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        {
            "slug": "will-458000-vote-mail-ballots-go-californians-who-",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "gavin-newsom",
                    "full_name": "Gavin Newsom",
                    "first_name": "Gavin",
                    "last_name": "Newsom"
                },
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Will 458,000 Vote-By-Mail Ballots Go To Californians Who Have Died Or Moved? Experts Are Skeptical",
            "entry": "<p>California plans to send all active registered voters a mail-in ballot ahead of the November election, a move the state&rsquo;s top elections official says is meant to &quot;fortify our democracy in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Expanding vote-by-mail statewide is a necessity to protect our right to vote and our public health,&quot; Secretary of State Alex Padilla, a Democrat, <a href=\"https://www.sos.ca.gov/administration/news-releases-and-advisories/2020-news-releases-and-advisories/ap20055-gov-newsom-signs-legislation-fortify-cas-1132020-general-election-covid-19-pandemic/\">said in a June news release</a>. &quot;Voting by mail has worked safely and securely in California for decades.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>While Californians <a href=\"https://www.ppic.org/blog/tag/vote-by-mail/\">widely support</a> the expansion, the plan is not without its critics. President Trump has repeatedly attacked it with <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/may/26/donald-trump/no-california-not-sending-mail-ballots-anyone-stat/\">false</a> and <a href=\"https://www.factcheck.org/2020/04/trumps-latest-voter-fraud-misinformation/\">misleading</a> claims that it will trigger widespread voter fraud.</p>\n\n<p>Meanwhile, the Election Integrity Project California, a citizens watchdog group, argues the plan will lead to hundreds of thousands of ballots being sent to people who are no longer alive or have moved. The extra ballots could invite fraud, the group says.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Over 458,000 California registrants who have likely died or moved will be mailed ballots,&quot; EIPCa said in a May <a href=\"https://www.eip-ca.com/press_releases/EIPCa_press_release_CA_2020_election_risks_20200507_final.pdf\">press release</a>. &quot;These registrants have not voted or updated their registrations since November 2008 or prior. Though likely deceased or relocated, they remain classified as &lsquo;active&rsquo; status. Almost 178,000 have never voted. Almost 2,000 have birth dates indicating they are 105+ years old.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Conservative <a href=\"https://californiaglobe.com/section-2/updated-458000-dead-persons-could-be-mailed-ballots-if-ca-goes-all-mail-in-nov-2020-election/\">news outlets</a> and opinion <a href=\"https://www.dailyrepublic.com/all-dr-news/opinion/local-opinion-columnists/the-tax-watchers-the-problem-dirty-voter-rolls/\">columns</a> reported on the eye-catching claims this spring and questioned whether the state&rsquo;s vote-by-mail plans are safe.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>With so much riding on mail-in voting, we wanted to know whether California was really going to send hundreds of thousands of ballots to people who should be off the voter rolls.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>We set out on a fact check.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Our research</strong></p>\n\n<p>Election experts, including two county elections officials, told us they strongly doubt so many ballots will go out to dead or moved Californians.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>With <a href=\"https://www.sos.ca.gov/administration/news-releases-and-advisories/2020-news-releases-and-advisories/ap20025-secretary-state-releases-final-report-registration-ahead-march-3-presidential-primary/\">more than 20 million people on the voter rolls</a> statewide, they acknowledged some ballots are unwittingly sent out before death records or change of address notices are received.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Still, there are measures in place to automatically update voter lists and to safeguard against fraud, elections officials said.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We are constantly getting outside data sources to help us clean and monitor those voter rolls,&quot; said Sam Mahood, spokesperson for the California Secretary of State&rsquo;s Office, which oversees the state&rsquo;s elections.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Mahood listed these examples: &quot;We get death records from the Department of Public Health on a weekly basis that&rsquo;s run against the <a href=\"https://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/voter-registration/votecal-project/\">statewide voter registration database</a>. We get felony records from the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation on a monthly basis. We get change of address information from the DMV on a daily basis.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>He said the state&rsquo;s Employment Development Department also provides national change of address information to check for people who have moved out of state.</p>\n\n<p>Sacramento County Assistant Registrar Hang Nguyen said voters in her county should be confident about election safeguards.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Just like anything else, there will be some variance there, where we will send out ballots to voters that no longer reside where they&rsquo;re registered,&quot; Nguyen said. &quot;But to ease the concern of the public, we do get those ballots back here in our office.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>She said the ballots include a notice requesting they be mailed back if the registered voter no longer lives there.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Asked about the claim that hundreds of thousands of ballots will go out in error, Yolo County Registrar Jesse Salinas said, &quot;I don&rsquo;t believe that will be the case.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There is ongoing maintenance of voter rolls,&quot; Salinas said. &quot;We do update when people pass away. Sometimes there is a bit of a lag-time. And if that happens, we do encourage people that if they have a loved one who has passed away, to just contact our office.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Inflated Claim?&nbsp;</strong></p>\n\n<p>Justin Levitt is associate dean for research at Loyola Law School in Los Angeles, where he teaches constitutional law with a focus on election administration.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>He said the Election Integrity Project California has made &quot;some valuable contributions&quot; in the past by pointing out possible instances of double registrations or double-voting, including during the March primary. In an April <a href=\"https://www.eip-ca.com/letters/CA_SOS_duplicate_voting_response_to_EIPCa_200407_redacted.pdf\">letter</a>, the Secretary of State&rsquo;s Office confirmed that some of the 48 instances flagged by EIPCa warranted investigation while others could be explained as defects in an election-management system that caused a county to send the state duplicate entries for the same voter.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Levitt said EIPCa has also previously made &quot;some inflated claims,&quot; noting he&rsquo;s skeptical of its prediction that so many invalid ballots will be mailed ahead of November. The lack of any published methodology on the EIPCa <a href=\"https://www.eip-ca.com/eip-news2020.htm#\">website</a> about how it reached the 458,000 figure also raises flags, he said.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Active Status?</strong></p>\n\n<p>In an interview, Ellen Swensen, chief analyst with Election Integrity Project California, discussed how it arrived at that number.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>She said it purchases the voter list for the entire state on a regular basis from the Secretary of State&rsquo;s office. To make its claim about the 458,000 ballots, it ran queries against March 2020 voter data while comparing it with death records purchased from the state Department of Public Health.</p>\n\n<p>Swensen said EIPCa examined records for people who have not voted or updated their registrations since November 2008 and are still listed as an &quot;active&quot; registration.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In California, people who register to vote remain on the state&rsquo;s active registration list unless they move and do not re-register somewhere else in the state. In that case, they are placed on an inactive list and are not sent elections materials including ballots.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>There is no law in California that forces them off the active list just because they haven&rsquo;t voted. As Levitt explained, they don&rsquo;t lose that constitutional right just because they haven&rsquo;t exercised it.</p>\n\n<p>Voters can return to active status by contacting their county elections office. They can check their registration status, register to vote or pre-register at <a href=\"https://registertovote.ca.gov/\">registertovote.ca.gov</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Prior Lawsuit On Inactive Voters</strong></p>\n\n<p>EIPCa is no stranger to challenging election officials.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>It partnered with the conservative group Judicial Watch in 2017 to sue Los Angeles County and the state over charges they failed to meet federal requirements for removing inactive voter registrations.</p>\n\n<p>The sides reached an <a href=\"http://www.judicialwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/JW-v.-Logan-exhibit-A-settlement-08948.pdf\">agreement</a> in January 2019, requiring the county to attempt to contact as many as 1.5 million people in the inactive voter file to determine their status, <a href=\"https://apnews.com/66ee694e83d047d5bad19ed4d8ba0418\">Judicial Watch said at the time</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Levitt of Loyola Law School says he served as a consultant for election officials on that case.</p>\n\n<p>Six months later, President Trump used the settlement to <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2019/jun/24/donald-trump/pants-fire-trumps-latest-california-voter-fraud-cl/\">falsely claim</a> California &quot;admitted&quot; there were &quot;a million&quot; illegal votes in the 2016 presidential election, in an effort to support his <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2016/nov/28/donald-trump/pants-fire-trumps-claim-about-california-voter-fra/\">widely debunked claim</a> of &quot;serious voter fraud&quot; in the state. The agreement says nothing about voter fraud or illegal voting.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Additionally, it says all parties agreed there was no admission of liability or wrongdoing by the state or county.</p>\n\n<p><strong>&lsquo;The System Is Not Working&rsquo;</strong></p>\n\n<p>Swensen, the EIPCa analyst, said ahead of the November 2020 election her group is most concerned about voters still on the &quot;active list&quot; who may no longer exist.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>After analyzing voter and death data, Swensen said she found roughly 6,000 people who had died through 2019 but were still listed as active on the voter rolls.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>She says there may be more deceased individuals on the list, but that she was confident in the 6,000 figure, because she had enough data from the two lists that matched, including first, middle and last names; date of birth and place of birth. For these cases, she said the location of the death also matched the address where the person was registered.</p>\n\n<p>She says the vast majority of the 458,000 appear to be people who have moved, adding she did not know the exact figure.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The system is not working,&quot; Swensen said. &quot;Why am I able to find it with volunteer programmer analysts working out of my house? Why am I able to find it and they [state and county election officials] can&rsquo;t?&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>She says the Secretary of State&rsquo;s office had rejected her group&rsquo;s request to investigate the 458,000 registrations it claims are no longer valid.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Mahood, the spokesman for that office, said EIPCa wants voters removed from the active rolls based on a lack of activity, but the state can&rsquo;t do that. He said his office is still reviewing data the group sent it.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Swensen said she does not believe the extra ballots will result in widespread fraud to the point of changing California&rsquo;s presidential election results. With <a href=\"https://www.sos.ca.gov/administration/news-releases-and-advisories/2020-news-releases-and-advisories/ap20025-secretary-state-releases-final-report-registration-ahead-march-3-presidential-primary/\">4.4 million</a> more registered Democrats than Republicans in the state as of February, and Trump&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://projects.fivethirtyeight.com/polls/california/\">unfavorable rating</a> in California, that contest is not in doubt.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Still, she said, &quot;there could be fraudulent activities&quot; that could decide closer races, adding that ballots &quot;could fall into bad hands.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It&rsquo;s a very desperate time in our political scene right now,&quot; she said.</p>\n\n<p>Levitt rejected the notion that the integrity of elections was at stake.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Even if there are some registration records that are not perfectly accurate, that does not mean that they will be used to cast ballots that are counted,&quot; he said. &quot;There are plenty of other safeguards in the process to make sure that individual ballots are not counted if they happen to be cast on behalf of people who have died or moved, including a signature-matching system that is rather vigorous.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The biggest protection for vote-by-mail ballots in California is this signature-matching requirement. A voter must sign the outside of their ballot&rsquo;s envelope. That signature is then matched with the voter&rsquo;s signature on file from when they registered to vote.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Some counties use software to match signatures, while others use elections staff.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Each vote-by-mail ballot also comes with &quot;an identification envelope that is unique to that voter,&quot; Kim Alexander, president of the California Voter Foundation, told us last month for <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/03/answering-questions-about-vote-mail-california-tru/\">PolitiFact California&rsquo;s Q&amp;A on vote-by-mail</a>.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It has a barcode on it for that voter. It has the voter&rsquo;s address and information on it,&quot; added Alexander, explaining that voters must use that envelope to return their ballot.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Keith Smith is an associate professor of political science at University of the Pacific in Stockton, where he studies elections. He said in the push-and-pull between greater voting access versus integrity, California lawmakers have gone &quot;heavy on access.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We want to make it almost as easy as possible for someone to vote in an election, because we think it&rsquo;s so important that people have the opportunity to cast a ballot if they want to,&quot; Smith said. &quot;We are willing to endure some error on the integrity side in order to provide significantly more access to the ballot box.