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        {
            "slug": "trump-making-largely-false-distinction-between-abs",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Trump Draws False Contrast Between Absentee, Mail-In Voting, Election Experts Say",
            "entry": "<p>President Donald Trump on Thursday repeated what election experts across the United States say is a false distinction between &quot;absentee&quot; and &quot;mail-in&quot; voting, one that experts say threatens to sow confusion and undermine confidence in this fall&rsquo;s election results.</p>\n\n<p>In a <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1288818160389558273\">tweet that grabbed the nation&rsquo;s attention</a> &mdash; mostly because Trump suggested postponing the Nov. 3 election (<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/30/trump-floats-moving-nov-3-election-he-cant-do-hims/\">something only Congress can do</a>) &mdash; the president also claimed absentee voting is &quot;good,&quot; while again making the <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/2020/06/22/881598655/fact-check-trump-spreads-unfounded-claims-about-voting-by-mail\">false</a> <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/2020/05/20/859333693/trump-repeats-unfounded-claims-about-mail-in-voting-threatens-funding-to-some-st\">assertion</a> that mail-in voting is &quot;fraudulent.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>What Is Absentee Voting?</strong></p>\n\n<p>For decades, people have been allowed to request absentee ballots if they were sick, disabled or were traveling during the election so they could cast their vote by mail. A majority of states, however, no longer require voters to submit a reason to request an absentee ballot. The term has been phased out in many states, including California, in favor of &quot;mail-in&quot; voting or &quot;vote-by-mail.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>In a recent <a href=\"https://www.factcheck.org/2020/06/trumps-absentee-vs-mail-in-ballot-spin/\">article</a>, Factcheck.org found Trump, <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/06/22/trump-officials-vote-by-mail/\">who voted by mail himself in 2018 and again in this year&rsquo;s primary</a>, has on numerous occasions said absentee voting includes stronger safeguards and verification.</p>\n\n<p>Elections experts from California to Colorado to Florida told us that&rsquo;s simply not the case.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;There&rsquo;s really no distinction,&quot; said Darren Hutchinson, a law professor at the University of Florida and an elections expert, reacting to Trump&rsquo;s effort to draw a line between absentee and mail-in voting. &quot;So, it&rsquo;s basically a falsehood that&rsquo;s been repeated over and over and over again.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>There are <a href=\"https://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/absentee-and-early-voting.aspx#excuses\">34 states plus Washington, D.C. </a>that offer what&rsquo;s called &quot;no excuse&quot; absentee voting, also simply called mail-in voting, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures. Under that system, voters do not need to attest that they will be out of the voting jurisdiction on election day, or that they cannot get to the polls because of an illness or disability.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>There is no special process that absentee out-of-town voters go through that other mail-in voters do not, Hutchinson said.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>There are eight states, including Texas, Indiana and New York, where in-person voting &quot;remains the only option unless people can provide an approved reason not related to fear of the coronavirus,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2020/politics/vote-by-mail-states/\">according to <em>The Washington Post</em></a><em>.&nbsp;</em></p>\n\n<p>Hutchinson said elections officials in these states simply check to ensure an approved excuse is listed on the form, but do not verify those excuses.</p>\n\n<p><strong>&lsquo;Fundamentally, it&rsquo;s the same thing&rsquo;</strong></p>\n\n<p>Election experts said the same safeguards and verification process apply to all methods of voting. To register, a voter must be a citizen of that state and be of voting age.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Fundamentally, it&rsquo;s the same thing,&quot; said Amber McReynolds, Denver&rsquo;s former director of elections and chief executive officer of the National Vote at Home Institute. &quot;Ballots are handled exactly the same regardless of whether or not it&#39;s an absentee ballot or a vote-by-mail ballot.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Jessica Levinson, an elections expert at Loyola Law School in Los Angeles, called Trump&rsquo;s effort to draw a line between absentee and mail-in voting &quot;a largely false distinction.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It is not the case that there is one bucket of absentee balloting that is much safer, and then vote-by-mail just lacks all integrity, or vice versa,&quot; she said.</p>\n\n<p>Levinson added that some of the confusion over the terms absentee and mail-in voting is generational. In California, election officials are phasing out the term absentee, but it was commonly used within recent decades. Whether someone uses it &quot;is really more of an indication of when you started applying to vote-by-mail.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Also in California, Gov. Gavin Newsom <a href=\"https://www.capradio.org/articles/2020/06/19/gov-gavin-newsom-signs-law-to-send-mail-in-ballots-to-all-registered-california-voters/\">signed a law in June</a> requiring counties to send all active registered voters a mail-in ballot about a month before the Nov. 3 election.</p>\n\n<p>Newsom said the move was necessary so that people would not have to risk their health by voting at polling places amid the COVID-19 pandemic. California will also provide some in-person voting options.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Six other states plus Washington D.C. plan to automatically send mail-in ballots to voters. Many other states allow voters to request those ballots.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Sam Mahood, spokesman for the California Secretary of State&rsquo;s Office, agreed there&rsquo;s no distinction between absentee and mail-in voting.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We essentially do not use the term &lsquo;absentee&rsquo; anymore in California,&quot; Mahood wrote in an email.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Hutchinson, the Florida law professor, said the president should be well aware that absentee and mail-in voting are now essentially the same thing.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>As for why Trump continues to make this false distinction, Hutchison suggested the president &quot;is trying to create uncertainty about the outcome&quot; of the Nov. 3 election.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It&rsquo;s just a way of having people question the outcome if he loses,&quot; he said.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Related:</strong></p>\n\n<p><strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/may/26/donald-trump/no-california-not-sending-mail-ballots-anyone-stat/\">No, California Is Not Sending Mail-In Ballots &quot;To Anyone In The State,&quot; As Trump Falsely Claimed</a></strong></p>\n\n<p><strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/28/facebook-posts/how-early-should-you-send-your-mail-ballot-make-su/\">How Early Should You Send In Your Mail-in Ballot To Make Sure It Gets Counted? It Varies By State</a></strong></p>\n\n<p><strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/03/answering-questions-about-vote-mail-california-tru/\">Answering Questions About Vote-By-Mail In California Amid COVID-19, Attacks By Trump</a></strong></p>\n\n<p><em>CapRadio and PolitiFact California will continue answering questions about vote-by-mail and fact-checking similar topics through the November 2020 election. Email us your questions at [email protected], or contact us on <a href=\"https://twitter.com/CAPolitiFact\">Twitter </a>or <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/politifact.california/\">Facebook</a>.</em></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-30T17:36:46-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "trump-floats-moving-nov-3-election-he-cant-do-hims",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Trump floats moving Nov. 3 election. But Congress holds that power",
