a spokeswoman for Publix. &quot;Like some other disinfectant-providing suppliers, production capacity has been shifted to support the health care industry.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Distilleries are making hand sanitizer</div>\n\n<p>The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued <a href=\"https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-provides-guidance-production-alcohol-based-hand-sanitizer-help-boost\">guidance</a> in March to allow the temporary manufacture of some alcohol-based hand sanitizer products. The federal Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau temporarily<a href=\"https://content.govdelivery.com/accounts/USTTB/bulletins/281f26e?reqfrom=share\"> waived provisions of tax law</a> to allow distilleries to produce ethanol-based hand sanitizers.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Brad Plummer, a spokesman for the American Distilling Institute, said about 350 <a href=\"https://distilling.com/resources/covid-19-information-page/map-of-hand-sanitizer/\">distilleries nationwide</a> are now producing hand sanitizer. Distilleries are using the formula recommended by the World Health Organization.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Individuals can contact distilleries in their area to ask if they are selling any hand sanitizer to the public, but many are selling their product to particular sectors rather than the public.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Most distilleries are trying to get as much as they can to law enforcement and front-line health care workers,&quot; Plummer said.</p>\n\n<p>Glenn Richey, a supply chain management professor at Auburn University, said &quot;forward buying&quot; by consumers caused a huge spike in demand. Consumers&rsquo; hoarding will likely cause businesses in the supply chain to over-forecast and then become overstocked a year from now.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;This means that newly minted manufacturers of the product may not have sufficient demand to remain in business after the panic subsides,&quot; he said.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Do-it-yourself hand sanitizer</div>\n\n<p>Many consumers have followed do-it-yourself recipes to make hand sanitizers for personal use. The FDA concluded that it lacks information to determine whether such DIY recipes are safe for use on human skin.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"http://www.poynter.org/mediawise\">MediaWise</a>, a media literacy initiative that includes student fact-checkers, <a href=\"https://www.instagram.com/p/B-clfwOJy_C/\">fact-checked whether consumers can make their own hand sanitizer</a>. MediaWise found that a post with instructions on homemade sanitizer needs context and that &quot; washing your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds is the best way to stay safe.&quot; (MediaWise and PolitiFact are both owned by the Poynter Institute.)</p>\n\n<p><em>Ask PolitiFact is an occasional feature in which we answer <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/20/we-answered-your-coronavirus-questions-handling-mo/\">readers&rsquo; questions</a>. To submit your own question for a future story, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/13/what-questions-do-you-have-about-coronavirus-outbr/\">fill out this form</a>.</em></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-02T14:48:24-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "party-conventions-are-now-will-they-be-same",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "joe-biden",
                    "full_name": "Joe Biden",
                    "first_name": "Joe",
                    "last_name": "Biden"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Party conventions are on for now, but will they be the same?",
            "entry": "<p><em><strong>UPDATED, April 2, 2020</strong>: This article has been updated to reflect the decision by the Democratic National Committee to delay its convention until August.</em></p>\n\n<p>Can the Democratic and Republican conventions survive in an era of coronavirus? That&rsquo;s unclear, and it&rsquo;s a question that needs to be resolved quickly.</p>\n\n<p>Historically, the parties&rsquo; conventions are a focal point of presidential election years. Festooned with shiny backgrounds and balloon drops, the conventions receive four days of intense media attention as the presidential and vice presidential nominees step out on the national stage.</p>\n\n<p>The 2020 Democratic National Convention had been scheduled for July 13 to 16 in Milwaukee, but on April 2, <a href=\"https://www.axios.com/dnc-convention-postponed-coronavirus-e07abf10-da7a-4bcb-a45d-1ff031f5d0bd.html\">news broke</a> that the party will delay the convention to Aug. 17 to Aug. 20, which is one week before the Republican convention. The GOP convention is scheduled for Aug. 24 to 27 in Charlotte.</p>\n\n<p>Officially, both conventions are still on. But as the nation hunkers down to ride out the coronavirus pandemic, there&rsquo;s growing concern about holding in-person conventions even in August.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The conventions are planned years ahead of time by party officials and host committees for each city. The host cities expect up to 50,000 visitors to come, making it a major economic event. So canceling the conventions would be a significant and painful step.</p>\n\n<p>Democratic National Committee chair Tom Perez <a href=\"https://www.axios.com/coronavirus-tom-perez-democratic-convention-42102ac4-4dc9-4dc6-95e4-aef2f8de0615.html\">told Axios</a> on April 2 that &quot;we are working with our state and local partners, and I&#39;m confident that we work a plan that will enable us to have our convention,&quot; he said.</p>\n\n<p>For his part, President Donald Trump remains committed to holding a traditional convention. He<a href=\"https://www.wfae.org/post/hannity-interview-trump-says-there-no-way-he-would-cancel-rnc-charlotte#stream/0\"> told Fox News&rsquo; Sean Hannity</a>, &quot;No way I&rsquo;m going to cancel the convention. We&rsquo;re going to have the convention. It&rsquo;s going to be incredible.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>But what would happen if in-person conventions couldn&rsquo;t happen at all because of continuing concerns about coronavirus? Here are a few questions and answers.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What would a virtual convention look like?</div>\n\n<p>A remote convention could be structured around a series of events on broadcast and social media, Colorado State University political scientist Kyle Saunders told <a href=\"http://centerforpolitics.org/crystalball/articles/virtual-conventions-health-crisis-forces-both-parties-particularly-the-democrats-to-envision-the-possibility/\">Sabato&rsquo;s Crystal Ball</a> at the University of Virginia&rsquo;s Center for Politics.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;You could do speeches and floor votes, with watch parties at local and state party headquarters,&quot; Saunders said. &quot;That could be a unifying, positive event that builds party rapport and purpose &mdash; if the parties could find a way to pull it off.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The official business conducted at the convention &mdash; the certification of the delegates, the passage of convention rules, and the nomination of the presidential and vice presidential candidates &mdash; can probably be redesigned to be handled online, with appropriate planning, experts said.</p>\n\n<p>Jo Ann Davidson, a Columbus, Ohio-based Republican official and a key planner of the 2008 and 2016 Republican conventions, said that because political people love conventions, they will be hard to give up. &quot;I think it would be an extreme change,&quot; Davidson said.</p>\n\n<p>Then again, she added, thanks to coronavirus, &quot;people will be dealing with lots of extremes they haven&rsquo;t ever gone through before.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Beyond the speeches and photo opportunities, what actual business gets conducted at a convention?</div>\n\n<p>Each convention generally includes four pieces of official business.</p>\n\n<p>&bull; <strong>Certification of the delegates</strong>: This is the process the party uses to confirm who occupies each delegate slot. Sometimes the choice of a delegate is contested due to procedural complaints; certification is the process for resolving these disputes.</p>\n\n<p>&bull; <strong>Approving the rules of the convention</strong>: These are the rules that govern how the convention is run &mdash; for instance, how long the nominating and seconding speeches will go. Typically, the rules are hashed out by the DNC the weekend before the convention starts, with delegates voting on the rules package on the first day of the convention.