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Even so, Smith says he does not think the vast figures published by the EIPCa &quot;reflect the reality of what will happen in an election.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p>\n\n<p>The claim by the Election Integrity Project California that hundreds of thousands of ballots will be mailed statewide to voters who have died or moved is striking. Election officials acknowledge that some erroneous ballots will be mailed, given the lag time between a voter moving or dying and the receipt of official notices.</p>\n\n<p>But experts say the claim ignores the detailed voter roll maintenance performed by election officials. Officials use the transmission of death notices, state and national change-of-address information and incarceration records to regularly update the massive voter lists.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Additionally, they use a statewide voter registration database to prevent duplicate registrations.</p>\n\n<p>Despite claims by President Trump that vote-by-mail leads to &quot;massive voter fraud,&quot; the evidence shows it does not.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Several studies have examined the practice and found an extremely low rate of fraud, including a five-year investigation by the George W. Bush administration that <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/12/washington/12fraud.html\">turned up virtually no evidence</a> of any organized effort to skew federal elections.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Election fraud of all sorts is rare. There is a slightly less rare instance of voter fraud by absentee balloting,&quot; said Charles Stewart, a political science professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and co-director of the Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project, which analyzes election systems told. &quot;There are greater temptations and opportunities. Nonetheless, they are rare.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In the end, EIPCa&rsquo;s claim is a prediction, and its accuracy is difficult to know. What is certain is that election experts reject its suggestion that California&rsquo;s mail-in ballot system invites fraud and say they&rsquo;re confident in the safeguards in place.&nbsp;</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-03T12:17:27-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "ask-politifact-what-antifa-and-why-it-all-over-my-",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Ask PolitiFact: What is antifa, and why is it all over my timeline?",
            "entry": "<p>In the weeks since protests erupted after the death of George Floyd, one mysterious word has consistently popped up in press briefings, cable news broadcasts and social media posts: antifa.</p>\n\n<p>President Donald Trump has <a href=\"https://twitter.com/search?q=antifa%20(from%3Arealdonaldtrump)&amp;src=typed_query&amp;f=live\">tweeted several times</a> about the left-wing movement since late May, likening it to &quot;other wacko groups of anarchists.&quot; Attorney General William Barr <a href=\"https://www.politico.com/news/2020/05/30/william-barr-george-floyd-protests-290792\">said</a> violent demonstrations appeared to have been planned by &quot;far-left extremist groups and anarchic groups using antifa-like tactics.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Meanwhile, conservative outlets like Fox News and the Washington Times <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/media/heres-how-fox-news-and-other-conservative-media-are-covering-the-protests-and-violence-following-the-george-floyd-killing/2020/06/02/c0dd4458-a4de-11ea-bb20-ebf0921f3bbd_story.html\">have aired</a> similar claims about antifa. Search interest in the movement <a href=\"https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=antifa&amp;geo=US\">spiked</a> in early June, and unsubstantiated theories about antifa were among the most popular pieces of misinformation about the protests, <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/01/technology/george-floyd-misinformation-online.html\">according to</a> the New York Times.</p>\n\n<p>But what is antifa &mdash;&nbsp;and why is it suddenly all over the press and our social media feeds? PolitiFact investigated.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Largely it&rsquo;s become the in-vogue, far-right bogeyman,&quot; said Mark Bray, a historian and part-time lecturer at Rutgers University.</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>Do you have a question for us? Email us at <a href=\"mailto:[email protected]\">[email protected]</a>, and we&rsquo;ll try to answer it. Put &quot;Ask PolitiFact&quot; in the subject line.</em></strong></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What is antifa?</div>\n\n<p>Antifa stands for &quot;anti-fascist.&quot; It&rsquo;s a broad, loosely affiliated coalition of left-wing activists that&rsquo;s been around for decades. It has had a resurgence since the election of President Donald Trump.</p>\n\n<p>In <a href=\"https://www.mhpbooks.com/books/antifa/\">&quot;Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook,&quot;</a> Bray <a href=\"https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/an-intimate-history-of-antifa\">traces</a> the modern antifa movement to German and Italian leftist groups that fought proto-fascist gangs following World War I.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Antifa&quot; takes its name from Antifaschistische Aktion &mdash; &quot;anti-fascist action,&quot; in English &mdash; a phrase that the Stalinist Communist Party of Germany <a href=\"https://www.dw.com/en/trumps-antifa-accusations-spark-debate-in-germany-the-movements-birthplace/a-53665573\">adopted</a> in 1932, as the Nazis were gaining power. The party also adopted the logo that is now commonly associated with antifa groups. <a href=\"https://www.csis.org/analysis/who-are-antifa-and-are-they-threat\">The symbol combines</a> the red flag of the 1917 Russian Revolution and the black flag of 19th-century anarchists.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Antifaschistische Aktion aimed &lsquo;to provide a framework in which people from all walks of life could be brought together in loose coalition to fight economic, social, and legal repression, and above all a basis on which Social Democrats and Communists could join in self-defense against the Nazis,&quot; Bray wrote in his book.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>An anti-fascist sticker in Frankfurt, Germany. (Shutterstock)</em></p>\n\n<p>While the political context has changed, that framework still applies to the modern antifa movement.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In the United States, antifa groups <a href=\"https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2020/6/8/21277320/antifa-anti-fascist-explained\">played a role</a> in organizing protests against Trump&rsquo;s inauguration. The movement <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2017/aug/14/context-president-donald-trumps-saturday-statement/\">regained attention</a> after groups counter-protested white nationalists in Charlottesville, Va., in August 2017. The movement has no leaders and is organized into autonomous local groups.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It&rsquo;s a little bit like feminism,&quot; Bray said in an interview. &quot;There are feminist groups just like there are antifa groups, but neither feminism nor antifa is a group.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Antifa groups <a href=\"https://www.vice.com/en_nz/article/3d9d4k/the-bay-areas-antifa-movements-are-alive-and-well-v24n4\">use</a> social media and encrypted apps to target right-wing activists and communicate with one another. The oldest antifa cell is <a href=\"https://rosecityantifa.org/\">Rose City Antifa</a> in Portland, Ore., with similar organizations in <a href=\"https://twitter.com/NYCAntifa\">several</a> <a href=\"https://twitter.com/afainatl\">other</a> <a href=\"https://twitter.com/mpls_antifa\">American</a> <a href=\"https://twitter.com/PhillyANTIFA\">cities</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Antifa activists are &quot;predominantly communists, socialists and anarchists who reject turning to the police or the state to halt the advance of white supremacy,&quot; Bray wrote in <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/made-by-history/wp/2017/08/16/who-are-the-antifa/\">a 2017 column</a> for the Washington Post. They <a href=\"https://time.com/4899658/charlottesville-antifa-protests/\">often wear</a> black clothing or bandannas over their faces to stay anonymous in crowds.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Have antifa activists used violence in the past?</div>\n\n<p>Yes. While experts say most antifa organizing is peaceful, the movement does sometimes turn&nbsp; to violence to push back against right-wing activists.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>During the 2017 &quot;Unite the Right&quot; rally, hundreds of white nationalists and neo-Nazis <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/US/happen-charlottesville-protest-anniversary-weekend/story?id=57107500\">marched</a> with torches through Charlottesville, home of the University of Virginia, after the City Council voted to remove a statue of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee. The demonstration <a href=\"https://theweek.com/captured/718250/48-hours-charlottesville\">turned violent</a> when white nationalists clashed with counterprotesters. A 32-year-old woman, Heather Heyer, died after an Ohio man drove a car into the crowd, injuring 19 others.</p>\n\n<p>Among the counterprotesters &mdash; <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/14/us/who-were-the-counterprotesters-in-charlottesville.html\">who included</a> racial justice activists, clergy and Charlottesville residents &mdash;&nbsp;were antifa organizers. Pepper spray <a href=\"https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/blakemontgomery/heres-what-really-happened-in-charlottesville\">was the weapon of choice</a> on both sides of the demonstration. A few members of a group called the Redneck Revolt, which <a href=\"https://www.redneckrevolt.org/\">describes itself</a> as an &quot;anti-racist, anti-fascist community defense formation,&quot; had guns, but white nationalists were more armed, according to <a href=\"https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/blakemontgomery/heres-what-really-happened-in-charlottesville\">BuzzFeed News</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Antifa activists have participated in other violent protests across the country as well.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>Antifa counter-protesters prepare to clash with &nbsp;Patriot Prayer protestors during a rally in Portland, Ore., on Aug. 4, 2018. (AP)</em></p>\n\n<p>In spring 2017, antifa activists <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/04/education/edlife/antifa-collective-university-california-berkeley.html\">broke windows and set fires</a> in Berkeley, Calif., to protest the appearance of right-wing provocateur Milo Yiannopoulos at the University of California. More clashes <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/08/28/black-clad-antifa-attack-right-wing-demonstrators-in-berkeley/\">erupted at rallies</a> later that year, during which some antifa activists attacked right-wing demonstrators.</p>\n\n<p>In fall 2017, hundreds of demonstrators <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/09/11/antifa-far-right-protesters-clash-again-in-portland-disrupting-peaceful-rallies/\">protested against</a> a demonstration planned by <a href=\"https://www.mercurynews.com/2017/08/23/whos-behind-this-weekends-right-wing-rally-at-crissy-field/\">the right-wing group Patriot Prayer</a> in Portland. Some antifa activists lit smoke bombs and threw objects at police. The scuffle came months after Portland&rsquo;s annual Rose Festival parade <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/04/27/portland-rose-parade-canceled-after-antifascists-threaten-gop-marchers/\">was canceled</a> due to threats of violence against GOP marchers.</p>\n\n<p>The reason that antifa activists sometimes use violence is &quot;rooted in the assumption that the Nazi party would never have been able to come to power in Germany if people had more aggressively fought them in the streets in the 1920s and &rsquo;30s,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/who-are-antifa\">according to</a> the Anti-Defamation League, a Jewish non-governmental organization.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Experts say most organizing is not rooted in physical violence. Antifa activists use other tactics to achieve their aims, such as <a href=\"https://psmag.com/news/doxxing-the-alt-right-racists\">exposing the private information</a> of online extremists and trying to get right-wing rallies canceled.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There&rsquo;s all sorts of different ways that often succeed without even having to get to confrontational levels,&quot; Bray said. &quot;They don&rsquo;t shy away from it, but it can be seen as the last step in a chain of options to stop far-right organizations, and usually earlier steps on that chain are successful without needing to get to that point.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Why have they been in the news lately?</div>\n\n<p>After the death of George Floyd in Minneapolis police custody in late May, several protests across the country <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/10/how-george-floyd-protests-evolved-5-major-cities/\">turned violent</a>. Since the antifa movement has a left-wing bent and a track record of violence, experts say it was an easy scapegoat for the chaos.</p>\n\n<p>The Trump administration has repeatedly blamed antifa activists for picking fights with police and looting businesses. On May 30, Trump <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1266760009872007171\">tweeted</a> that &quot;antifa and the radical left&quot; were to blame for the violence in Minneapolis. Attorney General Barr <a href=\"https://www.politico.com/news/2020/05/30/william-barr-george-floyd-protests-290792\">made a similar allegation</a>.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Unfortunately, with the rioting that is occurring in many of our cities around the country, the voices of peaceful protests are being hijacked by violent radical elements,&quot; Barr said. &quot;In many places, it appears the violence is planned, organized, and driven by far-left extremist groups and anarchic groups using antifa-like tactics.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Neither Barr nor Trump offered public evidence that antifa activists were responsible for the unrest in Minneapolis and elsewhere. But a day later, Trump <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1267124501361369091\">doubled down</a>, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1267129644228247552\">promising</a> to label the movement as a &quot;terrorist organization.&quot; (National security experts <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/01/trump-lacks-legal-authority-designate-antifa-domes/\">say</a> Trump does not have that authority.)</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>Those comments came on the heels of a barrage of online misinformation about antifa&rsquo;s connection to protests against police brutality.</p>\n\n<p>On May 31, a now-suspended Twitter account posing as an antifa cell published a tweet that made it look like left-wing protesters were moving into white residential areas. We <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/01/facebook-posts/suspended-twitter-account-fans-misinformation-abou/\">rated that claim False</a> &mdash;&nbsp;and the account was <a href=\"https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/security/twitter-takes-down-washington-protest-disinformation-bot-behavior-n1221456\">actually owned</a> by a white nationalist group.