            "entry": "<p>President Donald Trump floated the idea of delaying the Nov. 3 election, pointing to unsubstantiated concerns about mail-in voting.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;With Universal Mail-In Voting (not Absentee Voting, which is good), 2020 will be the most INACCURATE &amp; FRAUDULENT Election in history. It will be a great embarrassment to the USA. Delay the Election until people can properly, securely and safely vote???&quot; he <a href=\"https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1288818160389558273\">tweeted</a> July 30.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Trump has fairly unlimited power to tweet out suggestions. However, he can&rsquo;t change the date of the election. Congress would have to pass a law first.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Some legal issues are complex, but this one is not,&quot; said Richard H. Pildes, a professor of constitutional law at New York University. &quot;The president has no legal power to change the date of the election unilaterally.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Many prominent Republicans, including <a href=\"https://twitter.com/MaxWinitz/status/1288875891985129480?s=20\">Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell</a>, <a href=\"https://twitter.com/FrankLaRose/status/1288851510877724672\">were </a><a href=\"https://www.sos.ks.gov/media-center/media-releases/2020/07-30-20-secretary-schwab-responds-to-november-election-delay-suggestion.html\">quick</a> to dismiss Trump&rsquo;s trial balloon.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Never in the history of the country, through wars, depressions and the Civil War, have we ever not had a federally scheduled election on time,&quot; McConnell told a Kentucky TV station. &quot;We&rsquo;ll find a way to do that again this Nov. 3.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">What is the law on setting Election Day?</div>\n\n<p>The Constitution empowers Congress to set the date by which states must choose their presidential electors, according to a March <a href=\"https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/LSB/LSB10425\">report by the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Since 1845, Congress has required states to appoint presidential electors on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, which represents the date by which voters in every state must cast their ballot for President,&quot; the report states.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The only way Congress could change this would be by enacting new legislation, which would require both a majority vote in the House and enough votes to overcome the filibuster rules in the Senate,&quot; Pildes said</p>\n\n<p>Presidential elections have never been delayed, and only once has a court taken the step of postponing a congressional general election, wrote <a href=\"https://www.democracydocket.com/2020/07/no-trump-cannot-move-the-general-election/\">Marc Elias</a>, a Democratic lawyer who has been involved in multiple election-related lawsuits.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In 1982, a federal district court in Washington, D.C., <a href=\"https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/549/494/1791783/\">struck down</a> two Georgia congressional districts under Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act. The court postponed the general election to later in November for those districts.</p>\n\n<p>Any effort to change the election date would run into other legal obstacles.</p>\n\n<p>Presidential terms have a hard stop on Jan. 20, <a href=\"https://jonathanturley.org/2020/07/30/delay-the-election-trump-fuels-new-questions-over-the-holding-of-the-presidential-election/\">wrote</a> George Washington University law professor <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2019/dec/04/scholars-case-impeachment-judiciary-committee/\">Jonathan Turley,</a> who was invited by Republicans to testify during the impeachment proceedings.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Even if Trump persuaded Congress to delay the election past that date, his term still constitutionally ends on that date unless he is reelected,&quot; he wrote.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Trump&rsquo;s repeated criticism of the voting process</div>\n\n<p>As for Trump&rsquo;s attempt to distinguish absentee from mail-in voting, that&rsquo;s just spin, election experts have said.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Different states use different words to refer to the same thing,&quot; said Wendy Weiser, director of the Democracy Project at the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU&nbsp;Law School.</p>\n\n<p>Trump&rsquo;s tweet came before <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/live/2020/07/30/business/stock-market-today-coronavirus?campaign_id=60&amp;emc=edit_na_20200730&amp;instance_id=0&amp;nl=breaking-news&amp;ref=cta&amp;regi_id=20394336&amp;segment_id=34753&amp;user_id=142da6ef5ea0d6445c03ac33d2b4ca90#the-us-economys-contraction-in-the-second-quarter-was-the-worst-on-record\">historically bad news about the economy </a>during the COVID-19 pandemic. Trump is trailing Joe Biden in the polls, with <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-faces-rising-disapproval-and-widespread-distrust-on-coronavirus-post-abc-poll-finds/2020/07/16/04aa9db2-c79d-11ea-a99f-3bbdffb1af38_story.html\">the nation souring</a> on his administration&rsquo;s response.</p>\n\n<p>Asked about Trump&rsquo;s suggestion to delay the election, Trump campaign spokesman Hogan Gidley <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/2020/07/30/897111969/trump-floats-delaying-the-election-it-would-require-a-change-in-law\">told</a> other media outlets &quot;the president is just raising a question about the chaos Democrats have created.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Trump has repeatedly raised questions about the workings of the 2020 election, including primary contests where mail-in balloting was used widely. Trump suggested that mail-in ballots are rife with fraud, a <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/apr/09/donald-trump/donald-trumps-dubious-claim-thousands-are-conspiri/\">falsehood</a>. (Trump himself <a href=\"https://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/politics/fl-ne-trump-mail-ballot-inaccurate-explanation-20200520-7e2oegvlbjfrbf6wgh7lhpmdqu-story.html\">voted by mail </a>in Florida&rsquo;s presidential primary.)</p>\n\n<p>As recently as three months ago, Trump dismissed the idea of changing the election date. At a <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-vice-president-pence-members-coronavirus-task-force-press-briefing-33/\">press briefing on April 27</a>, a reporter asked Trump about the warning by former <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/biden-says-trump-may-try-to-postpone-election-trump-campaign-dismisses-that-idea/2020/04/24/413741ae-8634-11ea-ae26-989cfce1c7c7_story.html?itid=ap_johnwagner\">Vice President Joe Biden</a> &mdash; the presumptive Democratic nominee &mdash; that Trump was considering changing the date.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;I never even thought of changing the date of the election,&quot; he said. &quot;Why would I do that? November 3rd. It&rsquo;s a good number. No, I look forward to that election.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The Republican National Committee chairwoman, Ronna McDaniel, told <a href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQLyKCWzysc&amp;feature=youtu.be\">Fox Business News</a> that Trump understands that Congress sets the election but added that the president was trying to highlight the &quot;huge problem right now with mail-in voting across the country.&quot; She pointed to the<a href=\"https://www.politico.com/2020-election/results/new-york/\"> weeks of counting ballots</a> in the <a href=\"https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/ny-mail-in-voting-deluge-fuels-uncounted-ballots-confusion/2534878/\">New York primary</a>.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Other ways the election could be disrupted</div>\n\n<p>There may be other ways for Trump to disrupt the election, experts said.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Trump or state governors could seek to use public health concerns as a pretext to close polling places in Democratic cities in swing states,&quot; Rick Hasen, an election law expert at University of California-Irvine, wrote in an April op-ed in the <a href=\"https://www.latimes.com/opinion/story/2020-04-04/coronavirus-voting-republicans-safety-polls\">Los Angeles Times</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Edward Foley, an election-law specialist at Ohio State University, said that Trump could theoretically issue an executive &quot;stay at home&quot; order, citing the coronavirus or civil unrest, that would prevent citizens from voting. &quot;This would not change the date of the election as a matter of election law, but it would have electoral consequences that would need to be remedied,&quot; Foley told PolitiFact.</p>\n\n<p>If a state can&rsquo;t hold an election on time, the state legislature can decide later how to appoint electors, the <a href=\"https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/LSB/LSB10425\">Congressional Research Service </a>concluded. Hasen expressed concern that this could be a backdoor way to overturn the will of the voters.&nbsp;</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-30T13:52:29-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "voters-guide-combating-misinformation-ahead-electi",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "A voters’ guide to combating misinformation ahead of the election and beyond",