</p>\n\n<p>&bull; <strong>Electing the officers of the convention</strong>: The delegates need to vote to approve the formal officers of the convention; this typically occurs on the first evening of the convention.</p>\n\n<p>&bull; <strong>Nomination of the presidential and vice presidential candidates</strong>: These nominations are the high point of any convention, when the candidates make their formal coming-out party on the national stage.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>Delegates and officials mingle on the floor during the 2016 Republican convention in Cleveland. (Louis Jacobson/PolitiFact)</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Can this voting be done remotely?</div>\n\n<p>Currently, the Democrats couldn&rsquo;t, but that could be changed.</p>\n\n<p>The Democratic National Committee could meet remotely and change the rules to allow remote voting for conventions. This would require a simple majority vote of the DNC membership. Alternatively, or in conjunction, the DNC could vote on a permanent bylaw, which would need a two-thirds vote to pass.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I don&rsquo;t think it&rsquo;s a tremendous obstacle to change the rules &mdash; you just have to be upfront and transparent about it,&quot; said Josh Putnam, a political scientist who specializes in delegate selection rules and presidential elections.</p>\n\n<p>The Republicans&rsquo; process is a little easier. The party&rsquo;s current <a href=\"https://drive.google.com/file/d/1h1uguJAyknGFFiM4oB9ksZxWwshma1_r/view\">rules</a> say that if the party &quot;determines that the national convention cannot convene or is unable to conduct its business either within the convention site or within the convention city,&quot; then the Republican National Committee is given the power to create a remote voting process for the nominations.</p>\n\n<p>Could a convention be held with just delegates, candidates and party officials, without families, journalists and other unofficial attendees?</p>\n\n<p>In theory, a convention could be made delegates-only. But even a gathering that small would not significantly reduce health concerns.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Would even the 5,000 delegates and staff want to get on a plane and stay in a hotel and eat at restaurants and gather in the arena?&quot; said the Rev. Leah D. Daughtry, who headed the 2008 and 2016 Democratic conventions. &quot;I have older parents. I would think five times before doing that. I&rsquo;m not sure what I&rsquo;d bring home.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What are some of the other challenges to holding a virtual convention?</div>\n\n<p>Unlike the Republicans, who have a clear nominee in the incumbent president, the Democrats&rsquo; primary race is still under way. While Biden has what political observers consider a solid lead in delegates, he hasn&rsquo;t yet collected the required 1,991 delegates to secure the nomination.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., remains in the race. If Sanders were to exit the race early and concede the nomination to Biden, that would make it easier to plan a remote convention, since it would rule out a second ballot that includes voting by &quot;superdelegates,&quot; experts say. Superdelegates are lawmakers and other senior Democrats who, under the current rules, don&rsquo;t vote unless no candidate wins a simple majority of delegates in the first round.</p>\n\n<p>But if Sanders remains in the race until the convention, that could add wrinkles to the planning for a remote convention.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-02T09:53:41-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "time-coronavirus-were-all-fact-checkers-now",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "In the time of coronavirus, we’re all fact-checkers now",
            "entry": "<p>We&rsquo;re all fact-checkers now.</p>\n\n<p>In these days of COVID-19,&nbsp;everything needs to be fact-checked. Posts on social media need fact-checking. Texts and messages from friends and family need fact-checking. The president needs fact-checking at his daily press conferences.</p>\n\n<p>We can&rsquo;t accept everyday information that comes our way during a critical public health crisis. We have to go looking for authoritative sources. We have to check and double check. And even when messages are well-intended &mdash; that sweet email from our great aunt about coronavirus cures &mdash;the information isn&rsquo;t necessarily right.</p>\n\n<p>That&rsquo;s where fact-checking comes in, and it&#39;s why we&#39;re particularly celebrating today, April 2, as International&nbsp;Fact-checking Day. We&rsquo;ve been fact-checking furiously in recent weeks here at PolitiFact. We&rsquo;ve continued our traditional work fact-checking of politics and election-related claims, as well as our fact-checking of posts flagged on Facebook via the platform&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536\">third-party fact-checking program</a>. Most of our work lately has revolved around <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/coronavirus/\">the coronavirus</a>.</p>\n\n<p>We&rsquo;ve debunked <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/26/fact-checking-covid-19-prevention-treatment-myths/\">silly-sounding claims</a> of false cures using salt water, bleach or orange peels. We&rsquo;ve dug deep into whether the new coronavirus will be seasonal &mdash; <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/30/will-coronavirus-wilt-summer-heat-maybe-dont-count/\">it&rsquo;s too soon to tell</a>. We&rsquo;ve corrected claims on the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/11/donald-trump/donald-trumps-wrong-claim-anybody-can-get-tested-c/\">availability</a> of testing and the amount of <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/30/federal-pandemic-money-fell-years-trumps-budgets-d/\">funding</a> for fighting pandemics. That kind of work will continue for the foreseeable future.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact isn&rsquo;t alone in this work, either. Our fellow fact-checkers in both the United States and around the world are doing similar work either debunking or verifying. Many of us follow a code of principles, created by the <a href=\"https://www.poynter.org/ifcn/\">International Fact-Checking Network</a>, that promotes nonpartisanship and fairness; transparency of sources; transparency of funding and organization; a published methodology; and a commitment to an open and honest corrections policy. We&rsquo;ve <a href=\"https://ifcncodeofprinciples.poynter.org\">formally committed</a> to these principles along with more than 70 fact-checkers from around the world.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But it&rsquo;s not just professional fact-checkers who are doing the fact-checking. People just like you are getting messages and seeing online posts. But before they hit the share button or press forward, they&rsquo;re checking it out, doing a Google search, or looking to their favorite fact-checking website for either confirmation or a debunking. If it&rsquo;s wrong, they&rsquo;re sending gentle corrections back to the senders.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>This is the kind of day-to-day fact-checking work our society needs right now. Knowing whether a particular statement or claim is true or false is the foundation on which we make sound decisions for our families and about our health. It&rsquo;s the basis on which we can judge our elected officials and make decisions about how to govern ourselves in a democracy.</p>\n\n<p>But the true spirit of fact-checking is so much larger than that.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>We have to ask ourselves: Are we willing to use evidence, reason, science and logic to govern our actions? Or do we react on impulse and emotionally, often out of an intense flash of fear or anger? Do we use prudence and thoughtfulness to come to a decision, or do we indulge our instincts and then stick to our stance no matter what?&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>It&rsquo;s a critical decision, and one we each get to make daily, even hourly.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>If you&rsquo;re reading this, we hope we can put you down for the side of evidence, reason and logic. That&rsquo;s what we want to celebrate here on International Fact-checking Day.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But if we&rsquo;re honest with ourselves, we know there are times when we don&rsquo;t want to be reasonable, when we want to go with our gut reactions. We&rsquo;re human beings after all. Our humanity gives us our capacity for anger and fear, but it also gives us the ability to feel generosity and love. So we should value our emotions, but we also need a clear-eyed understanding that they can lead us astray. Holding each other accountable to truth helps us all live better.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>When we reason together, using facts and transparency, we can be our best selves. And that can make every day a happy fact-checking day.&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>\n<br>\n<em>Thanks to reader support, all of PolitiFact&rsquo;s fact-checking is free and accessible to anyone on the Internet. <a href=\"https://checkout.fundjournalism.org/memberform?org_id=politifact\">Please consider a monthly donation today</a>. To receive a free weekly email with PolitiFact&rsquo;s work, <a href=\"http://politifact.com/signup\">sign up here.</a></em></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-02T06:00:01-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "worldwide-facts-matter-more-ever-support-politifac",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Worldwide, facts matter more than ever. Support PolitiFact on International Fact-Checking Day",