</p>\n\n<p>In the days that followed, several other false or unproven rumors took off on social media:</p>\n\n<ul>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Antifa threatened to vandalize houses in Seattle if the owners didn&rsquo;t give them food and supplies. (<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/18/facebook-posts/no-evidence-antifa-members-vandalizing-seattle-hom/\">False</a>)</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Antifa planned to raid a wealthy neighborhood in Raleigh, N.C. (<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/05/chain-message/no-antifa-had-no-plans-raid-wealthy-raleigh-neighb/\">False</a>)</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Antifa staged bricks at protests across the country to stoke violence. (<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/03/blog-posting/fact-checking-theories-about-bricks-and-black-live/\">Mostly False</a>)</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Antifa murdered a man at a protest in Portland. (<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/05/facebook-posts/no-evidence-man-died-hands-antifa-murderer/\">False</a>)</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Antifa planned a riot in Chesterfield County, Va. (<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/15/sen-chase-spread-hoax-deadly-antifa-riot-headed-ch/\">Hoax</a>)</p>\n\t</li>\n</ul>\n\n<p>The tactic of blaming antifa activists for acts of violence isn&rsquo;t new. Some websites <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2017/oct/02/hoaxes-fake-news-about-las-vegas-massacre/\">falsely blamed</a> the movement for the 2017 massacre in Las Vegas and <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2017/aug/14/puppetstringnewscom/charlottesville-hit-and-run-driver-was-anti-fascis/\">even the death</a> of Heyer in Charlottesville.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;For some people, it is easier to believe that a shadowy group of people are trying to undermine society than it is to accept that Americans are so angry and so fundamentally outraged at the state of the country, that they are willing to take to the streets,&quot; said Oren Segal, vice president of the Center on Extremism at the Anti-Defamation League, in an email.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What has antifa actually done at the protests?</div>\n\n<p>It&rsquo;s difficult to say for sure, but there&rsquo;s no evidence that antifa activists played a significant role in violent protests and looting following Floyd&rsquo;s death.</p>\n\n<p>Thousands of people have been arrested amid the nationwide demonstrations, not all for acts of violence. The number has included <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/02/nyregion/nyc-protests-george-floyd.html\">curfew</a> <a href=\"https://www.voiceofalexandria.com/news/state/150-curfew-violators-arrested-in-minneapolis/article_f8a78dde-a43a-11ea-aa50-3bca52ef9c73.html\">violators</a>, working <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/29/media/reporters-arrest-minneapolis-first-amendment/index.html\">press</a> and <a href=\"https://www.postandcourier.com/news/aclu-of-sc-demands-law-enforcement-explain-peaceful-protesters-arrests/article_5d9a60a8-a51d-11ea-95e9-9f65c29853f1.html\">others</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>It isn&rsquo;t possible to know how many were motivated by any particular political belief or association. But government intelligence reports, media reports and experts offer no evidence that antifa played any significant role.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;While their presence at some counter-protests against events held by white supremacists and right-wing extremists over the years has been marked by physical confrontations and violence, there is no evidence that antifa supporters have organized the recent protests in response to the murder of George Floyd, or that they have coordinated any violence at the protests,&quot; Segal said.</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED:</em> <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/26/dane-eagle/florida-congressional-candidate-blames-antifa-viol/\">Florida congressional candidate blames antifa for violence without evidence</a></strong></p>\n\n<p>Other <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/26/dane-eagle/florida-congressional-candidate-blames-antifa-viol/\">experts</a> and <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/06/22/who-caused-violence-protests-its-not-antifa/\">fact-checkers</a> back up that assessment. So do arrest reports.</p>\n\n<p>The New York Times <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/11/us/antifa-protests-george-floyd.html\">analyzed</a> dozens of federal arrest reports related to recent protests. The newspaper found no connection between the arrests and antifa groups. <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/2020/06/09/873278314/no-sign-of-antifa-so-far-in-justice-department-cases-brought-over-unrest\">Several</a> <a href=\"https://www.thedailybeast.com/antifa-is-literally-never-mentioned-in-the-first-prosecutions-of-protest-violence\">other</a> <a href=\"https://www.reuters.com/article/us-minneapolis-police-extremists/little-evidence-of-antifa-links-in-u-s-prosecutions-of-those-charged-in-protest-violence-idUSKBN23H06J\">media</a> <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/public-safety/among-more-than-400-arrested-during-protests-in-the-district-most-cases-involve-curfew-violations-and-burglary/2020/06/14/ef7e2e82-ac93-11ea-94d2-d7bc43b26bf9_story.html\">outlets</a> came to similar conclusions.</p>\n\n<p>Given the lack of evidence, experts say pinning violent protests on antifa activists serves to distract from the larger conversation about police brutality.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Antifa is just the latest placeholder,&quot; Bray said. &quot;Maybe 10-15 years ago it was radical environmentalists. If you go back further, it&rsquo;s communists, it&rsquo;s Black Panthers.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It serves the purpose of being a bogeyman because it&rsquo;s everywhere &mdash; and nowhere.&quot;</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-02T08:00:00-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "fact-checking-hamilton-musical",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Fact-checking ‘Hamilton’ the musical",
            "entry": "<p><em><strong>Editor&#39;s note:</strong> Have you ever wondered if the movie you just saw &mdash; that claimed to be based on a real story or historical events &mdash; was really accurate? So have we. We want to help you sort out the facts from the dramatic liberties. (We&#39;ve also fact-checked <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2018/aug/30/fact-checking-spike-lees-blackkklansman/\">BlacKkKlansman</a>, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2018/feb/26/fact-checking-oscar-nominated-film-post/\">The Post</a>, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2018/feb/26/fact-check-darkest-hour-movie-winston-churchill/\">Darkest Hour</a> and <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2018/feb/26/dunkirk-fact-check-movie-indulges-myths-also-facts/\">Dunkirk</a>.)&nbsp;</em></p>\n\n<p>The smash-hit Broadway musical &quot;Hamilton&quot; is making its move to the TV screen, bringing Lin-Manuel Miranda&rsquo;s hip-hop biography of Alexander Hamilton to a new audience.</p>\n\n<p>The tale of the &quot;$10 Founding Father without a father&quot; has inspired years of sell-out crowds at theaters across the country. The show, which Miranda famously began writing after reading Ron Chernow&rsquo;s biography, chronicles Hamilton&rsquo;s ascension to the forefront of American history.</p>\n\n<p>The show is startlingly faithful to Hamilton&rsquo;s life. It draws heavily &mdash; and sometimes <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0248\">verbatim</a> &mdash; from his <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/index.xqy?q=Project%3A%22Hamilton+Papers%22&amp;s=1511211111&amp;r=1\">writings</a>. But some events are transposed in time, some characters take on roles played by others in real life, and some details have been changed for dramatic license.</p>\n\n<p>The biggest controversy we found among historians is a debate over whether Miranda&rsquo;s &quot;Hamilton&quot; is <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/11/opinion/what-hamilton-forgets-about-alexander-hamilton.html\">too kind</a> to its protagonist.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Miranda has often&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2015/09/lin-manuel-miranda-hamilton/408019/\">described</a> his work as &quot;the story of America then, told by America now.&quot; But even <a href=\"https://muse.jhu.edu/issue/36348\">some scholars</a> <a href=\"https://ncph.org/history-at-work/hamilton-the-musical-blacks-and-the-founding-fathers/\">who say</a> they admire Miranda&rsquo;s multiracial cast &mdash; and the catchy songs they sing &mdash; <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/11/theater/hamilton-and-history-are-they-in-sync.html\">have</a> <a href=\"https://apnews.com/db3c9d7573334b55a651d7ceba4dc66b\">weighed in on</a> <a href=\"https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/issue-table-hamilton-good-history-180969192/\">whether</a> the play&rsquo;s largely heroic portrayal of Hamilton is accurate.</p>\n\n<p>At the least, the musical has got people talking about Hamilton, his legacy and the revolutionary era. That conversation is bound to continue as the Broadway hit migrates to the TV screen and becomes available on Disney+ beginning July 3.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;&lsquo;Hamilton&rsquo; the musical should not be taken as the last word on these topics, and certainly not as the only word,&quot; said Todd Estes, professor of history at Oakland University. &quot;But if the musical were the only perspective on the events of Hamilton&#39;s career that most people got, the version portrayed on stage is actually pretty good and could be a lot worse.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Below, we&rsquo;ve compiled a non-exhaustive list of inaccuracies in &quot;Hamilton,&quot; big and small. (We reached out to Miranda and Chernow but did not hear back.)</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">On race and Hamilton&rsquo;s position toward slavery</div>\n\n<p>See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>Some historians say Miranda&rsquo;s musical inflates Hamilton&rsquo;s antislavery credentials, painting him as a <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/4cxvludVmQxryrnx1m9FqL\">&quot;revolutionary manumission abolitionist&quot;</a> when, they say, he was less progressive on the issue of slavery in real life.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It is great theater and bad history,&quot; said David Waldstreicher, a historian at the Graduate Center at the City University of New York, who argued in one of a <a href=\"https://www.amazon.com/Historians-Hamilton-Blockbuster-Restaging-Americas/dp/0813590299?SubscriptionId=AKIAJRYWOFQSYZKJJZXA&amp;tag=smithsonianco-20&amp;linkCode=xm2&amp;camp=2025&amp;creative=165953&amp;creativeASIN=0813590299\">collection of essays</a> on &quot;Hamilton&quot; that the musical is part of a movement that over-glorifies the Founding Fathers.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The musical&rsquo;s Hamilton celebrates John Laurens&rsquo; dream of building &quot;the first Black battalion&quot; and says, &quot;We&rsquo;ll never be free until we end slavery.&quot; Hamilton&rsquo;s wife, Elizabeth Schuyler, <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/7EsSVPxaYoAZjQwhspJBs2\">says</a>&nbsp;in the play&#39;s final song&nbsp;that he &quot;could have done so much more&quot; toward ending slavery had he lived longer.</p>\n\n<p>In reality, Hamilton may not have been as ardent an abolitionist as the play makes him out to be. He was a founder of the <a href=\"https://www.nyhistory.org/web/africanfreeschool/history/manumission-society.html\">New York Manumission Society</a>, an anti-slavery group, but he did not seriously propose the total abolition of slavery, said Michael Newton, a historian and author of several books on Hamilton and the founding era.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The most important error is the flat-out exaggeration of abolitionism,&quot; Waldstreicher said. In his <a href=\"https://www.amazon.com/Historians-Hamilton-Blockbuster-Restaging-Americas/dp/0813590299?SubscriptionId=AKIAJRYWOFQSYZKJJZXA&amp;tag=smithsonianco-20&amp;linkCode=xm2&amp;camp=2025&amp;creative=165953&amp;creativeASIN=0813590299\">essay</a>, co-authored by the University of Missouri&rsquo;s Jeffrey Pasley, Waldstreicher wrote that the real-life Hamilton &quot;wasn&rsquo;t an antislavery activist or a &lsquo;revolutionary&rsquo; in that sense.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Hamilton propped up several Federalist slaveholders as presidential candidates, Waldstreicher and Pasley wrote. Other historians <a href=\"https://muse.jhu.edu/article/659842\">noted</a> that Hamilton&rsquo;s father-in-law owned slaves, and that Hamilton <a href=\"https://www.vox.com/the-big-idea/2016/9/13/12894934/hamilton-debates-history-race-politics-literature\">may have owned</a> at least two slaves himself.</p>\n\n<p>When slavery and race do come up in the musical, they do so &quot;primarily to establish Hamilton&rsquo;s &lsquo;goodness&rsquo; for modern audiences,&quot; said Harvard University&rsquo;s Annette Gordon-Reed <a href=\"https://ncph.org/history-at-work/hamilton-the-musical-blacks-and-the-founding-fathers/\">in an essay</a> for the National Council on Public History.</p>\n\n<p>Gordon-Reed, who said she loved the musical and regularly listens to its soundtrack, was responding to an <a href=\"https://online.ucpress.edu/tph/article/38/1/89/90687/Review-Essay-Race-Conscious-Casting-and-the\">essay</a> in the journal The Public Historian by Lyra D. Montiero, an assistant professor of American studies and history at Rutgers University, Newark.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Montiero took issue with Miranda&rsquo;s decision to employ a predominantly Black and Latino cast, a move that has drawn both praise and criticism. The casting, she wrote, covers up for the fact that the &quot;role of people of color in the Revolution itself is silenced.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Despite the proliferation of Black and brown bodies onstage, not a single enslaved or free person of color exists as a character in this play,&quot; she wrote. There&rsquo;s one exception, she noted: a chorus member briefly assumes the role of Sally Hemings, the biracial woman born into slavery under Thomas Jefferson who is <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/16/us/sally-hemings-exhibit-monticello.html\">believed</a> to have had a sexual relationship with him.</p>\n\n<p>Chernow, who described Hamilton as an &quot;uncompromising abolitionist&quot; in his biography, told the <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/11/theater/hamilton-and-history-are-they-in-sync.html\">New York Times</a> that the casting itself effectively writes non-white people into the Founding Fathers&rsquo; story. Daveed Diggs, who plays both Thomas Jefferson and the Marquis de Lafayette, <a href=\"https://www.wsj.com/articles/hamilton-roles-are-this-rappers-delight-1436303922\">said</a> he &quot;walked out of the show with a sense of ownership over American history.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Historians like Montiero have argued that the play could have also featured the &quot;thousands of people of color (who) participated in the war&quot; as soldiers, groomsmen and in other capacities. It omits the stories of Crispus Attucks, the Black man killed during the Boston Massacre, and Cato, who was born into slavery but worked as an anti-British spy alongside Hamilton&rsquo;s friend Hercules Mulligan.