            "entry": "<p>With state primary elections <a href=\"https://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/2020-state-primary-election-dates.aspx\">ongoing</a> and the November general election a few months away, you can expect to be inundated with posts, comments, attack ads, and all types of election-related content if you haven&rsquo;t already.</p>\n\n<p>The coronavirus has fundamentally changed the campaign season this election cycle. More so than ever, candidates, interest groups, foreign actors, and voters themselves are waging their political battles online.</p>\n\n<p>Their posts may contain inaccurate or misleading information. Sometimes misinformation is intentionally created by those who manufacture false content and plant rumors to influence you &mdash; what&rsquo;s called disinformation. While disinformation is created deliberately, it is often spread by those who don&rsquo;t know its original source or creators.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;People need to realize their own account is a tool, and when you&rsquo;re sharing content you&rsquo;re giving your audience to somebody else,&quot; Darren Linvill, an associate professor of communication at Clemson University, recently <a href=\"https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-features/misinformation-facebook-george-floyd-protest-1008909/\">told</a> Rolling Stone.</p>\n\n<p>Social media companies have integrated new tools to flag false information on their platforms, but the approaches differ from platform to platform and misinformation continues to flourish.</p>\n\n<p>You, as a social media user, often have to discern for yourself whether something you&rsquo;re seeing is accurate. Here is a guide to how to identify and flag misinformation:</p>\n\n<p><strong>Think before sharing content that triggers an emotional reaction</strong></p>\n\n<p>The number one piece of advice experts give is to recognize when a piece of content elicits a strong emotional response. A post might incite strong feelings that make you want to share it, but you should pause before doing so.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;If something you see online causes intense feelings &ndash; especially if that emotion is outrage &ndash; that should be a red flag not to share it, at least not right away,&quot; <a href=\"https://theconversation.com/10-ways-to-spot-online-misinformation-132246\">writes</a> H. Colleen Sinclair, an associate professor of social psychology at Mississippi State University. &quot;Chances are it was intended to short-circuit your critical thinking by playing on your emotions. Don&rsquo;t fall for it.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Experts recommend doing some research on the post before retweeting, sharing, liking or commenting.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Do your homework</strong></p>\n\n<p>Mike Caulfield is a digital literacy expert at Washington State University whose website <a href=\"https://infodemic.blog/\">infodemic.blog</a> provides basic tips and tools for identifying the source and accuracy of online content. The blog focuses on misinformation concerning the coronavirus but the strategies can be applied to decode posts on any subject.</p>\n\n<p>The first step to investigating a post is determining its source. You could read the account bio or &quot;about&quot; page of the individual or group that posted the content as well as conduct a Google or Wikipedia search to learn more about the person or organization.</p>\n\n<p>Caulfield then recommends scanning the internet to see whether the same information has been reported elsewhere.</p>\n\n<p>Finally, figuring out the original source from which a post draws its information will help determine whether the post leaves out critical pieces of information that would leave you with a different impression.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;One of the most common and damaging disinformation techniques is false framing &mdash; linking to a real article but summarizing it in a way that is deceptive,&quot; <a href=\"https://infodemic.blog/2020/02/24/click-through-and-search/\">writes</a> Caulfield.</p>\n\n<p>You could find the original article quoting the person named in the post, check whether the post was published recently, and determine whether the original source even mentions the subject matter discussed in the post you saw.</p>\n\n<p>Sometimes professional fact-checkers will have already done this work for you. Anyone can search a claim on <a href=\"https://toolbox.google.com/factcheck/explorer\">Google&rsquo;s Fact Check Explorer</a> to see whether a fact-checking organization has evaluated it.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Let others know about the misinformation</strong></p>\n\n<p>Experts recommend pointing out inaccurate and misleading claims to others.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Social media actually makes it more important that we&rsquo;re willing to engage in those corrections because we know other people are going to see it, and we want to make sure that they&#39;re not left with the wrong information,&quot; Emily Vraga, associate professor of journalism at the University of Minnesota, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/may/22/how-fact-check-coronavirus-misinformation-your-tim/\">told</a> PolitiFact.</p>\n\n<p>And when responding directly to the individual or group that posted the content, &quot;try to avoid provoking them to defend themselves,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/may/22/how-fact-check-coronavirus-misinformation-your-tim/\">recommends</a> Drew Margolin, an assistant professor of communication at Cornell University.</p>\n\n<p>You can provide links to the sources you found while researching to provide credibility and transparency to your fact-check.</p>\n\n<p><strong>New tools to combat the spread of misinformation</strong></p>\n\n<p>Just as the digital age has enabled new ways for misinformation to flourish, it has also given rise to new tools to combat its spread. One organization, First Draft, which researches and develops strategies for investigating misinformation,recently launched such a tool. First Draft has put together a two-week <a href=\"https://firstdraftnews.org/latest/course-training-us-election-misinformation/\">training</a> for the public ahead of the November election.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>As part of the training, you will receive a text message every day for two weeks at a time of your choosing that will include information and tools for protecting yourself and your community against misinformation ahead of the election and beyond.&nbsp;</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-30T11:08:09-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "who-are-doctors-viral-hydroxychloroquine-video",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Who are the doctors in the viral hydroxychloroquine video?",
            "entry": "<p>Despite social media platforms&rsquo; efforts to remove it, millions of people have seen a viral video of doctors making false and misleading claims about the coronavirus pandemic.</p>\n\n<p>Breitbart, a conservative news outlet, published<a href=\"https://archive.vn/xMPYK\"> the 40-plus-minute-long video</a> on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube on July 27. It&rsquo;s a live stream of <a href=\"https://www.rev.com/blog/transcripts/americas-frontline-doctors-scotus-press-conference-transcript/amp?fbclid=IwAR2YqaWaIdk7tY4porPDUidLpKfSgP_mwebBJ6ORrh8lkL-L52tsqEuLYSc&amp;__twitter_impression=true\">a Washington, D.C., press conference</a> <a href=\"https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/social-media/dark-money-pac-s-coordinated-reopen-push-are-behind-doctors-n1235100\">organized</a> by the Tea Party Patriots, a conservative group backed by Republican donors. Rep. Ralph Norman. R-S.C., attended the event.</p>\n\n<p>The video went viral after <a href=\"https://twitter.com/BrandyZadrozny/status/1287925891532754949\">it was widely shared</a> in Facebook groups for anti-vaxxers and people against face masks. Other groups dedicated to conspiracy theories like QAnon <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/28/technology/virus-video-trump.html\">further amplified</a> the video. Eventually, public figures like President Donald Trump and Madonna <a href=\"https://www.usatoday.com/story/entertainment/celebrities/2020/07/28/madonnas-instagram-post-flagged-sharing-false-information/5533118002/\">shared it</a> with millions of social media followers.</p>\n\n<p><em><strong>RELATED:&nbsp;</strong></em><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/28/fact-checking-video-doctors-talking-about-coronavi/\"><strong>Fact-checking a video of doctors talking about coronavirus, hydroxychloroquine</strong></a></p>\n\n<p>&quot;There was a group of doctors yesterday, a large group that were put on the internet. For some reason, the internet wanted to take them down and took them off,&quot; Trump said during <a href=\"https://www.rev.com/blog/transcripts/donald-trump-coronavirus-press-conference-transcript-july-28\">a July 28 press conference</a>. &quot;I don&rsquo;t know why. I think they&rsquo;re very respected doctors.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Social media platforms removed the video because it contains several claims that <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/28/fact-checking-video-doctors-talking-about-coronavi/\">run counter to official recommendations</a> from public health officials. But who are the doctors who made them? PolitiFact investigated.