            "entry": "<p>It&rsquo;s April 2, or International Fact-Checking Day, and it&rsquo;s clear facts are critical right now.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact is scrutinizing as many as 10 coronavirus claims each day. We&rsquo;re debunking fake coronavirus cures on Facebook, fact-checking statements made by President Donald Trump, and helping you understand what&rsquo;s in &mdash; and not in &mdash; the federal stimulus bills.</p>\n\n<p>We&rsquo;ve created <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/11/7-ways-avoid-misinformation-during-coronavirus-pan/\">a guide</a> with seven ways to avoid falling for some of the most common falsehoods about epidemics like the coronavirus. We&rsquo;re <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\">working with Facebook</a> to squash out this misleading and dangerous information.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Whether you&rsquo;re new to PolitiFact.com or you&rsquo;ve been here for a while, we want to thank you so much for reading and getting the information you need to know. Today you can support PolitiFact in its efforts to squash hoaxes about coronavirus that are circulating online.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>We can&rsquo;t do it without your support, both moral and <a href=\"https://checkout.fundjournalism.org/memberform?amount=30&amp;installmentPeriod=once&amp;org_id=politifact&amp;campaign=7011L000001NNFj\">financial</a>. Luckily, in this challenging time, you&rsquo;ve got our back.</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;Here&rsquo;s what people have to say when they give to PolitiFact:&nbsp;</p>\n\n<blockquote>\n<p>&quot;I think it is important to have a source for the truth about statements made by the press and gov.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;What a great job you are doing covering the 2020 campaign and the pandemic.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It&#39;s all I can spare, but I value your work SO much, especially now. Keep it up! Please.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I want to continue to receive unbiased, factual information that&#39;s important to me and my family.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I appreciate what your organization does, especially extra efforts re COVID19.&quot;</p>\n</blockquote>\n\n<p>One donor really gets it: &quot;I cherish the truth, but it is not free.&quot; This is very true. While our website is free to consume, it is not free to produce. <a href=\"https://checkout.fundjournalism.org/memberform?amount=30&amp;installmentPeriod=once&amp;org_id=politifact&amp;campaign=7011L000001NNFj\">Please consider donating to PolitiFact today, on International Fact-Checking Day, to support our efforts in stopping bad information about the virus.&nbsp;</a></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><a href=\"https://checkout.fundjournalism.org/memberform?amount=30&amp;installmentPeriod=once&amp;org_id=politifact&amp;campaign=7011L000001NNFj\">DONATE TODAY</a></div>\n\n<p>We understand that a financial contribution at this time might not be possible for you. One thing you could do to help is to sign up for our <a href=\"http://eepurl.com/gWLa7r\">coronavirus email newsletter</a>, and to help spread the word about our work with your friends and family on <a href=\"http://facebook.com/politifact\">Facebook</a> and across social media.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-02T06:00:00-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "hospital-demand-masks-soaring-heres-how-hospitals-",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Hospital demand for masks is soaring. Here’s how hospitals use them against coronavirus",
            "entry": "<p>President Donald Trump voiced disbelief at the skyrocketing demand for protective masks at New York hospitals.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Are they going out the back door? How do you go from 10,000 to 300,000?&quot; Trump asked at a <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-vice-president-pence-members-coronavirus-task-force-press-briefing-14/\">March 29</a> press conference. &quot;And we have that in a lot of different places. So, somebody should probably look into that, because I just don&rsquo;t see, from a practical standpoint, how that&rsquo;s possible to go from that to that.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The head of the Greater New York Hospital Association Kenneth Raske <a href=\"https://twitter.com/GNYHA/status/1244427246556917761\">shot back</a> that hospital workers &quot;deserve better than their president suggesting that (personal protection equipment) is &lsquo;going out the back door&rsquo; of New York hospitals.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>As has New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo. &quot;In terms of a suggestion that the (personal protective equipment) equipment is not going to a correct place, I don&#39;t know what that means. I don&#39;t know what he&#39;s trying to say. If he wants to make an accusation then let him make an accusation.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>We can&rsquo;t fact-check an accusation. But there is an explanation as to why hospitals are burning through masks at a higher rate.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The number of COVID-19 cases and the number of masks go hand-in-hand, and the number of cases has surged.</p>\n\n<p>According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of reported cases <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html#cumulative\">topped 186,000</a> as of March 31.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>Even if just 12% required hospitalization &mdash; a national average reported by the <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6912e2.htm\">CDC</a> in mid March &mdash; the number of daily admissions nationwide would have gone from about 430 to over 19,600 in just 15 days. (We ran our method by Boston University epidemiologist Eleanor Murray, who said it was sound.)</p>\n\n<p>The data on the number of COVID-19 patients in hospitals is limited. In New York City, the nation&rsquo;s epicenter for the disease, the hospitalization rate is <a href=\"https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/imm/covid-19-daily-data-summary-hospitalizations.pdf\">closer to 20%</a>. According to the <a href=\"https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/u/2/d/e/2PACX-1vRwAqp96T9sYYq2-i7Tj0pvTf6XVHjDSMIKBdZHXiCGGdNC0ypEU9NbngS8mxea55JuCFuua1MUeOj5/pubhtml#\">COVID Tracking Project</a>, deaths in New York State rose over 200-fold in the second half of March. That&rsquo;s not a perfect measure of hospitalizations, but since deaths largely take place in hospitals, it&rsquo;s an indication of the increased care that hospitals provide.</p>\n\n<p>Trump wondered how it was possible to jump from needing 10,000 to 300,000 masks. Assuming his starting point is valid, that&rsquo;s a 30-fold increase in about two weeks. Our estimated nationwide rise in hospitalizations was 45-fold.</p>\n\n<p>The swelling numbers of people needing care drives up the need for personal protective equipment &quot;at an exponential rate,&quot; said New York State Health Department spokesman Jonah Bruno.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><em><strong>RELATED: </strong></em><strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/apr/01/are-homemade-face-masks-effective-against-covid-19/\">Are homemade face masks effective against COVID-19?</a></strong></p>\n\n<p>Beyond the explosion in the number of patients arriving at hospitals, an infectious disease touches many steps in hospital operations. Every person who might have the virus is a risk. And that has expanded the range of jobs where a mask should be used.</p>\n\n<p>The changes start right at the point where people first show up at the hospital lobby or emergency room.