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">On the Reynolds Pamphlet</div>\n\n<p>See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>Hamilton&rsquo;s decision to publish an explainer detailing his affair with Maria Reynolds is a turning point in the musical &mdash; and based on a real historical event. The musical quotes directly from the actual <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-21-02-0138-0002\">&quot;Reynolds Pamphlet,&quot;</a> with some language updated for clarity.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>As in the play, the real-life Hamilton confessed to three men that he was guilty not of illegal financial speculation, but of paying hush money to <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-10-02-0029\">James Reynolds</a>, who extorted Hamilton under threat of publicizing the affair.</p>\n\n<p>But in reality, it wasn&rsquo;t Jefferson, Aaron Burr and James Madison who confronted Hamilton. It <a href=\"https://www.history.com/news/alexander-hamilton-maria-reynolds-pamphlet-affair\">was</a> House Speaker Frederick Muhlenberg, Rep. Abraham Venable of Virginia and future President James Monroe.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Hamilton released the tell-all &quot;Reynolds Pamphlet&quot; <a href=\"https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/alexander-hamiltons-adultery-and-apology-18021947/\">years later</a>, after a <a href=\"https://www.google.com/books/edition/Alexander_Hamilton/4z5eL5SGjEoC?hl=en&amp;gbpv=1&amp;bsq=callender\">journalist</a> <a href=\"https://www.history.com/news/alexander-hamilton-maria-reynolds-pamphlet-affair\">published</a> details of the affair and made accusations of what he, too, suspected was illegal speculation.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In the musical, Hamilton&rsquo;s revelations prompt his wife Elizabeth Schuyler to sing about <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/4B3qvzOMzLQXLeYgPsG3KA\">burning</a> her letters in order to &quot;let future historians wonder how Eliza reacted when you broke her heart.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Chernow didn&rsquo;t explicitly connect the lack of letters from Schuyler to the Reynolds Pamphlet. He wrote in his biography that she &quot;apparently destroyed her own letters and tried to expunge her presence from the history books,&quot; but he didn&#39;t say when she got rid of them or why.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In <a href=\"https://www.amazon.com/Hamilton-Revolution-Lin-Manuel-Miranda/dp/1478913649\">&quot;Hamilton: The Revolution,&quot;</a> a book Miranda co-authored about the musical, he said he had &quot;enormous freedom&quot; with this scene because &quot;Eliza&rsquo;s response is lost in time.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">On Thomas Jefferson and other Founding Fathers</div>\n\n<p>See Figure 4 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p><em>Daveed Diggs performs as Thomas Jefferson in &quot;Hamilton,&quot; the filmed version of the Broadway musical. (Disney+)​</em></p>\n\n<p>Jefferson is believed to have been more mild-tempered than &quot;Hamilton&quot; lets on &mdash; a <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/presidents/thomas-jefferson/\">writer</a> more than a speaker. The musical alters some events to paint him as a foil to Hamilton.</p>\n\n<p>Between Jefferson&rsquo;s return anthem <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/2W9u3whoCkQYOUbmnSrHi1\">&quot;What Did I Miss?&quot;</a> and Hamilton&rsquo;s claim in <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/3TfKt8mPpdXfQTMfRjHzyz\">&quot;Cabinet Battle #1&quot;</a> that &quot;we almost died in a trench while you were off getting high with the French,&quot; the musical gives the impression that Jefferson waited out the Revolutionary War overseas.</p>\n\n<p>Jefferson did not fight in the war as a soldier. He was <a href=\"https://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/thomas-jefferson\">selected</a> as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in 1775 and helped draft the Declaration of Independence for adoption in 1776. He served as governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>It wasn&rsquo;t until 1784 that Jefferson <a href=\"https://www.loc.gov/collections/thomas-jefferson-papers/articles-and-essays/the-thomas-jefferson-papers-timeline-1743-to-1827/1784-to-1789/\">left for Europe</a>, where he eventually replaced Benjamin Franklin as the U.S. minister to France.</p>\n\n<p>Jefferson didn&rsquo;t step down as secretary of state &quot;so he (could) run for president,&quot; either, despite what President George Washington&rsquo;s character says in <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/0Iys022UwQ8xBfxE1g4nWZ\">&quot;One Last Time.&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p>In reality, he <a href=\"https://www.loc.gov/resource/mtj1.019_1253_1253/?st=text\">resigned</a> in 1793, three years before the 1796 election, when he was elected vice president.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The musical&rsquo;s reduction of Madison to a Jefferson sidekick also results&nbsp;in a portrayal that is &quot;greatly distorted,&quot; said Estes, the Oakland University professor.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;In actuality, Madison was a giant,&quot; Estes said. &quot;Madison was absolutely an equal partner with Jefferson and stood on the same level of historical significance as Hamilton and Jefferson.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">On the election of 1800</div>\n\n<p>See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>The musical&rsquo;s rivalry between Hamilton and Burr peaks after <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/0LpHC9mhPAQC98IjXZIrif\">the election of 1800</a>. Hamilton sways the delegates to elect Jefferson with a late, tie-breaking &quot;endorsement&quot; that lifts Jefferson over&nbsp;Burr &quot;in a landslide&quot; and inspires Burr to challenge Hamilton to a duel.</p>\n\n<p>In reality, however, Jefferson did not win solely because of Hamilton, nor was it a landslide.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The <a href=\"https://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/1800-election/1800-election.html\">election of 1800</a> saw the Democratic-Republican Party <a href=\"https://www.vox.com/2015/11/28/9801376/hamilton-election-of-1800-burr-jefferson\">push</a> Jefferson for president and Burr for vice president in a bid to unseat President John Adams. The voting process was different back then. Electors in the Electoral College got two votes. The recipient of the most votes would become president, and the runner-up would become vice president.</p>\n\n<p>Jefferson and Burr received the same number of votes, resulting in a tie that sent the decision to the House of Representatives. Hamilton <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0131#ARHN-01-25-02-0131-fn-0001\">lobbied the House Federalists</a> to back Jefferson, but he wasn&rsquo;t the deciding &quot;vote,&quot; as the musical suggests.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;James Bayard of Delaware is the only person who had that kind of influence, and he didn&#39;t listen to Hamilton,&quot; wrote Nancy Isenberg, professor of history at Louisiana State University, in a <a href=\"https://muse.jhu.edu/article/659842\">journal article</a> that called Miranda&rsquo;s depiction of the election &quot;distorted beyond recognition.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>It also <a href=\"https://muse.jhu.edu/article/659845\">wasn&rsquo;t</a> the so-called &quot;endorsement&quot; that inspired the <a href=\"https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/burr-slays-hamilton-in-duel\">Hamilton-Burr</a> <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0241\">duel</a>. According to <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0201\">the National Archives</a>, Burr challenged Hamilton after Hamilton campaigned and allegedly made <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0203-0002\">disparaging remarks</a> against him during Burr&rsquo;s run to become New York&rsquo;s governor in 1804.</p>\n\n<p>The two did <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0210\">sign</a> their <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0212#ARHN-01-26-02-0001-0212-fn-0002\">letters</a> <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0205\">&quot;A.Hamilton&quot;</a> and <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0207\">&quot;A.Burr.&quot;</a></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Other historical inaccuracies or exaggerations</div>\n\n<p>See Figure 5 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p><em>Phillipa Soo as Eliza Hamilton, Renee Elise Goldsberry as Angelica Schuyler and Jasmine Cephas Jones as Peggy Schuyler in &quot;Hamilton,&quot; the filmed version of the Broadway musical. (Disney+)</em></p>\n\n<p><strong>Aaron Burr:</strong> &quot;You punched the bursar.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/6dr7ekfhlbquvsVY8D7gyk\">&quot;Aaron Burr, Sir&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check:</strong> Hamilton&rsquo;s character describes punching the person who &quot;handles the financials&quot; at Princeton. But in his book on the musical, Miranda said the line was a &quot;historical leap&quot; that made for a good rhyme. The real-life Hamilton had a disagreement with Princeton&rsquo;s president over his desire to graduate early, according to Chernow&rsquo;s biography.</p>\n\n<p>Miranda also wrote that the dialogue between Hamilton and Burr was a &quot;fictional first meeting.&quot; Other characters in the scene, including the Marquis de Lafayette, could not have met Hamilton that early. &quot;Lafayette was not in America when Hamilton arrived,&quot; Newton, the Hamilton historian, said.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Aaron Burr:</strong> &quot;Martha Washington named her feral tomcat after him.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Alexander Hamilton</strong>: &quot;That&rsquo;s true!&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/2yBMVrq96wb9OHbMdBs0lF\">&quot;A Winter&rsquo;s Ball&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check:</strong> The tomcat story suggests that Hamilton was a womanizer. It appears in multiple biographies, according to the <a href=\"https://www.bostonglobe.com/arts/theater-dance/2016/07/07/group-upset-that-hamilton-alleges-martha-washington-named-tomcat-after-him/XSoUG3OaDUtbxxu1plxbyJ/story.html\">Associated Press</a>. But the story is actually in dispute.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Miranda wrote in his book on the musical that it was &quot;most likely a tale spread by John Adams later in life,&quot; while Newton <a href=\"http://discoveringhamilton.com/alexander-hamilton-tomcat-fully-refuted/\">traced</a> it to a satirical letter written by someone identified as Captain Smythe.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Angelica Schuyler:</strong> &quot;My father has no sons so I&rsquo;m the one who has to social climb for one.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/3dP0pLbg9OfVwssDjp9aT0\">&quot;Satisfied&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check:</strong> Angelica Schuyler Church had <a href=\"http://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=uva-sc/viu00003.xml;query=;\">several</a> brothers, a fact that Miranda has since <a href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRJEOsyCfvQ\">said</a> he &quot;forgot&quot; while writing the musical. She was also <a href=\"https://dcmetrotheaterarts.com/2018/07/10/who-were-the-schuyler-sisters-fact-and-fiction-in-hamilton/\">married</a> <a href=\"https://explore.lib.virginia.edu/exhibits/show/church/angelica\">by the time</a> that Hamilton came into her life, although the two did exchange frequent letters.</p>\n\n<p><strong>The company:</strong> &quot;It&rsquo;s the 10 duel commandments.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/3lXyAQ0kekAvY5LodpWmUs\">&quot;The Ten Duel Commandments&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check:</strong> An American &quot;code duello&quot; did exist, according to <a href=\"https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/duel-code-duello-rules-dueling/\">PBS&rsquo;s American Experience</a>. But the 1777 code had more than 10 rules &mdash; it had 25. Miranda wrote in a <a href=\"https://genius.com/7860689\">Genius annotation</a> that he was inspired by &quot;Ten Crack Commandments,&quot; a rap song by the Notorious B.I.G.</p>\n\n<p>Miranda also altered other details of the duels depicted in &quot;Hamilton.&quot; For example, Burr was not present during the duel between Laurens and Charles Lee, according to an <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-01-02-0687\">account</a> by Hamilton and Maj. Evan Edwards, Lee&rsquo;s second. It&rsquo;s also not clear that Washington was as upset by the duel as the musical shows.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Aaron Burr:</strong> &quot;Talks for six hours! The convention is listless!&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/7qfoq1JFKBUEIvhqOHzuqX\">&quot;Non-Stop&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check:</strong> Hamilton did <a href=\"https://prologue.blogs.archives.gov/2018/09/17/alexander-hamilton-and-the-constitution/\">speak</a> for roughly six hours at the Constitutional Convention, and he did propose &quot;his <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-04-02-0099\">own form</a> of government,&quot; as the musical says.</p>\n\n<p>The missing context is that &quot;Hamilton famously advocated a monarchy in a speech his colleagues admired but ignored,&quot; Waldstreicher and Pasley wrote in their <a href=\"https://www.amazon.com/Historians-Hamilton-Blockbuster-Restaging-Americas/dp/0813590299?SubscriptionId=AKIAJRYWOFQSYZKJJZXA&amp;tag=smithsonianco-20&amp;linkCode=xm2&amp;camp=2025&amp;creative=165953&amp;creativeASIN=0813590299\">essay</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Generally speaking, Hamilton had a &quot;serious anti-democratic bent&quot; that was &quot;played down&quot; in the musical, Estes said. &quot;The immigrant trope is used to help make Hamilton more a &lsquo;man of the people&rsquo; than he ever was historically,&quot; he said.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Alexander Hamilton:</strong> &quot;Do you support this Constitution? &hellip; Then defend it.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/7qfoq1JFKBUEIvhqOHzuqX\">&quot;Non-Stop&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check:</strong> There&rsquo;s no evidence that Hamilton invited Burr to contribute to the <a href=\"https://guides.loc.gov/federalist-papers/full-text\">Federalist Papers</a>, a series of essays arguing in support of the U.S. Constitution. In Miranda&rsquo;s book on the musical, he wrote that this was a &quot;fictional scene.&quot; Only Madison and John Jay contributed to the effort, while Gouvernuer Morris <a href=\"https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/gouverneur-morris\">declined</a> Hamilton&rsquo;s invitation to join it.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Thomas Jefferson:</strong>&nbsp;&quot;If New York&rsquo;s in debt, why should Virginia bear it? Uh! Our debts are paid, I&rsquo;m afraid. Don&rsquo;t tax the South cuz we got it made in the shade.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/3TfKt8mPpdXfQTMfRjHzyz\">&quot;Cabinet Battle #1&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check: </strong>It&rsquo;s not true that the Southern states had paid off all their post-war debts when Hamilton proposed a plan to let the federal government assume them. The <a href=\"https://www.loc.gov/law/help/statutes-at-large/1st-congress/session-2/c1s2ch34.pdf\">funding act</a> passed as part of the Compromise of 1790 authorized the assumption of $21.5 million in debts that were owed by all 13 states, including the Southern states.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Aaron Burr:</strong> &quot;Adams fires Hamilton &hellip; Hamilton publishes his response.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/68Ijc4fPmT3P5BN6Vrl2s2\">&quot;The Adams Administration&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check:</strong> Hamilton resigned as Treasury Secretary in 1795, before Adams became president. Adams took over <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/about-the-white-house/presidents/john-adams/\">the presidency</a> two years later, in 1797. Hamilton blasted Adams in a <a href=\"https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0110-0002\">letter</a> dated Oct. 24, 1800.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Alexander Hamilton:</strong> &quot;I have never agreed with Jefferson once.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Song:</strong> <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/0LpHC9mhPAQC98IjXZIrif\">&quot;The Election of 1800&quot;</a></p>\n\n<p><strong>Fact-check:</strong> Hamilton and Jefferson agreed on some things, such as the establishment of the <a href=\"https://www.westpoint.edu/about/history-of-west-point\">United States Military Academy at West Point</a>. Along with Madison, the two famously struck a deal <a href=\"https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/hamilton-dinner-table-bargain-june-1790/\">over dinner</a> that led to the Compromise of 1790. Jefferson and Madison agreed to let the federal government assume state debts in exchange for moving the capital to Washington, D.C. The dinner is detailed in the musical&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://open.spotify.com/track/2TK2KSrzXD6W01qjXVjNGh\">&quot;The Room Where it Happens.&quot;</a></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-01T16:31:28-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "what-we-know-about-st-louis-couple-who-pointed-gun",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "What we know about the St. Louis couple who pointed guns at protesters, fearing 'angry mob'",