</p>\n\n<p>The physicians in the video are associated with a group called America&rsquo;s Frontline Doctors, which advocates against official narratives of the coronavirus pandemic. The group, whose now-defunct website <a href=\"https://www.whois.com/whois/americasfrontlinedoctors.com\">was registered</a> on July 16, <a href=\"https://www.bbc.com/news/53559938\">was in Washington</a> for a &quot;White Coat Summit,&quot; after which some of the doctors <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/29/politics/mike-pence-doctors-misinformation/index.html\">met with Vice President Mike Pence</a>.</p>\n\n<p>All of the physicians <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/28/fact-checking-video-doctors-talking-about-coronavi/\">we fact-checked</a> have a history of making unproven, conspiratorial or bizarre medical claims.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>(Screenshot from Facebook)</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Dr. Stella Immanuel</div>\n\n<p>Dr. Stella Immanuel is a Houston-based primary care physician and minister. In the video, she claimed that the coronavirus &quot;has a cure.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;It is called hydroxychloroquine, zinc, and Zithromax,&quot; Immanuel said. &quot;I know you people want to talk about a mask. Hello? You don&rsquo;t need a mask. There is a cure.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>We rated that <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/28/stella-immanuel/dont-fall-video-hydroxychloroquine-not-covid-19-cu/\">False</a> &mdash;&nbsp;and Immanuel has <a href=\"https://www.thedailybeast.com/stella-immanuel-trumps-new-covid-doctor-believes-in-alien-dna-demon-sperm-and-hydroxychloroquine\">a track record</a> of making unproven medical claims, such as believing in alien DNA.</p>\n\n<p>Immanuel has <a href=\"http://reg.tmb.state.tx.us/OnLineVerif/Phys_ReportVerif_new.asp\">a Texas medical license</a> with specialties in pediatrics and emergency medicine. She says she has been practicing medicine in the United States or Canada for 24 years. She <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2020/07/28/stella-immanuel-hydroxychloroquine-video-trump-americas-frontline-doctors/\">received</a> her medical degree in Nigeria.</p>\n\n<p>Immanuel operates a clinic in a strip mall next to her church, Firepower Ministries. In <a href=\"https://archive.vn/LpvMz\">sermons</a> published on YouTube and <a href=\"https://archive.fo/G7wtb\">articles</a> on the church&rsquo;s now-defunct website, <a href=\"https://www.thedailybeast.com/stella-immanuel-trumps-new-covid-doctor-believes-in-alien-dna-demon-sperm-and-hydroxychloroquine\">first unearthed</a> by the Daily Beast, Immanuel makes several outlandish medical claims.</p>\n\n<p>Among them: Medical problems like cysts are caused by sex with &quot;spirit husbands&quot; and &quot;spirit wives,&quot; DNA from aliens is being used in medicine and scientists are developing vaccines to prevent people from being religious.</p>\n\n<p>More recently, Immanuel has doubled down on hydroxychloroquine, which is not a proven treatment (or cure) for COVID-19.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;If you have taken hydroxychloroquine and you have been cured, it&rsquo;s time to speak up,&quot; she said in <a href=\"https://archive.vn/nmLAq\">a July 28 Facebook video</a>.</p>\n\n<p>We reached out to Immanuel for a comment, but we haven&rsquo;t heard back.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>(Screenshot from Facebook)</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Dr. Dan Erickson</div>\n\n<p>Dr. Dan Erickson is a California-based osteopath who co-owns an urgent care clinic. In the video, he claimed that state lockdowns have little effect on the coronavirus fatality rate.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;So this measured approach I&rsquo;m talking about isn&rsquo;t made up. It&rsquo;s going on in Sweden, and their deaths are about 564 per million. UK, full lockdown, 600 deaths per million,&quot; he said. &quot;So we&rsquo;re seeing that the lockdowns aren&rsquo;t decreasing significantly the number of deaths per million.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/28/fact-checking-video-doctors-talking-about-coronavi/\">We found</a> that those numbers are in the ballpark, but they&rsquo;re cherry-picked. And Erickson has a history of making misleading and unproven claims about the coronavirus.</p>\n\n<p>Erickson co-owns an urgent care clinic in the Bakersfield, Calif., area. He is <a href=\"https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/janelytvynenko/coronavirus-spin-doctors\">a former emergency room physician</a> and <a href=\"https://search.dca.ca.gov/details/9001/20A/9426/bffa7a211e247469c0b7a2c8742bf2ec\">has a medical license</a> through the Osteopathic Medical Board of California.</p>\n\n<p>In May, Erickson appeared with Dr. Artin Massihi, co-owner of Accelerated Urgent Care, in another viral video called &quot;Plandemic,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/may/08/fact-checking-plandemic-documentary-full-false-con/\">which is filled</a> with conspiracy theories about the coronavirus pandemic. In it, they claimed that stay-at-home orders and face masks are not necessary because they weaken your immune system. The doctors <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/29/health/california-doctors-coronavirus-claims/index.html\">made similar assertions</a> in an April press conference and on Fox News.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.acep.org/corona/covid-19-alert/covid-19-articles/acep-aaem-joint-statement-on-physician-misinformation/\">In a joint statement</a>, the American College of Emergency Physicians and the American Academy of Emergency Medicine condemned Erickson and Massihi&rsquo;s claims, saying that they &quot;strongly advise against using any statements of Drs. Erickson and Massihi as a basis for policy and decision making.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>We reached you to Accelerated Urgent Care for a comment, but we haven&rsquo;t heard back.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<p><em>(Screenshot from Facebook)</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Dr. Simone Gold</div>\n\n<p>Dr. Simone Gold is the founder of America&rsquo;s Frontline Doctors and a Los Angeles-based physician. In the video, she <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/28/fact-checking-video-doctors-talking-about-coronavi/\">made misleading claims</a> about hydroxychloroquine prescriptions and coronavirus case numbers.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We&rsquo;re here because we feel as though the American people have not heard from all of the expertise that&rsquo;s out there all across our country,&quot; Gold said at the start of the press conference.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://search.dca.ca.gov/details/8002/G/70224/595d067c562f072a5e7b25c913b285cf\">According to</a> the Medical Board of California, Gold holds an active medical license. She specializes in emergency medicine and general practice. She graduated from Rosalind Franklin University&rsquo;s Chicago Medical School in 1989.</p>\n\n<p>For the past few months, Gold has been involved in a drive aimed at mobilizing doctors that believe states should reopen faster. The Save Our Country Coalition, which seeks to raise millions of dollars, is backed by advocates linked to several conservative organizations, including the FreedomWorks Foundation and the Tea Party Patriots, <a href=\"https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jun/01/save-our-country-coalition-states-reopen\">according to</a> the Guardian.</p>\n\n<p>As part of that effort, hundreds of physicians <a href=\"https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/6895203-ADAD-Letter-Signed.html\">sent an open letter</a> to Trump in late May that called state shutdowns &quot;a mass casualty incident&quot; &mdash;&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/28/fact-checking-video-doctors-talking-about-coronavi/\">despite evidence</a> that suggests stay-at-home orders prevented new coronavirus cases and deaths. Gold was the first signature on the letter.</p>\n\n<p>Gold has also <a href=\"https://archive.vn/NASMB\">appeared</a> on conservative talk radio and podcast programs, during which she has advocated for the use of hydroxychloroquine in treating COVID-19 patients. She <a href=\"https://www.opensecrets.org/donor-lookup/results?name=Simone+Gold\">has donated</a> to several Republican causes in the past, including Sen. Susan Collins, R-Maine.</p>\n\n<p>Gold <a href=\"https://apnews.com/4ee1a3a8d631b454f645b2a8d9597de7\">told the Associated Press</a> that she started to speak out about the pandemic because there is &quot;no scientific basis that the average American should be concerned&quot; about COVID-19. (Public health experts <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html\">say</a> <a href=\"https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public\">otherwise</a>.)</p>\n\n<p>We reached out to Gold for a comment, but we haven&rsquo;t heard back.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-29T18:39:02-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "fact-checking-william-barrs-house-judiciary-hearin",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Fact-checking William Barr’s House Judiciary hearing",