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We don&rsquo;t know if someone who presents in the emergency department with a cough, if they have COVID-19 or the flu or a cold,&quot; said Anna Adams with the Georgia Hospital Association. &quot;We have to treat those patients who have symptoms as if they are positive for COVID-19.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Before this new coronavirus, an intake clerk wouldn&rsquo;t need any sort of mask. Now, they do, even if it is a simple surgical mask (in contrast to the N95 mask that direct caregivers use to block water droplets that carry the virus). And the same goes for technicians who take blood pressure, the dietary staff who deliver food, and the housekeepers who clean the common areas and rooms.</p>\n\n<p>Dave Dillon with the Missouri Hospital Association echoed that point.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;This can lead to a lot of churn as identified cases or patients under investigation multiply,&quot; said Dillon, the group&rsquo;s head of media relations.</p>\n\n<p>The rules for anyone who comes in contact with a confirmed case are stringent.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Anyone who goes in and out of the room of a COVID-19 positive patient or a patient under investigation would ideally need a complete change of personal protective equipment,&quot; Adams said. &quot;We have to protect our staff, because if they get sick, or pass the virus to a coworker, we won&rsquo;t have the people to take care of our patients.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Adams said hospitals in Georgia are re-using masks as long as possible, but they still are falling short of the masks they need. At many health centers, they aren&rsquo;t getting the number they would have received in ordinary times.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There&rsquo;s a finite number of masks, and everybody&rsquo;s going after the same supply,&quot; Adams said.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>RELATED: <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/apr/01/are-states-bidding-war-over-medical-gear-feds/\">Are states in a bidding war with the federal government over supplies?</a></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-01T16:26:37-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "ordering-takeout-probably-safe-during-covid-19-out",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Ordering takeout is probably safe during COVID-19 outbreak, experts say, but take precautions",
            "entry": "<p>Restaurant dining rooms across the U.S. are closed due to COVID-19, but many are offering more takeout and delivery service than ever before.</p>\n\n<p>The option to savor your favorite dish from your neighborhood haunt may feel like a silver lining during this time of stay-home directives. But one nagging question may spoil your appetite: Is it really safe?</p>\n\n<p>We finally have some good news. Here&rsquo;s what we found out.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">No evidence of COVID-19 transmission through food</div>\n\n<p>Currently, there is no evidence that food or food containers and packaging are associated with COVID-19 transmission, according to both the <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html\">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</a> and the <a href=\"https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-frequently-asked-questions#food\">Food and Drug Administration</a>.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads,&quot; the FDA says on its <a href=\"https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-frequently-asked-questions#food\">website</a>. &quot;If you are concerned about contamination of food or food packaging, wash your hands after handling food packaging, after removing food from the packaging, before you prepare food for eating and before you eat.</p>\n\n<p>There are a few reasons why food risk is low.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>First, restaurants and chefs are already accustomed to following safety standards designed to prevent illnesses, such as frequently cleaning surfaces and equipment and cooking food to certain temperatures.</p>\n\n<p>The National Restaurant Association, an organization that represents around 500,000 restaurants in the U.S., told PolitiFact that the industry continues to follow food safety guidance, which includes personal hygiene, sanitation and workplace safety, and monitors COVID-19 guidance from the FDA, CDC and the EPA.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Larry Lynch, the organization&rsquo;s senior vice president of science and industry, said its member restaurants are following all the guidelines they always have, as well as implementing new strategies to keep workers and customers safe during the pandemic.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It comes down to extra sanitation and anything you&#39;re handing out to a driver being&nbsp; double-sealed and closed properly so the consumer has the confidence that the handling has been limited,&quot; Lynch said. &quot;Just the typical sanitation practices you do in the kitchen, but pushing a little deeper.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Examples of this include ensuring cash transactions are handled by someone not handling food, he said. Regular hand-washing and surface washing practices are increased. Managers are on high alert, paying attention to their employees and getting them out of the restaurant if they start to feel sick.</p>\n\n<p>Meanwhile, preliminary research shows that unlike foodborne viruses like norovirus, which can live for weeks on surfaces and survive freezing and heating, COVID-19 cannot survive that long.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/20/facebook-posts/covid-19-could-live-3-days-depending-surface/\"><em>Related: </em>Novel coronavirus could live up to 3 days, depending on the surface</a></strong></p>\n\n<p>&quot;We know much less about coronavirus, but the best studies suggest that it probably lives hours or a few days at most, less than most common foodborne germs,&quot; <a href=\"https://cspinet.org/covid-19-and-food-frequently-asked-questions\">the Center for Science in the Public Interest says.</a> &quot;The public health officials who track the disease haven&rsquo;t found any examples of someone catching COVID-19 from food. We&rsquo;re still learning about this virus, but it&rsquo;s safe to say the main risk people should be focused on is avoiding contact with an infected person, not food.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Benjamin Chapman, a professor and food safety specialist at North Carolina State University, told PolitiFact that all current evidence and data points toward person-to-person transmission as the greatest risk factor for COVID-19.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We don&rsquo;t have any epidemiological indication, evidence or data that food or food packaging has been an actual transmission route for getting sick, so food itself and the packaging are very, very low risk,&quot; Chapman wrote in an email.</p>\n\n<p>Although the risk of human interaction isn&rsquo;t eliminated with takeout and delivery, it is being mitigated.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Several delivery services and restaurants are trying to minimize contact between workers and customers by implementing curbside pickup and emphasizing electronic payments so meals can be dropped off on doorsteps.</p>\n\n<p>Experts say handwashing before, during and after any interaction, like picking up a to-go order or getting groceries, is an important and effective way to reduce the risk of infection.</p>\n\n<p>While there&rsquo;s a very small chance that the virus arrives in your home on food packaging, Chapman says, practices that are normally encouraged for good food safety &mdash; like cleaning and sanitizing during food preparation and disinfecting countertops &mdash; are effective.</p>\n\n<p>Overall, the greatest COVID-19 transmission risk comes from direct interaction with other people. Ordering pickup and delivery meals is largely considered safe, but experts say you should still take extra precautions and practice good food safety.</p>\n\n<p>Health officials maintain that frequent hand washing, social distancing and not touching your face are still the best ways to prevent the spread of the virus and reduce the chance of getting infected.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-01T14:58:32-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "are-homemade-face-masks-effective-against-covid-19",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Are homemade face masks effective against COVID-19?",