            "entry": "<p>On a Sunday evening in St. Louis, a group of people calling for the city&rsquo;s mayor to resign marched into the upscale neighborhood where she lived.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>They were met inside the gate of Portland Place by a white couple, one brandishing a rifle and the other a handgun, photos and <a href=\"https://twitter.com/Ohun_Ashe/status/1277742108984647686\">video</a> <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/couple-draw-guns-crowd-heading-st-louis-mayors-71506657?cid=social_twitter_abcn\">clips</a> show. What caused the couple to respond in that way &mdash; capturing the attention of President Donald Trump on <a href=\"https://thehill.com/homenews/administration/504974-trump-shares-video-of-homeowners-pointing-guns-at-protesters-in-st\">Twitter</a> &mdash; is in some dispute.</p>\n\n<p>A Facebook post showing three photos of the couple and their guns claimed: &quot;This Couple is Mark and Patricia McCloskey, owners and attorneys at McCloskey Law Center. mccloskeylaw.com in the CWE pointing guns at protestors that are walking by!&quot;</p>\n\n<p>(CWE refers to the Central West End neighborhood.)</p>\n\n<p>The <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/FrontLineA1/posts/1327523950770120?__tn__=-R\">post</a>, which does not show photos of any protesters, was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about our <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\">partnership</a> with Facebook.)</p>\n\n<p>In short, the photos are legitimate. The McCloskeys, who are both lawyers, claim they feared for their safety. A local prosecutor is investigating whether criminal charges should be filed against the couple. Meanwhile, the couple&rsquo;s actions have <a href=\"https://lawandcrime.com/high-profile/will-gun-wielding-st-louis-attorneys-be-able-to-hide-behind-the-states-castle-doctrine/\">sparked</a> <a href=\"https://www.abajournal.com/news/article/are-lawyers-who-pointed-guns-at-protesters-protected-by-the-castle-doctrine\">debate</a> about whether they were protected under Missouri&rsquo;s version of the castle doctrine law, which generally allows a person to defend their homes.</p>\n\n<p>Here&rsquo;s what we know about what happened, based on media reports and social media from the scene.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Couple points guns at marchers</div>\n\n<p>The marchers were seeking the resignation of St. Louis Mayor Lyda Krewson, who lives in the same area of the city&rsquo;s Central West End as the McCloskeys.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Hundreds of protesters, chanting &quot;resign Lyda, take the cops with you,&quot; marched to Krewson&#39;s home, calling for her resignation, KMOV-TV in St. Louis <a href=\"https://www.kmov.com/news/we-were-in-fear-of-our-lives-central-west-end-couple-seen-pointing-guns-at/article_afbb1b2c-b98e-11ea-ba7e-b3452007bfc8.html\">reported</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Krewson drew the scorn of some residents two days earlier when she read the names and addresses of demonstrators calling for police reform during a Facebook Live video session. She later explained herself, <a href=\"https://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/krewson-draws-ire-for-reading-protesters-addresses-as-protests-and-commemorations-continue-to-dot-st/article_92b978b7-4be5-5f8d-a9ad-9b1783e5612c.html\">saying</a> on Facebook, &quot;I would like to apologize for identifying individuals who presented letters and comment cards to me at City Hall as I was answering a routine question during one of my updates earlier today. While this is public information, never did I intend to cause distress or harm to anyone. The post has been removed and again, I sincerely apologize.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>During the march at about 7:30 p.m., a couple at a nearby home stepped outside with guns. &quot;Images and videos showed 61-year-old Patricia McCloskey pointing a handgun at the crowd and her husband, 63-year-old Mark McCloskey, was seen holding a rifle,&quot; KOTV reported. &quot;Mark and Patricia McCloskey are personal-injury lawyers who work together in the McCloskey Law Center in St. Louis.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://twitter.com/Ohun_Ashe/status/1277742108984647686\">Video</a> <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/couple-draw-guns-crowd-heading-st-louis-mayors-71506657?cid=social_twitter_abcn\">clips</a> show Mark McCloskey and protesters exchanging words.</p>\n\n<p>Mark McCloskey contacted KOTV the day after the protest saying he had been having dinner with his family outside of their home when the crowd marched past &quot;No Trespassing&quot; and &quot;Private Street&quot; signs.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;A mob of at least 100 smashed through the historic wrought iron gates of Portland Place, destroying them, rushed towards my home where my family was having dinner outside and put us in fear of our lives,&quot; McCloskey told KOTV. &quot;This is all private property. There are no public sidewalks or public streets. We were told that we would be killed, our home burned and our dog killed. We were all alone facing an angry mob.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Video with the story shows the couple, who live in what St. Louis public radio <a href=\"https://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/st-louis-couple-points-guns-protesters-was-it-legal#stream/0\">described</a> as a million-dollar home, exchanging words with demonstrators.</p>\n\n<p>The St. Louis Post-Dispatch reported this exchange as part of its <a href=\"https://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/couple-points-guns-at-protesters-marching-to-st-louis-mayor-s-home-to-demand-resignation/article_9edc57ed-c307-583f-9226-a44ba6ac9c03.html\">account</a>:</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Private property!&quot; Mark McCloskey shouted repeatedly at the crowd, as he held a rifle. &quot;Get out! Private property, get out!&quot; Patricia McCloskey pointed a small handgun. Someone in the crowd replied, &quot;Calm down.&quot; A woman protester yelled, &quot;Then call the (expletive) cops, you idiot!&quot; and &quot;It&rsquo;s a public street (expletive).&quot;</p>\n\n<p>A video <a href=\"https://twitter.com/Ohun_Ashe/status/1277742108984647686\">clip</a> shows the protesters entered a gate that appeared to be fully intact. In an incident report, St. Louis police did not indicate whether it was confirmed that any protesters were armed. The report says in full:</p>\n\n<p style=\"margin-left: 36pt;\">&quot;Officers responded to a &lsquo;Call for Help&rsquo; at the above location. The victims stated they were on their property when they heard a loud commotion coming from the street. When the victims went to investigate the commotion, they observed a large group of subjects forcefully break an iron gate marked with &lsquo;No Trespassing&rsquo; and &lsquo;Private Street&rsquo; signs. Once through the gate, the victims advised the group that they were on a private street and trespassing and told them to leave. The group began yelling obscenities and threats of harm to both victims. When the victims observed multiple subjects who were armed, they then armed themselves and contacted police. The investigation is ongoing.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The St. Louis city prosecutor, Circuit Attorney Kimberly Gardner, tweeted a <a href=\"https://twitter.com/stlcao/status/1277668500027342848/photo/1\">statement</a> saying she was alarmed that &quot;peaceful protesters were met by guns and a violent assault,&quot; and that her office and police are investigating.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Make no mistake: we will not tolerate the use of force against those exercising their First Amendment rights, and will use the full power of Missouri law to hold people accountable,&quot; the statement said.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-06-30T14:58:04-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "amid-misinformation-were-here-separate-facts-ficti",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Amid the misinformation, we're here to separate facts from fiction",
            "entry": "<p>Let&#39;s be honest, it&rsquo;s been a bad few months for facts. At PolitiFact, we&#39;re&nbsp;continuing to see a massive amount of misinformation about the coronavirus pandemic and the protests for social change.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>It&rsquo;s happening in the White House, and on Capitol Hill, in statehouses and on television. You&rsquo;re probably seeing it online. We definitely are.</p>\n\n<p>At PolitiFact, we&rsquo;re trying as best we can to help separate fact from fiction. Our team also is ramping up its coverage of the presidential election and key House and Senate races ahead of Election Day. Our goal is to help you better understand complicated or thorny political issues, so that you can make the best decisions for yourself about who to vote for, who to believe and what policies to support.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>This has been the purpose of journalism for a long time. Each person on our staff has been trained to rise up in moments like this. Can you say the same about the algorithms, or selfish people who are spreading misinformation, or trolls?</p>\n\n<p>Our only goal right now is&nbsp;to serve the public.&nbsp;We&#39;re going to keep vetting, compiling, and producing work that helps inform you.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>If we&#39;ve helped you during this time of crisis and social reckoning, will you donate today?</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><a href=\"https://checkout.fundjournalism.org/memberform?amount=25&amp;installmentPeriod=once&amp;org_id=politifact&amp;campaign=7011L000001NNoKQAW\"><strong>DONATE TODAY</strong></a></div>",
            "publication_date": "2020-06-30T10:26:48-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "fact-checking-trumps-visit-wisconsin-Marinette",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Fact-checking Trump’s visit to Wisconsin",
            "entry": "<p>Resuming campaigning after an extended hiatus for the pandemic, President Donald Trump made Wisconsin one of his first stops.</p>\n\n<p>Trump won battleground Wisconsin by<a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/elections/2016/results/president\"> less than 20,000 votes</a> in 2016, but Democrat Joe Biden leads Trump 49% to 41% in the latest<a href=\"https://www.jsonline.com/story/news/politics/elections/2020/06/24/marquette-poll-joe-biden-leads-donald-trump-49-41-wisconsin/3250329001/\"> Marquette University Law School Poll</a>.</p>\n\n<p>On June 25, 2020, Trump made stops in Marinette and Green Bay. He<a href=\"https://www.jsonline.com/story/news/2020/06/25/trump-wisconsin-supporters-protesters-gather-green-bay-airport-presidents-arrival-town-hall/3246586001/\"> conducted a town hall</a> aired on Fox News and<a href=\"https://www.jsonline.com/story/news/2020/06/25/president-trump-visits-wisconsin-green-bay-marinette-fincantieri/3242150001/\"> toured Fincantieri Marinette Marine</a>, which recently received a defense contract worth up to $5.5 billion.</p>\n\n<p>In comments at both locations, Trump tackled an array of topics &mdash; the wave of protests in the wake of George Floyd&rsquo;s death, the coronavirus response, the economy and mail-in voting. But his descriptions often strayed from reality. Here&rsquo;s what we found fact-checking the president.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;Criminal justice reform &mdash; Obama and Biden never even tried it.&quot;</div>\n\n<p>One can debate the effectiveness of various measures, but President Barack Obama and Biden, his vice president, did take steps in this area.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Obama signed the <a href=\"https://t.co/B32HxGbZUR?amp=1\">Fair Sentencing Act</a>, reducing the disparity in sentences between crack and powder cocaine (long criticized as discriminating against Black offenders). His Department of Justice launched the <a href=\"https://t.co/NQqw8jv21K?amp=1\">Smart on Crime initiative</a>, which directed prosecutors nationwide to stop bringing charges that carry harsh minimum sentences except in the most extreme cases.</p>\n\n<p>Obama also convened the President&rsquo;s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, which produced a <a href=\"https://cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/taskforce/taskforce_finalreport.pdf\">lengthy report </a>on improving policing. And in a key step Obama could take on justice directly, he granted clemency to 248 federal inmates, more than the past five presidents combined, according to the <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/national/obama-legacy/racial-profiling-criminal-justice-reform.html\">Washington Post</a>.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Before the pandemic, &quot;We were going through the single greatest year we&rsquo;ve ever had&quot; for employment, stock market</div>\n\n<p>There&rsquo;s a lot of truth to this claim. The stock market, based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average, was at<a href=\"https://www.macrotrends.net/1319/dow-jones-100-year-historical-chart\"> historic highs</a> in late 2019, even when adjusted for inflation.</p>\n\n<p>The employment element is more nuanced. PolitiFact Wisconsin rated <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/feb/07/donald-trump/president-trump-scores-claim-number-us-workers/\">Mostly True</a> a Trump claim from a January 2020 visit to Milwaukee that the 160 million people working at the time were the most in history. But examining employment as a rate instead &mdash; that is, as a percentage of the population &mdash; shows the U.S. was actually at its peak around 2000.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;If we didn&rsquo;t test, we wouldn&rsquo;t have cases.