            "entry": "<p>U.S. Attorney General William Barr battled Democratic members of the House Judiciary Committee as they questioned him over the administration&rsquo;s response to the coronavirus, election security, excessive use of force in policing, and his conversations with President Donald Trump.</p>\n\n<p>Throughout the five-hour hearing, Democrats and Barr interrupted one another with frustration and disappointment. Republicans on the committee defended Barr and criticized Democrats for not giving Barr time to answer questions.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;You are projecting fear and violence nationwide in pursuit of obvious political objectives. Shame on you,&quot; committee chairman Rep. Jerry Nadler, D-N.Y., <a href=\"https://www.rev.com/blog/transcripts/jerry-nadler-questioning-transcript-at-william-barr-hearing-americans-are-very-suspicious-of-your-motives\">told Barr</a> at the beginning of the hearing.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;You&rsquo;re a real class act,&quot; Barr told Nadler later on, after Nadler denied Barr&rsquo;s request for a five-minute break. Barr reminded Nadler that he had waited for him for an hour in the morning &mdash; the start of the hearing was delayed because Nadler was involved in a car accident. Nadler was not injured. (A recess followed.)</p>\n\n<p>Some key claims in the combative July 28 hearing rehashed false claims or left out context.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Barr on coronavirus testing: &quot;The problem with the testing system was a function of President Obama&#39;s mishandling of the (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and his efforts to centralize everything in the CDC.&quot;</strong></div>\n\n<p>This is similar to Trump&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/06/donald-trump/trump-wrongly-blames-obama-limits-coronavirus-test/\">false</a> claims.</p>\n\n<p>In March, Trump said Obama made a decision that made it hard for the government to ramp up testing for the new coronavirus. But Trump was talking about a 2004 law, when George W. Bush was president, and a <a href=\"https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-issues-new-policy-help-expedite-availability-diagnostics\">Food and Drug Administration policy</a> that also predated the Obama administration. Trump has also claimed that he &quot;inherited&quot; a flawed COVID-19 test. A <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/31/donald-trump/trump-blames-past-administrations-flawed-covid-19-/\">Pants on Fire</a> claim, there was no test to inherit because the virus wasn&rsquo;t around during previous administrations.</p>\n\n<p>The CDC <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/08/facebook-posts/batch-faulty-cdc-covid-19-tests-didnt-contain-live/\">initially</a> sent out a batch of defective COVID-19 testing kits to a limited number of laboratories. Those test kits were recalled.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Barr on federal police action against protesters on Lafayette Square: &quot;It&#39;s my understanding that no tear gas was used on Monday, June 1.&quot;</strong></div>\n\n<p>This is misleading. The U.S. Park Police said officers used products that contain the chemical irritant pelargonic acid vanillylamide, or PAVA, which closely matches the CDC&rsquo;s description of tear gas. We rated <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/04/kayleigh-mcenany/white-house-says-officers-didnt-fire-tear-gas-rubb/\">Mostly False</a> a claim from White House press secretary Kayleigh McEnany, who said &quot;no tear gas was used and no rubber bullets were used&quot; to disperse protesters from the area around St. John&rsquo;s Church where Trump went for a photo op.</p>\n\n<p>Barr in June <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/08/william-barr/barr-says-federal-police-didnt-use-chemical-irrita/\">wrongly</a> claimed that chemical irritants were not used to clear protesters and that pepper balls are &quot;not a chemical irritant.&quot; <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/08/william-barr/barr-says-federal-police-didnt-use-chemical-irrita/\">Pants on Fire</a>.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Barr speaking about Black victims of homicide: &quot;The vast majority of them, around 90%, are killed by other blacks, mainly by gunfire.&quot;</strong></div>\n\n<p>This tracks with <a href=\"https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2018/crime-in-the-u.s.-2018/topic-pages/tables/expanded-homicide-data-table-6.xls\">FBI homicide data</a> for 2018, the latest year with a full detailed report. But it&rsquo;s not a characteristic unique to Black Americans. <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/23/instagram-posts/instagram-graph-misleads-racial-breakdown-homicide/\">Homicide researchers</a> have long known that most homicide cases in which the race of the killer and the victim are known are intraracial &mdash; both are of the same race. According to the FBI 2018 data, about 81% of white Americans killed that year were killed by a white person.</p>\n\n<p>Data for the race of the victim and offender in homicides isn&rsquo;t shown for every case in the FBI&rsquo;s crime reports. It is shown only in the cases in which the race was known and which involved a single victim and defendant.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>Committee Chairman Rep. Jerrold Nadler, D-N,Y., questions Attorney General William Barr during a House Oversight Committee hearing on Capitol Hill in Washington, 28, 2020. (Matt McClain/The Washington Post via AP, Pool)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Nadler: &quot;Under your leadership, the department has endangered Americans and violated their constitutional rights by flooding federal law enforcement into the streets of American cities against the wishes of the state and local leaders of those cities to forcefully and unconstitutionally suppress dissent.&quot;</strong></div>\n\n<p>The inspector general within the Justice Department is <a href=\"https://oig.justice.gov/news/doj-oig-announces-initiation-work\">investigating</a> allegations of use of force by federal agents in Portland, Ore.</p>\n\n<p>Federal law enforcement officers are in Portland as part of new &quot;rapid deployment teams&quot; formed in response to Trump&rsquo;s June 26 executive order instructing federal agencies to provide &quot;personnel to assist with the protection of federal monuments, memorials, statues, or property.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Democratic Portland Mayor Ted Wheeler has said he <a href=\"https://time.com/5868676/portland-protests/\">does not want</a> federal officers in his city. Wheeler and other U.S. mayors sent a <a href=\"https://twitter.com/chicagosmayor/status/1288162347186393088/photo/1\">letter</a> to leaders of Congress asking them to pass a law making deployments like the one in Portland illegal. The mayors said federal agents were out of their legal jurisdiction, arresting people without probable cause and trampling constitutional rights.</p>\n\n<p>Legal experts <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/22/federal-government-crackdown-portland-what-you-nee/\">told PolitiFact</a> that constitutional rights are at risk in Portland, even if the administration can justify putting officers in the city.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee, D-Texas: &quot;Black people make up 19% of the Minneapolis population and 9% of its police; they were on the receiving end of 58% of the city&rsquo;s police use of force incidents.&quot;</strong></div>\n\n<p>This checks out with a <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/06/03/us/minneapolis-police-use-of-force.html\">New York Times analysis</a>, which looked at use-of-force cases up to May 26, 2020. The New York Times said most use of force happened in areas where more Black people live, and while crime rates were higher in those areas, &quot;Black people are also subject to police force more often than white people in some mostly white and wealthy neighborhoods, though the total number of episodes in those areas is small.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Rep. Ken Buck, R-Colo.: &quot;Antifa is a domestic terrorist organization.&quot; </strong></div>\n\n<p>Antifa, which stands for &quot;anti-fascist,&quot; has <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/21/instagram-posts/despite-trump-talk-antifa-has-not-been-designated-/\">not been designated a domestic terrorist organization</a>.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The term antifa is broadly used for a collection of far-left, anti-fascist groups that rally against white supremacy and other causes, at times resorting to violence. It is not an organization with an official membership, leader, or base for operations.</p>\n\n<p>The State Department and Treasury Department make designations to the<a href=\"https://www.state.gov/foreign-terrorist-organizations/\"> Foreign Terrorist Organizations list</a>, but there is no equivalent government list for domestic terrorist organizations.