            "entry": "<p>Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, public health officials <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Fprevention.html\">have advised</a> healthy Americans not to wear face masks. The reason: There&rsquo;s a shortage of masks, and they should be reserved for health care workers.</p>\n\n<p>That guidance may change soon.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;When we get in a situation where we have enough masks, I believe there will be some very serious consideration about more broadening this recommendation of using masks,&quot; said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, on CNN March 31. &quot;We&#39;re not there yet, but I think we&#39;re close to coming to some determination.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>One of the best ways Americans can avoid infecting others &mdash;&nbsp;even if they aren&rsquo;t showing any coronavirus symptoms &mdash;&nbsp;is to wear a surgical mask when they&rsquo;re out in public, Fauci said. But <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/03/16/814929294/covid-19-has-caused-a-shortage-of-face-masks-but-theyre-surprisingly-hard-to-mak\">with shortages</a> around the country, it&rsquo;s hard for even health care workers to get them.</p>\n\n<p>So some people <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/25/business/coronavirus-masks-sewers.html\">have started</a> to make their own. Homemade masks have become so popular that there are <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/groups/884127602057599/\">Facebook groups</a> where avid sewers coordinate their efforts to provide protection for health care providers. Some hospitals <a href=\"https://www.uhhospitals.org/healthcare-update/masks-and-donations\">are</a> <a href=\"https://www.vumc.org/coronavirus/how-donate-hand-sewn-face-masks\">asking</a> for homemade masks, while others <a href=\"https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/arizona-health/2020/03/28/hospitals-cant-use-diy-masks-when-caring-covid-19-patients/2933849001/\">won&rsquo;t let</a> their employees wear them while treating COVID-19 patients.</p>\n\n<p>Several readers asked PolitiFact whether DIY masks are as effective at preventing the transmission of COVID-19 as the surgical ones. So we read the latest research and talked to experts.</p>\n\n<p>We found that, while homemade face masks can serve as a potential alternative to surgical masks, they don&rsquo;t offer the same level of protection. And their efficacy depends on what kind of material they&rsquo;re made of and how they&rsquo;re used.</p>\n\n<p>First, let&rsquo;s clear up how they work.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Face masks do not block some very fine particles in the air that may be transmitted by coughs or sneezes. That means they&rsquo;re not a reliable way of preventing someone who&rsquo;s wearing one from contracting the airborne coronavirus particles and getting COVID. But, since masks do prevent the spread of larger respiratory droplets, they are effective at preventing someone from spreading the virus to other people.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/face-masks.html\">In its guidance</a> to health care providers, the CDC says homemade masks like bandanas and scarves can be used as a last resort. Since their ability to protect against the coronavirus is unknown, the agency recommends that providers use them in combination with face shields and other protective equipment.</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED:</em> <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/feb/14/facebook-posts/medical-masks-should-be-worn-colored-side-out/\">Medical masks should be worn with the colored side out</a></strong></p>\n\n<p>Some health care providers are using homemade masks so that they can prolong the lifespan of the masks they do have, including the N95 respirators that filter out at least 95% of airborne particles.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Some hospitals are creating masks, using homemade ones, that can be worn on top of the N95 masks,&quot; said Anna Adams, vice president of government relations at the Georgia Hospital Association. &quot;The outer ones are washable, and that extends the life of N95.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Some hospitals <a href=\"https://www.livescience.com/coronavirus-n95-mask-shortage.html\">have already started</a> to run out of N95 respirators, and the CDC <a href=\"https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/personal-protective-equipment-infection-control/n95-respirators-and-surgical-masks-face-masks\">does not advise</a> the American public to use them as a COVID-19 prevention measure. <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Fprevention.html\">The current advisory says</a> people infected with COVID-19 or living with someone who is should wear generic surgical masks.</p>\n\n<p>Given the shortage of those face masks around the country, DIY masks could be effective at preventing the spread of the coronavirus. But they have to be made correctly.</p>\n\n<p>The most effective homemade masks are made of thick cloth and make a tight seal around the wearer&rsquo;s face.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Given the current crisis, and lacking an alternative, many layers of densely woven fabric would be the most effective, because it allows for lots of voids in the layers where particles can be trapped,&quot; Richard Peltier, an assistant professor of environmental health sciences at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, told us by email. &quot;The mask needs to seal as tightly as possible to the face to avoid leaks, though this may not be possible with different designs, fabrics, or face shapes. Thin or porous fabrics are the least likely to be effective.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744\">A study</a> published in October 2010 tested how cloth masks and common fabrics fared when sprayed with aerosols at different speeds. All of the materials performed worse than N95 respirators. But some, such as cotton towels and scarves, were in the range of some surgical masks. The authors cautioned that fabric materials &quot;show only marginal filtration performance against virus-size particles when sealed around the edges.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/disaster-medicine-and-public-health-preparedness/article/testing-the-efficacy-of-homemade-masks-would-they-protect-in-an-influenza-pandemic/0921A05A69A9419C862FA2F35F819D55\">Another study</a> from 2013 found that cotton masks only perform about half as well as surgical masks and &quot;should only be considered as a last resort to prevent droplet transmission from infected individuals.&quot; More recent research <a href=\"https://www.nature.com/articles/jes201642\">had similar results</a>.</p>\n\n<p>So at best, using thick or layered fabric to make a homemade mask could be as effective as using some surgical masks. At worst, it prevents at least some of your respiratory droplets from spreading to others while in public.</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED:</em> <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/26/fact-checking-covid-19-prevention-treatment-myths/\">Fact-checking COVID-19 prevention, treatment myths</a></strong></p>\n\n<p>Under ideal circumstances, <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/pdfs/UnderstandDifferenceInfographic-508.pdf\">no face masks</a> are intended to be worn for more than one encounter. That guidance also extends to homemade masks.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;At the end of the day, these cloth masks should be treated as contaminated materials that you bring in to your home &mdash; they need to be laundered in hot soapy water, and you&rsquo;d need to consider sanitizing in bleach or hydrogen peroxide regularly,&quot; Peltier said.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/31/well/live/coronavirus-N95-mask-DIY-face-mask-health.html\">Some</a> <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/05/health/stop-touching-your-face-coronavirus.html\">experts</a> have said face masks could also serve as a reminder to not touch your face, which is one of the ways the coronavirus spreads, <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fprepare%2Ftransmission.html\">according to</a> the CDC. But Peltier said he&rsquo;s not aware of any research that shows that&rsquo;s the case. And <a href=\"https://www.consumerreports.org/coronavirus/do-you-need-a-mask-to-prevent-coronavirus/\">there&rsquo;s a chance</a> that masks could actually encourage people to touch their face more since they can be uncomfortable to wear.</p>\n\n<p>Still, since those infected with the coronavirus <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html\">may not</a> exhibit symptoms for up to 14 days after exposure, the CDC may soon advise everyone to wear masks in public just in case they&rsquo;re sick. In that case, if you&rsquo;re going out in public, wearing something is better than nothing.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-01T14:49:47-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "are-states-bidding-war-over-medical-gear-feds",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "chris-cuomo",