&quot;</div>\n\n<p>This statement, from the Marinette remarks, is nonsense. Conducting fewer tests doesn&rsquo;t reduce the number of cases, it just reduces the number we know about. This is nevertheless a claim Trump has recycled frequently, including<a href=\"https://youtu.be/JB54ejj-4a0?t=1230\"> May 14</a> and<a href=\"https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2020/06/18/coronavirus-trump-calls-testing-overrated-wall-street-journal-interview/3192584001/\"> 15</a>.</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact National has rated variations of the claim <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/24/donald-trump/donald-trump-wrong-greater-testing-driving-coronav/\">False</a> and<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/17/donald-trump/trumps-take-covid-testing-gives-short-shrift-publi/\"> Pants on Fire</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Trump walked back this line of reasoning in the Green Bay town hall, saying: &quot;Sometimes I jokingly say or sarcastically say, if we didn&rsquo;t do tests we&rsquo;d look great. You know what? It&rsquo;s not the right thing to do.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Though, as we wrote in rating <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/24/priorities-usa-action/trump-positive-coronavirus-tests-slowdown-look-bad/\">True</a> an attack ad zeroing in on such statements by Trump, the president has also said he wasn&rsquo;t joking when he made them.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;We have one of the lowest mortality rates&quot; for COVID-19</div>\n\n<p>The opposite is actually true. Among the 20 nations most affected by COVID-19 worldwide, the U.S. has among the highest death rates &mdash; whether calculated as a percentage of known cases or as a percentage of the population as a whole, according to Johns Hopkins University&rsquo;s<a href=\"https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality\"> Mortality Analyses</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Across all 161 countries tracked by the site, the U.S. is ninth-highest for deaths by population (38 per 100,000) and 33rd-highest for death frequency by case (5.1%).</p>\n\n<p>The U.S. also has the highest raw number of coronavirus deaths in the world at 124,000, more than double any other country.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Said Wisconsin state senator attacked by protesters was &quot;rooting them on&quot;</div>\n\n<p>State Sen. Tim Carpenter, D-Milwaukee, was <a href=\"https://www.jsonline.com/story/news/2020/06/24/madison-protesters-pull-down-forward-hans-christian-heg-statues-attack-senator-sculptures-in-lake/3247948001/\">assaulted in Madison</a> two days before Trump&rsquo;s visit after taking a picture of a group of protesters who were vandalizing buildings and destroying statues.</p>\n\n<p>Trump described it this way: &quot;The person they beat up was a Democrat who happened to be gay, and he was probably out there rooting them on or something, because Democrats think it&rsquo;s wonderful that they&rsquo;re destroying our country.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel noted this unsupported claim <a href=\"https://www.jsonline.com/story/news/politics/2020/06/26/madison-statues-trump-falsely-claims-senator-rooting-on-destruction/3261915001/\">flies in the face</a> of multiple eye-witness, video and audio accounts of the events in Madison. Carpenter was not part of the protest. Rather he said he was headed to the Capitol to do some work.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">The $5.5 billion shipbuilding deal is &quot;one of the biggest contracts you&rsquo;ve ever seen in this state.&quot;</div>\n\n<p>The massive deal announced in April awarded Fincantieri Marinette Marine a contract to build the service&#39;s first new frigate, with options for up to 10 total ships, according to the<a href=\"https://www.greenbaypressgazette.com/story/news/2020/05/02/fincantieri-marinette-marines-new-u-s-navy-contract-benefit-state/3069012001/\"> Green Bay Press Gazette</a>. The deal that will keep the company&#39;s shipbuilders working for the next two decades and lead to the hiring of about 1,000 new workers in Marinette.</p>\n\n<p>A review of past news reports showed Oshkosh Corp. received a<a href=\"https://www.wsj.com/articles/oshkosh-wins-6-7-billion-military-contract-to-replace-humvee-1440537576\"> $6.75 billion contract</a> in 2015 to build 17,000 light trucks. And they were awarded a<a href=\"https://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/fmtv-2010-2015-oshkosh-wins-the-re-compete-05744/\"> $3 billion contact</a> in 2010 to build medium tactical vehicles. But the new Marinette deal certainly appears among the largest the state has seen.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">&quot;The mail-in ballots, they mail them to anybody.&quot;</div>\n\n<p>This claim is in line with an array of past statements from Trump, who has alleged mail-in voting leads to widespread fraud.</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact California rated <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/may/26/donald-trump/no-california-not-sending-mail-ballots-anyone-stat/\">Pants on Fire</a> a claim Trump made in May that California is sending ballots &quot;to anyone in the state.&quot; Mail-in ballots in California, like other states, are only sent to active registered voters.</p>\n\n<p>(In Wisconsin, election officials <a href=\"https://www.jsonline.com/story/news/politics/2020/06/17/wisconsin-elections-commission-finalize-mailing-absentee-ballot-reqest-forms/5329007002/\">decided this month</a> to send absentee ballot request forms &mdash; not actual ballots &mdash; to the 2.7 million voters who are registered)</p>\n\n<p>Trump also raised the spectre of people taking the ballots from mailboxes or foreign nations printing millions of ballots and sending them in. Experts consulted by <a href=\"https://www.factcheck.org/2020/05/more-false-mail-in-ballot-claims-from-trump/\">FactCheck.org</a> said mail-in voter fraud is rare, though it is more common than fraud in person.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>",
            "publication_date": "2020-06-26T12:51:44-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "republicans-and-democrats-claim-support-dreamers-s",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Republicans and Democrats claim to support Dreamers. So why can’t they pass a law?",
            "entry": "<p>Politicians and the American public seem to agree that immigrants known as &quot;Dreamers&quot; should be given a chance to stay in the country permanently and legally.</p>\n\n<p>For nearly two decades, Democrats and Republicans in Congress have crafted versions of legislation that would offer immigrants who came here as children a path to U.S. citizenship. Presidents of both parties have expressed support.&nbsp; <a href=\"https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/06/17/americans-broadly-support-legal-status-for-immigrants-brought-to-the-u-s-illegally-as-children/\">Many</a> <a href=\"https://www.politico.com/news/2020/06/17/trump-supporters-dreamers-poll-323432\">polls </a><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2017/sep/19/nancy-pelosi/nancy-pelosi-claims-three-quarters-americans-suppo/\">show</a> the majority of Americans support it, too.</p>\n\n<p>But that bipartisan enthusiasm has not materialized into law. Why not?</p>\n\n<p>Neither party is willing to concede its priorities.</p>\n\n<p>Democrats generally favor a bill that addresses Dreamers without giving in to President Donald Trump&rsquo;s priorities on immigration. Republicans do not want to extend an Obama-era program, which defers deportation, without achieving other goals such as a reduction in legal immigration or funding for a U.S.-Mexico border wall.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>&lsquo;Politics&rsquo; over &lsquo;solutions&rsquo;</strong></div>\n\n<p>Congress has become a quagmire where it is hard to pass any bill. Lawmakers don&rsquo;t trust that if they support a bill on the priorities of the opposite side that it will be their turn next.</p>\n\n<p>As both sides hold up what the other wants, it creates a &quot;zero-sum game,&quot; said Theresa Cardinal Brown, director of immigration and cross-border policy at the Bipartisan Policy Center.</p>\n\n<p>Before Trump took office, the Republican Party lurched to the right on immigration &mdash; and then more so under Trump, said Frank Sharry, executive director of America&rsquo;s Voice, which supports legislation to protect Dreamers from deportation. That has made it an even higher hurdle for the two parties to reach an agreement.</p>\n\n<p>Trump has at times said he is willing to compromise, but has <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2018/03/23/politics/daca-rejected-deals-trump/index.html\">thwarted some bills</a>, endorsed deals that included provisions that didn&rsquo;t stand a chance of passing, and was accused by Democrats of using <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2018/jan/12/donald-trumps-s-hole-countries-remarks-and-its-pol/\">inflammatory language</a> that sidetracked negotiations. Trump appears to prefer pursuing his immigration priorities through executive orders rather than crafting a compromise with Democrats.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, with House and Senate Democrats, gather to call for Congressional Republicans to stand up to President Trump&#39;s decision to end Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Sept. 6, 2017. ( AP/Jose Luis Magana)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<p>&quot;The Republicans value the provisions that they are holding out for more than they value making DACA permanent,&quot; said David Bier, an immigration policy analyst at the libertarian Cato Institute. &quot;And Democrats are the opposite, they value not having those provisions more than they value having DACA.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>A key issue for people who favor stricter immigration laws is avoiding another scenario where a new group of immigrants are in the same situation Dreamers are in now.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The issue here is if you give amnesty to DACA beneficiaries, how do you compensate for that?&quot; said Mark Krikorian, executive director of the Center for Immigration Studies, a think tank that favors low-immigration levels. &quot;There have to be reductions in legal immigration, there have to be enforcement measures to limit future DACA situations.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The idea of broad public support doesn&rsquo;t mean that much if Congress hasn&rsquo;t passed a bill, he said.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;If Democrats and Republicans don&rsquo;t agree on a specific proposal, all of this talk of bipartisan agreement is hot air,&quot; Krikorian said.</p>\n\n<p>Former U.S. Rep. Carlos Curbelo, R-Fla., said that a lot of Republicans and Democrats in Congress &quot;prefer the politics of immigration over solutions for immigration.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Democrats want to motivate Hispanic voters by saying Republicans want to deport them all,&quot; Curbelo said. &quot;Republicans want to motivate their base of voters saying Democrats want open borders and want the country overrun by illegal immigrants. If you actually vote for compromise on immigration it would limit your ability to sound the alarm come Election Day.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>Rep. Dan Newhouse, R-Wash., center, is joined by fellow Republicans to discuss their support for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Nov. 9, 2017. (AP/J. Scott Applewhite)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>The shadow of DACA</strong></div>\n\n<p>The current hangup over a legal immigration status for Dreamers revolves around the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/jan/09/donald-trump/obama-hedged-didnt-say-he-lacked-legal-right-daca/\">Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals</a> program created by the Obama administration in 2012. The program aims to protect Dreamers from deportation in two-year intervals. About <a href=\"https://www.uscis.gov/sites/default/files/USCIS/Resources/Reports%20and%20Studies/Immigration%20Forms%20Data/All%20Form%20Types/DACA/DACA_Population_Receipts_since_Injunction_Dec_31_2019.pdf\">650,000 immigrants</a> have DACA protection, which is subject to renewal and allows them to apply for permission to work legally.</p>\n\n<p>When he announced the program in June 2012, President Barack Obama <a href=\"https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2012/06/15/remarks-president-immigration\">said</a> DACA was not a permanent fix, rather a &quot;temporary stopgap measure&quot; to focus immigration enforcement resources &quot;in the right places&quot; and give a degree of relief to young immigrants. He called on Congress to act and pass a law to help Dreamers.</p>\n\n<p>Opponents of DACA, including Trump, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/jan/09/donald-trump/obama-hedged-didnt-say-he-lacked-legal-right-daca/\">argue</a> that Obama did not have the legal authority to create it. The Trump administration tried to rescind the program through a 2017 memo, which resulted in a legal battle only recently addressed by the U.S. Supreme Court. In <a href=\"https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/19pdf/18-587_5ifl.pdf\">rejecting</a> the Trump administration&rsquo;s attempt to end the program, the court said it could try to revoke the program again, using proper procedures.</p>\n\n<p>Former Vice President Joe Biden, the presumptive Democratic presidential nominee, has called for <a href=\"https://joebiden.com/immigration/\">reinstating DACA</a> and supports legislation that would allow beneficiaries to stay in the country.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>In this Aug. 15, 2012 file photo, a man reads a guide of the conditions needed to apply for Obama-era Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program at the Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights offices in Los Angeles. (AP/Damian Dovarganes)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Two decades of failed immigration proposals</strong></div>\n\n<p>The bipartisan push to pass legislation began in 2001, led by <a href=\"https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/senate-bill/1291/cosponsors?searchResultViewType=expanded\">Sen. Orrin Hatch, R-Utah</a>, and <a href=\"https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/senate-bill/1265?r=1&amp;s=3\">Sen. Dick Durbin, D-Ill.</a> The initial proposal was known as the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act &mdash; its acronym has since been commonly used to reference potential beneficiaries, Dreamers.</p>\n\n<p>Other versions in the early 2000s drew <a href=\"https://www.congress.gov/bill/108th-congress/senate-bill/1545/cosponsors?searchResultViewType=expanded\">co-sponsors from both parties but not much serious consideration.</a> One Dreamer-specific <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2013/aug/28/janet-napolitano/2010-dream-act-has-strong-bipartisan-support-said-/\">bill in 2010</a> passed the House but failed to reach a 60-vote threshold in the Senate.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/jan/26/ronald-brownstein/did-senators-pass-immigration-reform-bills-2006-20/\">Broader immigration bills</a> in 2006 and 2013 also failed. A Republican-led Senate in 2006<strong> </strong>passed a bill to strengthen border security and provide legal immigration status for people illegally in the country. President George W. Bush<a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/05/25/immigration/index.html\"> commended</a> the Senate &quot;for passing bipartisan comprehensive immigration reform,&quot; but the measure wasn&rsquo;t brought up in the Republican-led House, which favored enforcement alone.</p>\n\n<p>Another bill to increase the number of Border Patrol agents at the southern border and to add other security measures <a href=\"https://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=113&amp;session=1&amp;vote=00168\">passed the Senate</a> in 2013. That proposal, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2013/apr/17/marco-rubio/sen-marco-rubio-says-immigration-bill-not-amnesty/\">written by four Democrats and four Republicans</a>, also allowed immigrants in the country illegally to adjust their immigration status, if they met certain criteria. But House Republicans again opposed the Senate immigration proposal, arguing that border security needed to be addressed first before legalizing the status of millions of immigrants.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/oct/30/donald-trump/donald-trump-falsely-claims-democrats-oppose-any-e/\">No other proposal</a> introduced in recent years has prevailed.</p>\n\n<p>When you factor in lawmakers&rsquo; attention on the coronavirus and damaged economy, a permanent solution for Dreamers in 2020 becomes more unlikely, experts said.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The party lines are drawn,&quot; said Bier, the Cato Institute expert. &quot;And I think it&rsquo;s very unlikely we&rsquo;ll see any compromise until there&rsquo;s a political shakeup.&quot;</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-06-25T09:41:02-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "whats-happening-polling-places-kentucky",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "What’s happening with polling places in Kentucky?",