</p>\n\n<p>Trump in May <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/01/trump-lacks-legal-authority-designate-antifa-domes/\">claimed</a> that the United States would designate antifa as a terrorist organization. But law experts said Trump lacks the legal authority for it and that desire is complicated by the fact that antifa isn&rsquo;t a structured organization.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Rep. Guy Reschenthaler, R-Pa.: &lsquo;Chairman Jerry Nadler told a reporter on Sunday that the anarchy and violence going on in Portland, and I quote the chairman, &lsquo;is a myth that is spread only in Washington, D.C.&rsquo;&quot;</strong></div>\n\n<p>This lacks context. Reschenthaler <a href=\"https://twitter.com/GReschenthaler/status/1287787990870372359?s=20\">is referring to a tweet</a> by Austen Fletcher, a political <a href=\"https://www.liberty.edu/champion/2020/03/host-of-flecca-talks-discusses-media-reliability-and-voter-turnout-at-meeting/\">activist</a> and Trump supporter who on social media identifies himself as a journalist &quot;telling the stories the MSM ignores.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Fletcher on July 26 tweeted a video of his brief exchange with Nadler. Fletcher wrote: &quot;I ran into Jerry Nadler in DC and asked him to disavow the Antifa violence/rioting in Portland. His response? &lsquo;THATS A MYTH&rsquo;.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>We don&rsquo;t know what was said before the start of the 39-second clip.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Fletcher</strong>: &quot;It is true. There&rsquo;s violence across the whole country. Do you disavow the violence from Antifa that&rsquo;s happening in Portland right now? There&rsquo;s riots&mdash;&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Nadler</strong>: &quot;That&rsquo;s a myth that&rsquo;s being spread only in Washington, D.C.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Fletcher</strong>: &quot;About antifa in Portland?&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Nadler</strong>: &quot;Yes.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Nadler walks away toward a car waiting for him.</p>\n\n<p><strong>Fletcher</strong>: &quot;Sir, there&rsquo;s videos everywhere online. There&rsquo;s fires and riots, they&rsquo;re throwing fireworks at federal officers. DHS is there. Look online. It gets crazy, Mr. Nadler.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Fletcher then talks to other people with him about his interaction with Nadler.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-29T15:35:32-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "ad-watch-super-pac-attacks-biden-misleading-defund",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Ad Watch: Super PAC attacks Biden in misleading ‘defund the police’ ad",
            "entry": "<p>A digital ad targeting former Vice President Joe Biden used edited video to suggest, wrongly, that the presumptive Democratic presidential nominee would defund the police.</p>\n\n<p>The <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=323018088749144\">15-second ad</a>, from conservative super PAC <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/personalities/america-first/\">America First Action</a>, selectively edits a clip from Biden&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://youtu.be/V4CLoiA3vfQ?t=1287\">interview</a> with liberal activist Ady Barkan. While the text on the screen reads, &quot;Defund the police?,&quot; Biden is seen on a TV saying, &quot;Yes. Absolutely, yes.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>The ad then cuts to a woman in a dark room. The woman is holding one hand over a child&rsquo;s mouth and dialing 911 with another. The call goes to voicemail.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;You have reached 911,&quot; an operator says. &quot;Due to budget cuts and increased criminal activity, our agents are busy assisting other callers.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Mommy, I&rsquo;m scared,&quot; the child says, as a figure is shown approaching the doorway and the text on the screen reads, &quot;Police have fewer resources in Joe Biden&rsquo;s America.&quot;&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The ad was flagged as part of Facebook&rsquo;s efforts to combat false news and misinformation on its News Feed. (Read more about our <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/help/1952307158131536?helpref=related\">partnership with Facebook</a>.) A <a href=\"https://youtu.be/zI-TjFxQBt4\">30-second version</a> of the ad shows the parent and child hiding under a bed before calling 911.</p>\n\n<p>The ad mischaracterizes Biden&rsquo;s position on defunding the police, and its depictions of urgent 911 calls going unanswered exaggerate what many activists are asking for. <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/08/ad-watch-fact-checking-trump-campaigns-defunding-p/\">As we&#39;ve reported,</a> most &quot;defund&quot; advocates do not want violence to run wild in a police-free state.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Biden doesn&rsquo;t want to defund the police</div>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/09/donald-trump/biden-campaign-says-he-doesnt-want-defund-police/\">President Donald Trump</a>, his <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/08/ad-watch-fact-checking-trump-campaigns-defunding-p/\">campaign</a> and his <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/10/mike-pence/biden-open-shifting-some-police-money-his-enemy-co/\">allies</a> have <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/17/donald-trump/no-joe-biden-will-not-abolish-police-or-prisons-do/\">repeatedly</a> lumped Biden in with activists who have called to defund the police following the killing of George Floyd and other Black Americans by police. But Biden is against the idea.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;No, I don&rsquo;t support defunding the police,&quot; Biden <a href=\"https://www.cbsnews.com/news/biden-federal-aid-police-epartments-defunding/\">told CBS News&rsquo; Norah O&rsquo;Donnell</a> in June. &quot;I support conditioning federal aid to police based on whether or not they meet certain basic standards of decency and honorableness and, in fact, are able to demonstrate they can protect the community and everybody in the community.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>Activists&rsquo; <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/09/defund-police-movement-what-do-activists-mean/\">calls for defunding the police</a> have varied. Some want to eliminate police departments, while others want to reexamine their functions and redirect some funding to other services.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Biden has <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/09/donald-trump/biden-campaign-says-he-doesnt-want-defund-police/\">rejected support for those calls</a> multiple times: in a spokesperson&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-06-08/trump-uses-defund-police-as-political-weapon-against-biden?sref=hKoyLsMo\">statement</a>, in an <a href=\"https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2020/06/10/biden-root-out-systemic-racism-not-just-divisive-trump-talk-column/5327631002/\">op-ed</a>, during fundraisers, in <a href=\"https://www.pahomepage.com/top-stories/one-on-one-with-presidential-hopeful-joe-biden/\">a number of</a> <a href=\"https://www.wbtv.com/video/2020/07/14/wbtv-on-with-former-vice-president-joe-biden/\">local news</a> <a href=\"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWajqaXZpN0&amp;feature=youtu.be&amp;t=134\">interviews</a>, and in response to a <a href=\"https://national.fop.net/2020presidentialquestionnaire#page=62\">questionnaire</a> from the Fraternal Order of Police, an <a href=\"https://www.fop.net/CmsPage.aspx?id=223\">organization</a> of law enforcement officers.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>He has instead proposed investing an additional $300 million in the Community Oriented Policing Services Program, or COPS, his <a href=\"https://joebiden.com/justice/\">campaign website</a> says. The program, to which Trump previously <a href=\"https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/politics/trump-budget-2020/?itid=lk_inline_manual_12\">proposed</a> <a href=\"https://www.justice.gov/doj/page/file/1246736/download#page=95\">budget cuts</a>, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jun/18/donald-trump/donald-trump-falsely-says-obama-administration-did/\">provides</a> police departments with technical and training assistance, hiring grants and access to mental health and wellness resources.</p>\n\n<p>Biden would also expand the Justice Department&rsquo;s authority to investigate excessive force, unconstitutional policing and systemic misconduct. He has vowed to establish a national police oversight commission within 100 days of taking office, and he has <a href=\"https://www.latimes.com/opinion/story/2020-06-06/op-ed-joe-biden-protests-george-floyd-breonna-taylor-justice\">urged</a> other reforms.