                    "full_name": "Chris Cuomo",
                    "first_name": "Chris",
                    "last_name": "Cuomo"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Are states in a bidding war over medical gear with the feds?",
            "entry": "<p>States have been clashing with the federal government over who&rsquo;s responsible for ensuring that critical medical equipment and supplies get to the places that need them most amid the COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>After declaring a national emergency over the health crisis on March 13, President Donald Trump directed governors to order their own ventilators, respirators and supplies, saying the federal government is &quot;not a shipping clerk.&quot; Governors in both parties shot back that Trump&rsquo;s stance and a lack of coordination from Washington have left states bidding against one another and the federal government for access to critical equipment.</p>\n\n<p>New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo said it was akin to competing on eBay with 50 other states and the Federal Emergency Management Agency.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;And you see the bid go up, because California bid. Illinois bid. Florida bid. New York bids. California re-bids,&quot; he said at a March 31 press conference, echoing complaints he made<a href=\"https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/video-audio-photos-rush-transcript-amid-ongoing-covid-19-pandemic-governor-cuomo-announces-0\"> a week earlier</a>. &quot;That&rsquo;s literally what we are doing. I mean, how inefficient. And then FEMA gets involved and FEMA starts bidding. And now FEMA is bidding on top of the 50 &mdash; so FEMA is now driving up the price?&quot;</p>\n\n<p>We sought written evidence from government officials that they were outbid by the federal government or that companies were caught in bidding wars. We didn&rsquo;t find any. But manufacturers of equipment and supplies are struggling with the flood of orders and figuring out how to speed them to the communities that need them most. At <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/16/us/politics/trump-coronavirus-respirators.html\">least</a> <a href=\"https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/490520-illinois-governor-says-state-has-gotten-10-percent-of-medical-equipments\">four</a> <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/03/30/larry-hogan-gretchen-whitmer-what-governors-need-washington-during-this-health-emergency/\">other</a> <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-vice-president-pence-video-teleconference-governors-covid-19/\">governors</a> have complained that states have been left to compete with one another for needed supplies because of a lack of federal oversight.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The Advanced Medical Technology Association, which represents manufacturers of ventilators and other medical devices, wrote in a March 24 <a href=\"https://www.advamed.org/sites/default/files/resource/advamed-recommendation-centralized-ventilator-procurement-allocation-decision-making.pdf\">letter to FEMA</a> that companies are facing the challenge of allocating devices to the health care providers who need them the most, as well as state and local governments.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Some of these potential purchasers should have a higher priority than others based on the acuity of patient needs in their areas,&quot; wrote Scott Whitaker, the association&rsquo;s CEO. &quot;It is difficult for manufacturers to establish these priorities.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Whitaker asked the administration to provide advice on how to allocate these products and to&nbsp;designate a lead agency to oversee allocation decisions.</p>\n\n<p>The federal government responded to the chorus of complaints about bidding wars March 30 by setting up a <a href=\"https://www.fema.gov/fema-supply-chain-task-force-leads-four\">FEMA supply chain task force</a> to coordinate sourcing of supplies nationwide and help allocate equipment to high-priority areas.</p>\n\n<p>A FEMA spokeswoman told PolitiFact that the agency is working to meet demand for equipment through new purchases, Defense Department allocations or from the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/30/federal-pandemic-money-fell-years-trumps-budgets-d/\">Strategic National Stockpile</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;As we process orders through the supply chain, we are maintaining close coordination with governors to identify potential bidding conflicts,&quot; FEMA said. &quot;If a bidding conflict does arise, we will work closely with the state to resolve it in a way that best serves the needs of their citizens.&quot; </p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/30/donald-trump/reporter-was-right-trump-did-question/\"><em><strong>RELATED:</strong></em> Reporter was right: Trump did question governors&rsquo; ventilator requests</a></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Trump told states to find their own supplies</div>\n\n<p>Trump&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/proclamation-declaring-national-emergency-concerning-novel-coronavirus-disease-covid-19-outbreak/\">national emergency</a> declaration on March 13 should have put the feds in the driver&rsquo;s seat at that time, said Steve Ellis, vice president of Taxpayers for Common Sense, a nonpartisan budget watchdog group. That declaration meant the federal government was stepping in to coordinate the nationwide response to the coronavirus.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Simply directing states to procure what they can ignores the powers of the federal government and possibly puts states at odds with one another,&quot; Ellis said. &quot;It also could lead to the misallocation of resources.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>That doesn&rsquo;t mean states can&rsquo;t purchase items on their own, he said, but the federal government should provide direction.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;And if the direction is that states are on their own, the federal government shouldn&rsquo;t turn around and compete with them,&quot; he said, though he said he didn&rsquo;t know whether that was occurring</p>\n\n<p>On March 16, Trump told governors that they should try to get respirators, ventilators and other equipment themselves, according to <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/16/us/politics/trump-coronavirus-respirators.html\">audio obtained by the New York Times</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Three days later, he repeated those instructions.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The federal government is not supposed to be out there buying vast amounts of items and then shipping,&quot; he said <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-vice-president-pence-members-coronavirus-task-force-press-briefing-6/\">March 19</a>. &quot;You know, we&rsquo;re not a shipping clerk. &hellip;&nbsp; As with testing, the governors &hellip; are supposed to be doing it.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>He added: &quot;And we&rsquo;ll help out wherever we can.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Trump hears it from governors</div>\n\n<p>But the federal government was actually making things worse, some governors said.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-vice-president-pence-video-teleconference-governors-covid-19/\">Massachusetts Gov. Charlie Baker, a Republican</a>, told Trump on March 19 that he followed the directive for governors to buy their own supplies.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;On three big orders, we lost&quot; to the feds, he said.</p>\n\n<p>Former Vice President Joe Biden, the leading Democratic candidate for president, said he had spoken to a governor who he said tried to follow Trump&rsquo;s directive to purchase supplies for her state, only to be outbid by the federal government.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There&rsquo;s supposed to be cooperation here,&quot; Biden said in a <a href=\"http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/2003/27/se.01.html\">CNN town hall March 27,</a> without naming the governor.</p>\n\n<p>Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer, a Democrat, and Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan, a Republican, were among those pleading for better coordination from FEMA to ensure that supplies are distributed based on need. &quot;The lack of any centralized coordination is creating a counterproductive competition between states and the federal government to secure limited supplies, driving up prices and exacerbating existing shortages,&quot; they wrote in a joint <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/03/30/larry-hogan-gretchen-whitmer-what-governors-need-washington-during-this-health-emergency/\">op-ed</a> in the Washington Post.