            "entry": "<p>In the days leading up to Kentucky&rsquo;s June 23 primary, national figures raised alarms about the state&rsquo;s Election Day voting infrastructure.</p>\n\n<p>Film director Ava Duvernay <a href=\"https://twitter.com/ava/status/1274397444747309057\">tweeted</a>, &quot;Kentucky has used Covid-19 as an excuse to slash polling places for Tuesday&rsquo;s vital primary to defeat #MitchMcConnell.&quot; Former Georgia gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams <a href=\"https://twitter.com/staceyabrams/status/1274450850644180995?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed&amp;ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.courier-journal.com%2Fstory%2Fnews%2Fpolitics%2F2020%2F06%2F22%2Fkentucky-officials-refute-primary-voter-suppression-claims%2F3235183001%2F\">tweeted</a>, &quot;Voter suppression is no longer billy clubs &amp; Jim Crow. It&rsquo;s closed polling sites + 6 hr waits w/o pay. COVID is no excuse.&quot; And NBA superstar LeBron James <a href=\"https://twitter.com/KingJames/status/1274392626930704384\">tweeted</a>, &quot;This is SYSTEMIC RACISM and OPPRESSION. So angry man.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>One frequently shared <a href=\"http://archive.is/laYv0\">image</a> summarized the numbers for many social media users:</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Ahead of tomorrow&rsquo;s primary in Kentucky, many polling locations have been closed -- with only one polling location in Jefferson County (the county with the largest Black population in the state). This is voter suppression.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>It&rsquo;s too soon to say what impact these changes will have on voter turnout. However, many of these posts leave out context about the significantly expanded role of mail-ballot access and early voting in this year&rsquo;s Kentucky primary.</p>\n\n<p>The day before the primary, Louisville NAACP President Raoul Cunningham told the Louisville Courier-Journal that he disagreed with the reductions in the number of polling places, but he praised the expanded mail and early-voting options. &quot;I was concerned if the African American vote would be suppressed, but I really don&#39;t think it will be,&quot; Cunningham said.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Checking the numbers</div>\n\n<p>The overall message in the image comes from news reports, especially a Washington Post article headlined, &quot;<a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/kentucky-braces-for-possible-voting-problems-in-tuesdays-primary-amid-signs-of-high-turnout/2020/06/19/b7b960ce-b199-11ea-8f56-63f38c990077_story.html\">Kentucky braces for possible voting problems in Tuesday&rsquo;s primary amid signs of high turnout</a>.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The number of polling places for the June 23 primary is significantly lower than in previous elections. At the <a href=\"https://www.sos.ky.gov/elections/Pages/Polling-Locations.aspx\">secretary of state&rsquo;s website</a>, we counted fewer than 170 Election Day voting sites in Kentucky&rsquo;s 120 counties. This reduction of in-person sites was challenged in court, but a judge <a href=\"https://www.courier-journal.com/story/news/2020/06/18/kentucky-elections-judge-rules-against-forcing-more-polling-locations/3211751001/\">rejected</a> the complaint.</p>\n\n<p>About half of Kentucky&rsquo;s African American population lives in Jefferson County, which includes Louisville, or <a href=\"https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=jefferson%20county%20ky&amp;g=0500000US21111&amp;tid=ACSDP1Y2018.DP05\">168,182</a> out of <a href=\"http://ksdc.louisville.edu/data-downloads/estimates/\">365,332</a> statewide.</p>\n\n<p>Jefferson County has <a href=\"https://elect.ky.gov/Resources/Documents/voterstatscounty-20200604-144817.pdf\">616,523 registered voters</a>, and there&rsquo;s only <a href=\"https://www.sos.ky.gov/elections/Pages/Polling-Locations.aspx\">one polling place open</a> on Election Day in Jefferson County, at the <a href=\"https://kyexpo.org/\">Kentucky Exposition Center</a> in Louisville.</p>\n\n<p>So there has been a drastic reduction in polling sites. But this leaves out some important context.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">A primary modified for a pandemic</div>\n\n<p>Left out of the social media narrative is that Kentucky&rsquo;s primary was delayed for months in order to create a voting experience with reduced coronavirus risk.</p>\n\n<p>After the coronavirus became a threat to safe, in-person voting, Democratic Gov. Andy Beshear and Republican Secretary of State Michael Adams reached an agreement to significantly ramp up mail-in balloting and early in-person voting, in order to reduce the Election Day crush that could become an infection risk.</p>\n\n<p>Kentucky had a more comprehensive plan for dealing with voting amid a pandemic than the first state that faced the issue, Wisconsin.</p>\n\n<p>Leading up to the April 7 primary, Wisconsin&#39;s Democratic governor and Republican-controlled Legislature <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/07/us/politics/wisconsin-primary-election.html\">sparred in court</a> over how to conduct the election. Ultimately, the state Supreme Court rejected efforts to extend absentee balloting deadlines, and voters crowded into a reduced number of in-person polling places on election days, leading to long waits.</p>\n\n<p>In Kentucky, Adams said that as of the morning before Election Day, 973,807 voters had either requested an absentee ballot or voted during the week-long in-person early voting period, <a href=\"https://www.courier-journal.com/story/news/politics/2020/06/22/kentucky-officials-refute-primary-voter-suppression-claims/3235183001/?fbclid=IwAR2UVDQ0O0CqAOF17AdPCLsIE5oLpOhG4IXBmIO4QsA_zn2ojDlWk9A8rC8\">according to the Louisville Courier-Journal</a>. That&rsquo;s about 30% of <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/kentucky-braces-for-possible-voting-problems-in-tuesdays-primary-amid-signs-of-high-turnout/2020/06/19/b7b960ce-b199-11ea-8f56-63f38c990077_story.html\">voters in the state</a>, a big increase in the typical level of mail-ballot requests of 1.5%. (Previous elections had been run under more restrictive rules for absentee ballots.)</p>\n\n<p>By the eve of Election Day, county clerks had received more than 503,400 of those absentee ballots back, the Courier-Journal reported. Ballots must be <a href=\"https://wfpl.org/hey-kentucky-voters-heres-your-comprehensive-2020-primary-election-guide-2/\">postmarked</a> by Election Day, so they will continue to flow into election offices for several days afterward.</p>\n\n<p>In Jefferson County specifically, the county clerk&rsquo;s office reported mailing 218,404 absentee ballots to registered voters, and officials said they had received more than 96,000 of those back as of the day before the primary. In addition, 7,493 people in the county voted early at the Kentucky Exposition Center, and an unknown number had cast in-person ballots at a second early-voting location, the Courier-Journal reported.</p>\n\n<p>It remains to be seen how much the increases in mail balloting and early voting will affect voter turnout levels. But if the requested ballots are returned at a robust rate, the county and the state could produce a record turnout.</p>\n\n<p>The highest-turnout presidential primary election in Kentucky came in 2008, with 922,456 residents voting statewide. That year was also a record for Jefferson County, with 192,630 ballots cast, the Courier-Journal reported, while in 2016, Jefferson County voters cast 138,619 ballots.</p>\n\n<p>The one polling place in the county that will be open on Election Day, the Kentucky Exposition Center, has 1.3 million square feet of meeting space and 300 acres of outdoor space. The Washington Post <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/kentucky-braces-for-possible-voting-problems-in-tuesdays-primary-amid-signs-of-high-turnout/2020/06/19/b7b960ce-b199-11ea-8f56-63f38c990077_story.html\">described</a> the voting area as &quot;cavernous,&quot; with booths set up 8 feet apart.</p>\n\n<p>On Election Day, <a href=\"https://www.kentucky.com/news/politics-government/article243731882.html?\">early news reports</a> suggested that lines were short and moving quickly.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-06-23T17:14:44-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "second-wave-coronavirus-coming",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Is a second wave of coronavirus coming?",
            "entry": "<p>As Americans continue to grapple with the novel coronavirus, one question is on a lot of people&rsquo;s minds: Are we already seeing, or will we eventually see, a second wave of the virus?</p>\n\n<p>On June 16, Vice President Mike Pence penned an <a href=\"https://www.wsj.com/articles/there-isnt-a-coronavirus-second-wave-11592327890\">op-ed</a> in the Wall Street Journal headlined, &quot;There Isn&rsquo;t a Coronavirus &lsquo;Second Wave,&rsquo;&quot; where he said the country was better off than media reports suggested.</p>\n\n<p>Yet the same day, in an <a href=\"https://www.wsj.com/articles/fauci-warns-of-coronavirus-resurgence-if-states-dont-adhere-to-safety-guidelines-11592338771?mod=searchresults&amp;page=1&amp;pos=2'\">interview</a> with the same newspaper, Anthony Fauci, the top federal infectious-disease expert, threw cold water on Pence&rsquo;s assertion by warning of a possible resurgence. &quot;People keep talking about a second wave,&quot; he said. &quot;We&rsquo;re still in a first wave.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Defining a coronavirus &quot;wave&quot; is somewhat more art than science, but other scientists looking at the number of new daily infections echoFauci&rsquo;s caution.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The number of new daily infections, as seen in this chart, declined by only about one-third between its peak in early March and its most recent low point in early June. And since early June, the data shows an upward spike, approaching where it stood at that peak.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>We checked with experts to better understand what wave we&rsquo;re currently in, what the outlook is for a possible new wave, and what, if anything, we can learn from the history of the 1918 influenza pandemic, which was the last major pandemic in the United States. Here&rsquo;s what we found.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Are we out of the first wave yet?</div>\n\n<p>There&rsquo;s no official definition of when a &quot;wave&quot; begins or ends, but generally speaking, it requires a peak in infections followed by a substantial reduction. A new rise and peak would signal the start of another wave.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It is probably not realistic for the number of new cases to drop to zero, but ideally one would like to see sustained decreases in the number of new cases over time or stability in the number of new cases over time,&quot; said Nicole M. Gatto, an associate professor in the School of Community and Global Health at Claremont Graduate University.</p>\n\n<p>The chart above, showing the national picture, suggests that there was an easing in the number of new cases, but not a large drop prior to the current spike, scientists say.</p>\n\n<p>And certain states have not come close to finishing their first wave.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Some places, such as New York and Boston, have what appears to be a clear first peak or wave,&quot; said Brooke Nichols, an assistant professor at Boston University&rsquo;s School of Public Health. &quot;Some places are still in the first wave.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The following chart shows states that have experienced a first wave and brought their new infections down substantially.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Meanwhile, other states haven&rsquo;t yet turned the corner on the first wave:</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>If you&rsquo;re in a state that is still seeing an increase in cases, &quot;it would not be accurate to talk about a second wave,&quot; Gatto said. &quot;What causes those peaks, and whether or not there will be more than one peak, as opposed to one continuous wave, will be human behavior and how humans react to what is going on around them.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Were there multiple waves during the 1918 influenza epidemic?</div>\n\n<p>There were at least three distinct waves of influenza in <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1918-commemoration/three-waves.htm\">1918 and 1919</a>, which killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide. The pandemic was simultaneous with World War I, and the war is believed to have spread the virus around the globe more quickly than it otherwise would have.</p>\n\n<p>The first wave began in March 1918 and eased by the summer. The second wave came in the fall, followed by a third wave during the winter and spring of 1919. Here&rsquo;s a rough graphic from an <a href=\"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3291398/\">academic paper</a> showing the waves in deaths:</p>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><img src=\"https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/yN-s_txVV6KS6eNRc8spPMacajOmX5xfoWuSRkALn94rix2X40wrcCEKFYchu3nxz2ewYim-mOjIitrxTl1x9MP9DHQGl1mvV50k2TYcp9fZ3Kz_CJXaJ-w06Ug0AvUmfi2oeZyP\"></p>\n\n<p>The first wave &quot;was not very deadly,&quot; said J. Alexander Navarro, Ph.D., assistant director of the Center for the History of Medicine at the University of Michigan. &quot;It was about as bad as ordinary strains of seasonal influenza that had been circulating up until that point.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The second wave was the deadliest, and that may have been due to mutations that increased the virus&rsquo; lethality, although scientists say this is speculative and that such mutations more typically take much longer to develop and spread.</p>\n\n<p>The second wave &quot;slowed towards the end of November, in part because more stringent social distancing measures were put in place,&quot; said Kenneth C. Davis, author of &quot;More Deadly Than War: The Hidden History of the Spanish Flu and the First World War.&quot; &quot;When those were relaxed, a third wave commenced in the winter and spring of 1919.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The third wave lasted into early March, and some suggest there was a fourth wave during the winter of 1920. Each was less deadly than the one before it, Navarro said, although there were regional differences in severity.