</p>\n\n<p>The breadth of the coronavirus crisis means there&rsquo;s little precedent for how the ordering and allocation of supplies should play out.</p>\n\n<p>Juliette Kayyem, a former homeland security official under President Barack Obama, <a href=\"https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/03/america-has-never-had-50-state-disaster-before/608155/\">described </a>the pandemic as the first 50-state disaster. The past practice of mutual-aid agreements between states won&rsquo;t be sufficient, she said, since states won&rsquo;t want to share resources that they may need.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;With the coronavirus, state and federal authorities can talk a big game about unity of effort &mdash; we are all in this together &mdash; but the nation&rsquo;s governance structure will make this more like musical chairs,&quot; Kayyem, now a Harvard professor, wrote in the Atlantic. &quot;No state wants to be the last one to secure necessary equipment.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Complaints about supply bottlenecks had led to tense exchanges between Whitmer and Trump, who has called for governors to be <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-vice-president-pence-members-coronavirus-task-force-press-briefing-13/\">more appreciative</a> of the federal government&rsquo;s efforts.</p>\n\n<p>Whitmer said supplies of <a href=\"https://twitter.com/GovWhitmer/status/1243897197747408897?s=20\">masks</a> and <a href=\"https://twitter.com/GovWhitmer/status/1245101089529180160?s=20\">ventilators</a> have started to flow to Michigan from the federal stockpile, and Trump approved her request for a<a href=\"https://www.fema.gov/news-release/2020/03/28/president-donald-j-trump-approves-major-disaster-declaration-michigan\"> federal disaster declaration</a> for the state.&nbsp; Michigan reported 7,615 COVID-19 cases and 259 deaths through the end of March.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In Florida, where Gov. Ron DeSantis is a key Trump ally, officials directed their wrath at private industry instead of the federal government. The head of Florida&rsquo;s emergency management agency, Jared Moskowitz, called the <a href=\"https://www.sun-sentinel.com/coronavirus/fl-ne-coronavirus-jared-moskowitz-masks-20200330-fazdhvdob5fznhakniabihsjzi-story.html\">market for masks a &quot;Ponzi scheme&quot;</a> and said on Twitter that he was urging supplier <a href=\"https://twitter.com/JaredEMoskowitz/status/1244657529663217664?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1244657529663217664&amp;ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sun-sentinel.com%2Fcoronavirus%2Ffl-ne-coronavirus-jared-moskowitz-masks-20200330-fazdhvdob5fznhakniabihsjzi-story.html\">3M</a> to send supplies directly rather than dealing through costly middlemen.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>3M referred PolitiFact to a <a href=\"https://news.3m.com/press-release/company-english/3m-announces-further-actions-address-price-gouging-fraud-and-counterfe\">statement</a> that said it had received reports that people were fraudulently representing themselves as being affiliated with the company and charging &quot;grossly inflated&quot; prices for 3M goods, or selling counterfeit products.</p>\n\n<p>The Trump administration itself has butted heads with the private sector over supply issues.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>General Motors, which has halted all U.S. auto production amid the health crisis, <a href=\"https://apnews.com/e301b2fece936ef05ba760fd486f59a7\">assigned workers</a> in mid-March to help build life-saving ventilators at an auto-parts plant in Kokomo, Ind., in partnership with medical-device maker Ventec Life Systems.</p>\n\n<p>But Trump wanted the company to move faster. On March 27, he excoriated CEO Mary Barra on <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1243557418556162050?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed&amp;ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cnbc.com%2F2020%2F03%2F27%2Ftrump-criticizes-gm-ceo-mary-barra-for-wanting-top-dollar-for-ventilators.html\">Twitter</a> over the production timetable, and <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/statement-president-regarding-defense-production-act/\">signed a memo</a> directing his administration to use the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/23/has-president-donald-trump-invoked-defense-product/\">Defense Production Act</a> to require GM to prioritize federal contracts for ventilators.</p>\n\n<p>In a statement that same day, <a href=\"https://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/news.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/2020/mar/0327-coronavirus-update-6-kokomo.html\">GM said</a> it was on track to deliver the first ventilators in April and ramp up to manufacture more than 10,000 a month. As company officials defended their &quot;around-the-clock&quot; work, Trump backed off, saying he was &quot;getting very good reports about General Motors.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-01T12:08:03-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "president-who-cried-hoax-experts-weigh-trumps-use-",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "The president who cried hoax? Experts weigh in on Trump’s use of the word",
            "entry": "<p>President Donald Trump has been tossing around the word &quot;hoax&quot; since before he won the White House in 2016. Now, that favorite term might be coming back to bite him.</p>\n\n<p>Joe Biden and liberal super PACs bolstering his 2020 presidential campaign are using Trump&rsquo;s own words against him in a flurry of TV and digital ads.</p>\n\n<p>One recent spot from <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/27/ad-watch-priorities-usa-trumps-coronavirus-respons/\">Priorities USA</a> juxtaposed early quotes from Trump downplaying the spread of the novel coronavirus with a graph tracing the exponential growth of U.S. cases.</p>\n\n<p>The ad, like a <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/15/joe-biden/ad-watch-biden-video-twists-trumps-words-coronavir/\">similar Biden ad</a> before it, featured audio from a <a href=\"https://youtu.be/fUNrXN9XC2k?t=4435\">February campaign rally</a> of Trump saying the word &quot;hoax&quot; while talking about the coronavirus.</p>\n\n<p>That edit infuriated the Trump campaign, which sent a <a href=\"https://assets.donaldjtrump.com/2017/web/hero_images/Redacted_PUSA_Letter.pdf\">cease and desist letter</a> to TV stations calling the ad &quot;patently false, misleading, and deceptive.&quot; The campaign said the ad &quot;stitched together fragments from multiple speeches&quot; to give a misleading impression.</p>\n\n<p>Trump&rsquo;s comments at the rally were <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/27/ad-watch-priorities-usa-trumps-coronavirus-respons/\">not particularly clear</a>, however. After accusing Democrats of &quot;politicizing the coronavirus,&quot; Trump blasted the 2016 Russia investigation and his impeachment in the House &mdash; both of which he has labeled a hoax &mdash; before briefly turning back to the virus.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Think of it,&quot; he said. &quot;And this is their new hoax.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>The next day, Trump claimed he was referring to the Democrats&rsquo; criticism of his response to the coronavirus, rather than to COVID-19 itself.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But for some Trump critics, Trump&rsquo;s habitual use of the word in other instances made it hard to believe he wasn&rsquo;t talking about the coronavirus.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We don&#39;t trust his next-day clean-up attempt, and he has made many comments in that same vein,&quot; Biden campaign spokesman Andrew Bates told us when we <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/15/joe-biden/ad-watch-biden-video-twists-trumps-words-coronavir/\">fact-checked</a> Biden&rsquo;s ad.</p>\n\n<p>Is Trump the president who cried hoax? His use of the word while talking about the virus that&rsquo;s now infected <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cases-in-us.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fcases-in-us.html\">more than 160,000 Americans</a> certainly brought him unwanted attention.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>So, we decided to talk to experts about the word and why Trump uses it.