</p>\n\n<p>The decline in lethality after the second wave was probably shaped in part by the declining number of people who hadn&rsquo;t already been infected, Navarro said. When infections in a population become sufficiently widespread, that can slow the further spread due to &quot;<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/03/how-helpful-can-herd-immunity-be-ending-coronaviru/\">herd immunity</a>.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">How much can the 1918 pandemic tell us about what to expect now?</div>\n\n<p>While both pandemics <a href=\"https://www.marketwatch.com/story/we-will-not-have-a-vaccine-by-next-winter-what-happens-when-coronavirus-returns-2020-04-22\">involved</a> an easily transmissible respiratory disease, there are some important differences that make the 1918 pandemic less helpful in predicting the course of the novel coronavirus.</p>\n\n<p>One is that the 1918 outbreak involved influenza, which is caused by a different family of viruses than the coronavirus. This brings both good and bad news.</p>\n\n<p>On the positive side, the coronavirus appears to be much more stable than the influenza virus, and thus less likely to mutate into a more deadly variant, said Ravina Kullar, an infectious disease specialist and adjunct faculty member at University of California-Los Angeles.. The coronavirus&rsquo; &quot;spike protein,&quot; which enables it to attach to human cells and attack them, <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/30/opinion/coronavirus-warm-weather-mutation.html\">appears</a> to be especially resistant to mutation.</p>\n\n<p>On the downside, the coronavirus doesn&rsquo;t seem to have a significant seasonal aspect. Influenza worsens as the weather gets colder but eases up during the warmer months. While we may be seeing a reduction in coronavirus infections in recent weeks because more human interactions are moving outdoors, scientists don&rsquo;t expect the same scale of seasonal drop-off for the coronavirus.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;What we&rsquo;re seeing right now is that it&rsquo;s not impacted by the climate,&quot; Kullar said. &quot;Warm and humid places like Mumbai and Indonesia have struggled with the virus, and in the United States, cases are rising in hot states like Arizona and Florida.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The patterns in mutations and seasonality suggest that the coronavirus may not follow the wave patterns of the 1918 flu. Instead, the spread of coronavirus may follow something more like a plateau, with spikes possible if social distancing isn&rsquo;t adhered to fully.</p>\n\n<p>There are other differences between now and 1918 as well.</p>\n\n<p>On the upside, we now know much more about viruses and public health, and science is able to devise targeted treatments and vaccines.</p>\n\n<p>On the other hand, the world&rsquo;s population is bigger, and more densely packed. In 1918, the world&rsquo;s population was <a href=\"https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth#all-charts-preview\">smaller than 2 billion</a>, while today it&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.census.gov/popclock/\">about 7.6 billion</a>. Today, we also have commercial aviation, which can carry infected people around the world far faster than trains and ships could in 1918.</p>\n\n<p>A bigger, denser, more mobile population means a greater chance for a virus to continue spreading.</p>\n\n<p>In 1918, some cities saw an easing of the pandemic once they neared herd immunity, but that&rsquo;s not going to be as helpful with the coronavirus. Because the coronavirus is more infectious, the percentage of the population needed to reach herd immunity has to be about 65% today, compared with about 35% in 1918.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;In 1918, they could get through the pandemic more quickly because of that, and even so, they did it with a staggering death toll,&quot; Navarro said. &quot;Today, the coronavirus will be with us for a lot longer.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What factors could cause a new wave?</div>\n\n<p>The biggest risk, scientists say, is a loosening of social distancing measures.</p>\n\n<p>A much larger portion of the economy today <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2020/05/24/second-wave-pandemic-flu-1918-coronavirus/\">is engaged</a> in consumer-driven commerce such as the restaurant and entertainment sector. This heightens the economic pressure to relax social distancing standards. But doing so could worsen the pandemic.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;In 1918, once measures were lifted, the population very quickly went back to life as normal, flocking to movies, shops and stores, dance halls and saloons,&quot; Navarro said. &quot;That led to another spike of cases in many cities.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Nichols said a community&rsquo;s past experience with the virus can make a difference.</p>\n\n<p>In Boston, where Nichols is based, &quot;the first wave was relatively severe, and many people know someone who was personally affected by COVID or had a COVID-related death in the family,&quot; she said. &quot;That affects people&rsquo;s behavior. In areas where epidemic growth has been slow, the urgency of changing one&rsquo;s behavior is less.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Nichols added that experiencing the summer, when people have freedom to interact outdoors, could make it harder to practice social distancing in the colder months.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I fear that people will continue their summer socializing patterns into the fall and winter, turning very low-risk interactions into relatively high-risk interactions,&quot; she said.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-06-22T11:20:34-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "stump-speech-analyzer-donald-trump-tulsa",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "The Stump Speech Analyzer: Donald Trump in Tulsa",
            "entry": "<p><strong>Editor&rsquo;s note:</strong> <em>PolitiFact&rsquo;s Stump Speech Analyzer looks at the content and accuracy of candidate stump speeches. Following our summary of the speech&rsquo;s main themes, we present fact-checks of specific talking points. Read our previous stump speech analyzers for <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jan/23/stump-speech-analyzer-joe-biden/\">Joe Biden</a> and the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/feb/12/how-accurate-are-candidates-stump-our-stump-speech/\">Democratic primary field</a>.</em></p>\n\n<p><strong>The stump speech:</strong> Trump&rsquo;s 1-hour, 40-minute speech in Tulsa, Oklahoma, June 20, 2020</p>\n\n<p>In his first political rally since the start of the coronavirus pandemic and nationwide Black Lives Matter protests, President Donald Trump attacked his opponent Joe Biden, excoriated protestors and stoked racial tensions on a variety of issues.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Summing up his complaints, Trump said, &quot;In Joe Biden&#39;s America, rioters, looters and criminal aliens have more rights than law-abiding citizens.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Trump spent over six minutes explaining why he walked unsteadily down a ramp at the graduation of West Point cadets in June. He said&nbsp;the &quot;fake news&quot; suggested he was ill, but&nbsp;he was wearing shoes that slipped easily, and the speech actually showed his stamina.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Trump also derided&nbsp;calls to &quot;defund the police&quot; that he said would leave Americans vulnerable to crime, and he repeatedly mentioned MS-13, a criminal gang with ties to Central America.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I&#39;ve used the word on occasion, hombre, a very tough hombre is breaking into the window of a young woman whose husband is away &hellip; you call 911, and they say, I&#39;m sorry, this number&rsquo;s no longer working.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Trump attacked U.S. Rep. Ilhan Omar of Minnesota, calling her a &quot;hate-filled, America-bashing socialist&quot; who would&nbsp; &quot;make the government of our country just like the country from where she came, Somalia &mdash; no government, no safety, no police, no nothing, just anarchy. And now she&#39;s telling us how to run our country.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Trump also suggested he intends to revive his feud with the NFL after commissioner Roger Goodell said in a formal statement that the NFL supports the Black Lives Matter movement. Trump has attacked players who kneeled during the national anthem to draw attention to police brutality.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I like Roger Goodell,&quot; Trump said. &quot;But I didn&#39;t like what he said a week ago. I said, where did that come from in the middle of the summer? &hellip; We will never kneel to our national anthem or our great American flag.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>On the coronavirus, Trump said it should be called &quot;the Chinese virus&quot; and referred to it as &quot;kung flu.&quot; He also complained he didn&rsquo;t get enough credit for travel restrictions he enacted and said that testing that revealed minor COVID-19 cases was making him look bad.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Biggest applause line:</strong> After criticizing at length calls to defund the police: &quot;You are so lucky I&rsquo;m president, that&rsquo;s all I can tell you.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Re-election vision: </strong>Trump said &quot;sleepy&quot; Joe Biden is a confused &quot;puppet of the left,&quot; and the economy will come roaring back if Trump is re-elected.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Music:</strong> &quot;God Bless the USA,&quot; by Lee Greenwood to open; &quot;You Can&rsquo;t Always Get What You Want,&quot; by the Rolling Stones to close</p>\n\n<p><strong>Before the speech: </strong>Public officials had warned that the gathering could spread COVID-19; a court challenge to delay the rally ultimately failed. The original date of the rally was scheduled for June 19, or <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/18/juneteenth-why-one-day-marking-african-american-fr/\">Juneteenth</a>, a day marking the end of slavery in America; it was moved one day later. Tulsa marked the 99th anniversary this month of one of the worst massacres of black residents by a white mob in America.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Anything else:</strong> The campaign had hyped 1 million people registering an RSVP for the rally, but the 19,000-seat BOK Center had many empty seats. Camera shots of the crowd showed only small portion of the crowd wearing masks.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Fact-checking Trump&rsquo;s statements</div>\n\n<p><strong>&quot;Testing (for COVID-19) is a double-edged sword&hellip; when you do testing to that extent you&#39;re gonna find more people you&#39;re gonna find more cases.&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>Trump miscasts rising case numbers as <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/17/donald-trump/trumps-take-covid-testing-gives-short-shrift-publi/\">simply the result of more testing</a>, but that&rsquo;s not what&rsquo;s happening.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The country is testing more now than it did at the start of the outbreak &mdash; per capita, the U.S. is in the top 20% of countries when it comes to cumulative tests run. But this beefed up testing is still likely undercounting.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>And diagnostic testing isn&rsquo;t the only data that reflect the pandemic&rsquo;s reach. The number of deaths continues to rise, and hospitalizations are higher than they would be in the virus&rsquo;s absence.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Democrats &quot;want to defund and dissolve our police departments.&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>Some activists do want to defund and dissolve police, but this description distorts most Democratic proposals. With a few exceptions, elected officials and activists who speak of defunding the police mean <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/09/defund-police-movement-what-do-activists-mean/\">something more targeted</a>. They want to focus police departments on criminal activity, and peel off the need for them to respond to domestic disputes, homeless people and the mentally ill.</p>\n\n<p>Kailee Scales, managing director for Black Lives Matter Network Action Fund and Black Lives Matter Global Network Inc., said <a href=\"https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/gyzs79/i_am_kailee_scales_managing_director_for_black/?utm_source=share&amp;utm_medium=ios_app&amp;utm_name=iossmf\">June 8</a> that the group was calling for a &quot;divestment in police in order to support more teachers, mental health and restorative services, community resilience departments, social workers, and government resource liaisons.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>&quot;We&#39;ve spent over $2 trillion to completely rebuild the unmatched strength and power of the United States military.&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>This exaggerates the actual spending. Trump&rsquo;s ballpark number is reasonably accurate in terms of defense budgets over the past four years. But <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jan/10/donald-trump/trump-exaggerates-spending-us-military-rebuild/\">weapon systems take a long time to build</a>. To put this into perspective, the Pentagon <a href=\"https://comptroller.defense.gov/Portals/45/Documents/defbudget/fy2020/FY20_Green_Book.pdf#page=29\">spent</a> roughly $419 billion on procurement through the first three fiscal years of Trump&rsquo;s presidency. And while that&rsquo;s just for material goods, that&rsquo;s a far cry from $2 trillion.</p>\n\n<p>The bulk of the $2 trillion would have been spent anyway, regardless of who was president.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Most of that money was going to be spent under Obama,&quot; said Michael O&rsquo;Hanlon, a senior fellow in foreign policy at the Brookings Institution. &quot;Trump&rsquo;s net increases have been about $100 billion each year, or $400 billion total compared with earlier expectations.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>&quot;They&#39;ve wanted to do (Veterans Choice) for almost 50 years. We got it done.&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p>This started <a href=\"http://https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/oct/02/donald-trump/donald-trump-gop-finally-passed-veterans-choice-af/\">before Trump was elected</a>. Broadly, Veterans Choice allows veterans to see a doctor and get care outside the VA system. It was first approved in 2014 and took effect in 2015. It is fair to say that under Trump, the program was expanded and given more permanent funding, but it existed before he took office.</p>\n\n<p><strong>&quot;We passed the largest tax cuts in the history of our country.&quot;</strong></p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/jan/30/donald-trump/donald-trump-wrong-again-recent-tax-bill-biggest-e/\">Wrong</a>. In inflation-adjusted dollars, the 2017 Tax Cut and Jobs Act is the fourth-largest since 1940. And as a percentage of GDP, it ranks seventh. The Treasury Department has <a href=\"https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/tax-policy/tax-analysis/Documents/WP81-Table2013.pdf\">published</a> a list of the biggest tax bills between 1940 and 2012, measured not only by contemporary dollars but also by inflation-adjusted dollars and as a percentage of gross domestic product (a measure of the size of the overall economy).</p>\n\n<p>The largest, providing $321 billion per year in tax cuts, was the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012. The 2017 tax cut provided $150 billion in tax relief.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-06-20T23:19:12-04:00"
        }
    ]
}