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What Trump has called a hoax, and why</div>\n\n<p>Experts in political science told us that Trump uses the word &mdash; and others like it &mdash; to portray himself as a victim of injustices and inspire his supporters to fight for him and trust his word.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Trump is trying to undermine the trustworthiness of any source but himself,&quot; said Margaret Levi, professor of political science at Stanford University. &quot;The point is to make himself the only credible authority, to be fully trusted as a &lsquo;war-time&rsquo; president.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Trump has been throwing around the word since before he took office. According to <a href=\"https://twitter.com/search?lang=en&amp;q=(hoax%20OR%20hoaxes)%20(from%3ArealDonaldTrump)&amp;src=typed_query\">Twitter</a> and <a href=\"https://factba.se/search#Hoax\">Factba.se</a>, the interactive website that tracks Trump&rsquo;s public comments and tweets, Trump has <a href=\"https://factba.se/search#hoax%2BOR%2Bhoaxes\">used the word</a> more than 600 times dating back to his days as a celebrity.</p>\n\n<p>Many of his <a href=\"https://twitter.com/search?lang=en&amp;q=(hoax%20OR%20hoaxes)%20(from%3ArealDonaldTrump)%20until%3A2017-01-20%20since%3A2006-01-01&amp;src=typed_query\">earliest uses</a> <a href=\"https://twitter.com/search?lang=en&amp;q=(hoax%20OR%20hoaxes)%20(from%3ArealDonaldTrump)&amp;src=typed_query\">on Twitter</a> were in reference to global warming, which he frequently bashed as an <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/428414113463955457\">&quot;expensive hoax.&quot;</a> As Trump&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2016/jan/24/bernie-s/yes-donald-trump-really-did-tweet-climate-change-h/\">2016 political opponents</a> <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2016/jun/03/hillary-clinton/yes-donald-trump-did-call-climate-change-chinese-h/\">pointed out</a>, he once <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/265895292191248385\">claimed</a> the concept was made up by the Chinese; he&rsquo;s since said he was joking.</p>\n\n<p>See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>Trump&rsquo;s reliance on the word took off once he became president. For years, Trump denounced former special counsel Robert Mueller&rsquo;s investigation of Russian interference in the 2016 election as a &quot;hoax,&quot; all the while offering <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/dec/19/donald-trump/no-evidence-fbi-officials-texts-deliberately-erase/\">no credible evidence</a> in support of his claim.</p>\n\n<p>The word has stuck with Trump&rsquo;s supporters and become part of his brand, making it more effective, said Cas Mudde, professor of international affairs at the University of Georgia.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;As many of his supporters believe him on, for example, Russian interference in the 2016 elections being a &lsquo;hoax,&rsquo; describing other events with exactly the same term reminds them of the Mueller investigation and strengthens his claim on the new event,&quot; Mudde said.</p>\n\n<p>A 2019 report from the Justice Department&rsquo;s inspector general found that the Russia probe was <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/dec/11/william-barr/barr-disputes-inspector-generals-report/\">justified</a>. But Trump has still used the word dozens of times to brand Mueller&rsquo;s work and the notion that his campaign colluded with Russia, according to <a href=\"https://factba.se/search#hoax%2BOR%2Bhoaxes\">Factba.se</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>Trump took aim at Mueller&rsquo;s investigation as recently as March 30, saying in an <a href=\"https://youtu.be/-iEhLe5G4RU?t=2394\">interview with Fox News</a> that &quot;the whole thing turned out to be a hoax.&quot; He has also <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/21/us/politics/trump-and-russia.html\">dismissed warnings</a> from the intelligence community about pro-Trump Russian meddling in 2020 as <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1230879049460764672\">&quot;Hoax number 7.&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p>See Figure 4 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>Repetition like that can be especially powerful, experts told us.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The word serves as a symbol or signifier that conveys a complicated set of circumstances in a simple way,&quot; said Lynn Vavreck, professor of American politics and public policy at UCLA.</p>\n\n<p>That may explain why Trump invoked it again to condemn the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2019/oct/03/timeline-trump-impeachment-inquiry/\">House&rsquo;s impeachment</a> of him for his efforts to pressure Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky into announcing an investigation of Joe Biden, his son Hunter and a debunked conspiracy related to the 2016 election.</p>\n\n<p>In addition to calling his impeachment a <a href=\"https://twitter.com/search?q=(witch%20hunt)%20(from%3ArealDonaldTrump)&amp;src=typed_query\">&quot;witch hunt,&quot;</a> a <a href=\"https://twitter.com/search?q=(scam)%20(from%3ArealDonaldTrump)&amp;src=typed_query\">&quot;scam&quot;</a> and a <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/oct/25/donald-trump/donald-trump-says-impeachment-coup-s-pants-fire/\">&quot;coup,&quot;</a> Trump has repeatedly used &quot;hoax&quot; to describe the <a href=\"https://factba.se/search#%22impeachment%2Bhoax%22\">impeachment process</a> and any&nbsp;<a href=\"https://youtu.be/BfxPccUhPso?t=265\">accusations of presidential misconduct</a>, including most recently during a <a href=\"https://youtu.be/2Sdr8j8Fahk?t=5668\">March 31 White House press conference</a> on the coronavirus.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>See Figure 5 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>He has also used the word on Twitter to <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/763519861406531584\">dispute news reports</a> and <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/787992753829478400\">discredit sexual assault allegations</a> made against him, among <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1233266386291580931\">other things.</a></p>\n\n<p>Vavreck said Trump&rsquo;s use of the word creates a feeling of solidarity between him and his supporters and activates an &quot;us versus them&quot; framework.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Trump uses it to suggest to his supporters that someone is trying to fool them and they should beware,&quot; she said. &quot;It also suggests that he, along with them, is a victim of the effort.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>But there&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/feb/27/rush-limbaugh-spreading-conspiracy-theory-about-co/\">no fooling</a> when it comes to the coronavirus, which has shut down cities and killed thousands of Americans. Regardless of what he meant, Trump&rsquo;s mention of a &quot;hoax&quot; while talking about COVID-19 carried different risks than his usual weaponization of the term.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Matthew Kavanagh, assistant professor of global health at Georgetown University, said Trump&rsquo;s use of the word &quot;hoax&quot; in the context of the coronavirus was &quot;very dangerous&quot; given his history of challenging the veracity of the media and the trustworthiness of public officials.</p>\n\n<p>That&rsquo;s because public trust is crucial for fighting outbreaks of disease like the coronavirus, Kavanagh said. &quot;Success against the pandemic depends on people believing and complying with the advice of public health officials as seen through the media,&quot; he said.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Kavanagh noted that a <a href=\"https://www.kff.org/global-health-policy/poll-finding/kff-coronavirus-poll-march-2020/?utm_source=link_newsv9&amp;utm_campaign=item_304646&amp;utm_medium=copy\">poll</a> conducted in mid March found fewer Republicans taking precautions related to the coronavirus than Democrats, and that <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/mar/27/ron-desantis-doesnt-want-statewide-stay-home-order/\">some Republican governors</a> have <a href=\"https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/mar/29/america-states-coronavirus-red-blue-different-approaches\">been slower</a> to take <a href=\"https://www.kff.org/health-costs/issue-brief/state-data-and-policy-actions-to-address-coronavirus/\">statewide actions</a> to mitigate the spread.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I worry that President Trump&#39;s early statements encouraged local Republican-led governments not to take the threat seriously,&quot; Kavanagh said.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-04-01T10:44:47-04:00"
        }
    ]
}