</p>\n\n<p>In the Fraternal Order of Police questionnaire, Biden argued for &quot;serious investments&quot; in social services so police can focus on investigations and violent crime, <a href=\"https://national.fop.net/2020presidentialquestionnaire#page=62\">writing</a> that &quot;that certainly makes more sense than eliminating police departments or defunding the police.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Trump has&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/17/donald-trump/no-joe-biden-will-not-abolish-police-or-prisons-do/\">falsely claimed</a> that the <a href=\"https://joebiden.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/UNITY-TASK-FORCE-RECOMMENDATIONS.pdf\">policy recommendations</a> from a task force of advisers picked by Biden and Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders called for abolishing the police. They did not.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;He&#39;s desperate to run against a fictitious Joe Biden,&quot; said Biden campaign spokesperson Andrew Bates.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">The Ady Barkan interview</div>\n\n<p>America First Action is <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/10/mike-pence/biden-open-shifting-some-police-money-his-enemy-co/\">not the first</a> to pounce on Biden&rsquo;s interview with Barkan, which was edited and posted July 8.</p>\n\n<p>Biden&rsquo;s &quot;absolutely&quot; comment came after Barkan mentioned recent killings of Black Americans by police. Noting that protesters say redirecting some police funding to social services could reduce fatal police encounters, Barkan asked: &quot;Are you open to that kind of reform?&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Yes. I proposed that kind of reform,&quot; Biden said.</p>\n\n<p>Biden went on to discuss the need for increased mental health services and police reforms such as transparency in misconduct records, and he decried police use of military-grade equipment.</p>\n\n<p>At that point, Barkan interjected: &quot;But do we agree that we can redirect some of the funding?&quot;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Yes. Absolutely,&quot; Biden replied, before the interview cut to Biden talking about the prison system.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</p>\n\n<p>The Biden campaign <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/10/mike-pence/biden-open-shifting-some-police-money-his-enemy-co/\">gave PolitiFact</a> an unedited audio recording of that exchange. The recording shows that after Biden said he &quot;proposed that kind of reform,&quot; he added, &quot;And by the way, the idea though, that&rsquo;s not the same as getting rid of or defunding all the police.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>According to the recording, after, &quot;Yes. Absolutely,&quot; Biden said: &quot;And by the way, not just redirect, condition them. If they don&rsquo;t eliminate chokeholds, they don&rsquo;t get Byrne grants. If they don&rsquo;t do the following, they don&rsquo;t get any help.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The America First Action ad edited Biden&rsquo;s answer to make it seem like he said, &quot;Yes. Absolutely, yes.&quot; There was no second &quot;yes.&quot; And it was not in response to a direct question about whether Biden supports defunding the police, as the ad suggests.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">911 response times</div>\n\n<p>The ad also connects defunding the police to slow 911 responses, with the woman in the ad failing to get through to a dispatcher.</p>\n\n<p>Criminal justice experts we spoke to were mixed about whether defunding police according to activists&rsquo; wishes would make it harder to get police on the line. Experts previously told us a <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/08/ad-watch-fact-checking-trump-campaigns-defunding-p/\">Trump campaign ad</a> warning of five-day wait times was an exaggeration.</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED: </em><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/08/ad-watch-fact-checking-trump-campaigns-defunding-p/\">Fact-checking the Trump campaign&rsquo;s &#39;defunding the police&#39; ad</a></strong></p>\n\n<p>Eugene O&rsquo;Donnell, a former police officer and prosecutor who now teaches at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice, said &quot;unrelenting attacks on policing and police budgets may have devastating consequences for some individuals and communities,&quot; including with regard to police response times following 911 calls.</p>\n\n<p>Other experts saw drawn-out wait times as less likely. Candace McCoy, a professor of criminal justice at John Jay, said the ad&rsquo;s portrait of long 911 waits is &quot;just scare tactics.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Seth Stoughton, associate professor of law at the University of South Carolina, said a goal for many &quot;defund&quot; activists is to &quot;adequately invest in other aspects of social service and public safety infrastructure so that there is less need for police involvement.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>That could give police more room to field 911 calls. &quot;If we expand the public safety infrastructure by developing alternate capabilities of responding to certain emergencies, then we might actually preserve police resources for those calls that require a police response,&quot; he said.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-29T11:51:09-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "fact-checking-video-doctors-talking-about-coronavi",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Fact-checking a video of doctors talking about coronavirus, hydroxychloroquine",
            "entry": "<p>A video that was viewed or shared by millions of people on social media shows a group of doctors calling for the use of hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19, despite warnings from public health experts.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://archive.vn/xMPYK\">The clip</a> shows members of a newly created group called America&rsquo;s Frontline Doctors at a press conference outside the Supreme Court in Washington, D.C. &quot;We&rsquo;re here because we feel as though the American people have not heard from all the expertise that&rsquo;s out there all across our country,&quot; said Dr. Simone Gold, the founder of America&rsquo;s Frontline Doctors, in the video.</p>\n\n<p>President Donald Trump <a href=\"https://archive.vn/7QMu2\">retweeted</a> clips from the summit before Twitter removed versions of the video. Facebook and YouTube <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/28/tech/facebook-youtube-coronavirus/index.html\">have also worked to remove</a> versions of the video from their sites, although several clips of the 40-plus-minute event were still circulating on Facebook.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.teapartypatriots.org/foundation/\">Tea Party Patriots</a>, a conservative group that is part of a <a href=\"https://www.reopenoureconomy.com/coalition\">coalition</a> to end state lockdowns aimed at preventing the spread of the virus, <a href=\"https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/social-media/dark-money-pac-s-coordinated-reopen-push-are-behind-doctors-n1235100\">organized</a> the press conference. Republican Rep. Ralph Norman of South Carolina introduced the doctors at the beginning of the video. Breitbart, a conservative news site, recorded the event.</p>\n\n<p>Many of the doctors&rsquo; claims contradict recommendations from public health organizations and experts like Dr. Anthony Fauci, the head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The video is the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/may/14/fact-checking-california-reopen-protest-video/\">latest</a> <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/may/08/fact-checking-plandemic-documentary-full-false-con/\">example</a> of coronavirus misinformation that is packaged as facts to counter more official narratives.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact fact-checked several of the video&rsquo;s most misleading and inaccurate claims below.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Dr. Stella Immanuel: &quot;This virus has a cure. It is called hydroxychloroquine, zinc, and Zithromax. I know you people want to talk about a mask. Hello? You don&rsquo;t need a mask. There is a cure.&quot;</div>\n\n<p>This is <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/28/stella-immanuel/dont-fall-video-hydroxychloroquine-not-covid-19-cu/\">False.</a></p>\n\n<p>First, there is no known cure for COVID-19. Supportive care, such as rest, fluids and fever relievers, can assuage symptoms.</p>\n\n<p>Second, in spite of Immanuel&rsquo;s anecdotal evidence, hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with other drugs is not a proven treatment (or cure) for COVID-19. In mid-June, the Food and Drug Administration <a href=\"https://www.fda.gov/media/138945/download\">revoked</a> its emergency authorization for the use of hydroxychloroquine and the related drug chloroquine in treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients.</p>\n\n<p>While some studies have found that the drug could help alleviate symptoms associated with COVID-19, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/apr/08/hydroxychloroquine-and-coronavirus-what-you-need-k/\">the research is not conclusive</a>. <a href=\"https://www.goodrx.com/blog/coronavirus-medicine-chloroquine-hydroxychloroquine-as-covid19-treatment/#prevention\">Few studies</a> have been accepted into peer-reviewed journals. And large, randomized trials are still needed to confirm the findings of studies conducted since the pandemic began.</p>\n\n<p>Finally, health officials advise everyone to wear masks in public. The reason why has to do with how the coronavirus spreads. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, they expel respiratory droplets containing the virus. Those droplets can then land in the mouths or noses of people nearby.</p>\n\n<p>Since some people infected with the coronavirus may exhibit no symptoms, public health officials say everyone should cover their faces in public &mdash; even if they feel well.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Daniel Funke</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Dr. Dan Erickson on lockdowns and reopenings: &quot;So this measured approach I&rsquo;m talking about&nbsp;isn&rsquo;t made up. It&rsquo;s going on in Sweden, and their deaths are about 564 per million. UK, full lockdown, 600 deaths per million. So we&rsquo;re seeing that the lockdowns aren&rsquo;t decreasing significantly&nbsp;the amount of deaths per million.&quot;</div>\n\n<p>These numbers are in the ballpark, but they&rsquo;re cherry-picked.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality\">According to data</a> from Johns Hopkins University, the fatality rate in Sweden is 55.97 per 100,000 people. The government there&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/07/business/sweden-economy-coronavirus.html\">did not impose</a> a nationwide stay-at-home order and relied on voluntary social distancing. Meanwhile, the fatality rate in the United Kingdom, <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/2020/03/23/uk/uk-coronavirus-lockdown-gbr-intl/index.html\">which did</a> implement a mandatory lockdown, is 68.95 per 100,000.</p>\n\n<p>But Erickson&rsquo;s point that nationwide stay-at-home rules have no effect on COVID-19 deaths doesn&rsquo;t hold up.</p>\n\n<p>As of July 28, the U.K. had the highest coronavirus deaths per 100,000 people in the world. That could be due to <a href=\"https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-five-reasons-why-the-uk-death-toll-is-so-high-140005\">a</a> <a href=\"https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/six-reasons-uks-death-toll-21992434\">number</a> of reasons &mdash; a delayed lockdown, an aging citizenry, population density &mdash;&nbsp;but the country&rsquo;s stay-at-home rules <a href=\"https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/world/europe/united-kingdom-coronavirus-cases.html\">did help</a> flatten and eventually decrease the number of new coronavirus cases and deaths.</p>\n\n<p>Meanwhile, Sweden <a href=\"https://www.politico.eu/article/coronavirus-europe-lockdown-effectiveness-graphics/\">had a slower growth rate</a> at the start of the pandemic, but it increased substantially in April. As of July 28, Sweden had the eighth-highest number of coronavirus deaths per 100,000 people in the world &mdash; a rate that&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality\">several times higher</a> than neighboring Finland and Norway, <a href=\"https://www.businessinsider.com/sweden-shut-out-coronavirus-reopening-by-finland-norway-denmark-2020-6\">which both</a> implemented nationwide lockdowns.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>Other European countries that implemented stay-at-home orders earlier than the U.K. <a href=\"https://www.politico.eu/article/coronavirus-europe-lockdown-effectiveness-graphics/\">saw a quicker slowdown</a> in the number of new coronavirus cases. <a href=\"https://www.businessinsider.com/coronavirus-lockdowns-successful-evidence-from-around-the-world-2020-4\">So did cities</a> in Italy and China that&nbsp;were hard-hit in the early days of the pandemic.</p>\n\n<p>Two articles published by Nature <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/06/09/872441984/modelers-suggest-pandemic-lockdowns-saved-millions-from-dying-of-covid-19\">suggest</a> that lockdowns helped slow the transmission of COVID-19.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2405-7.epdf?sharing_token=G_bsQ3B9HDEJJQU8dASH1NRgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0OnMEHMcInnY-PiC9wHjWf0IuamVsLpQG59lVZSrrMz1da8Q1IFNKy_ogmlk9-0y3HhLR0lT-v14ZX7Sfe7-NnFy9MLlsevOqE1FryJeZxWRaFzeW0ZR5EnPf1kkf4Oxt4%3D\">The first</a> analyzed infection and death rates in 11 European countries through early May. It found that more than 3 million additional people would have died due to the coronavirus if lockdowns were not put in place.</p>\n\n<p><a href=\"https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2404-8.epdf?sharing_token=-4c0eJD5MJyvzx6bigOsoNRgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0M3uHJG_l5lsYP3xOR5eqb7CPPkXGbKYCqSpFTBLPL7jIX0_buyUI_SsKhtJ2DwR0aQRWXiCMCYZ1F4Amu6Xq1k2iyAA7oVJiXjR_-ZbmgcVUhvpuFt_wT7pGrj54g38QQ%3D\">The second</a> article analyzed lockdowns in six countries around the world, including the U.S. It found that stay-at-home measures helped prevent tens of millions of new COVID-19 cases.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Daniel Funke</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Dr. Simone Gold: &quot;Many states have empowered their pharmacists to not honor physician prescription.&quot;</div>\n\n<p>This is misleading. In efforts to reduce stockpiling, some states have rules and guidance that restrict the dispensing of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as a COVID-19 treatment.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>In March, before the FDA revoked the emergency authorization of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine to treat the virus, New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo ordered that pharmacists cannot dispense the drugs except when prescribed for an FDA-approved reason. Other <a href=\"https://www.nashp.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/State-covid-drug-chart-3-27-2020.pdf\">states enacted similar rules</a>, including Nevada, Ohio, Texas and Idaho, with exceptions including a written diagnosis consistent with evidence for its use.&nbsp;Shortages were creating problems for&nbsp; patients who take the drugs for conditions other than COVID-19, such as lupus.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Sophie Austin</em></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Dr. Simone Gold: &quot;So the case number is almost irrelevant. And that&rsquo;s because there&rsquo;s a lot of inaccuracies with the testing. And also even if the test is accurate, most people are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. So it&rsquo;s not that important to know.&quot;</div>\n\n<p>This ignores how the virus spreads. People without symptoms are able to infect others. As <a href=\"https://www.cnn.com/world/live-news/coronavirus-pandemic-06-10-20-intl/h_3cd73ecd8ce1910f69541e91534e39bc\">early as June</a>, epidemiologists estimated that 25% to 40% of cases were among people who didn&rsquo;t show symptoms. &nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>The fraction of tests that come back positive turns out to be an important red flag. Health and Human Services&rsquo; Adm. Brett Giroir <a href=\"https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/week-transcript-12-20-admiral-brett-giroir-md/story?id=71739520\">called it</a> a leading indicator. With rising positivity rates, &quot;we expect hospitalizations to continue to go up,&quot; he said. That puts a strain on hospitals and ultimately leads to more deaths.</p>\n\n<p><em>&mdash; Jon Greenberg</em></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-28T18:09:08-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "donald-trumps-immigration-promises-failures-and-ac",
            "personalities": [
                {
                    "slug": "donald-trump",
                    "full_name": "Donald Trump",
                    "first_name": "Donald",
                    "last_name": "Trump"
                }
            ],
            "headline": "Donald Trump’s immigration promises: failures and achievements",
            "entry": "<p>Donald Trump entered the White House promising tough enforcement of immigration laws and a southern border wall to stop illegal crossings. He said he&rsquo;d work with Congress to pass laws that accomplished his priorities.</p>\n\n<p>But it didn&rsquo;t work out exactly as he envisioned. During Trump&rsquo;s presidency, Congress has not passed any bill to revamp the U.S. immigration system. Working alone through executive actions, Trump advanced several of his immigration promises, but other attempts were slapped back by courts or rejected by Congress.</p>\n\n<p>Joe Biden, the presumptive Democratic presidential nominee, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/19/fact-checking-donald-trump-joe-biden-biden-sanders/\">plans to undo many of Trump&rsquo;s actions</a> if he&rsquo;s elected president.</p>\n\n<p>Trump viewed executive actions as his best chance to get what he wanted without having to negotiate with Congress or share the credit, said Theresa Cardinal Brown, director of immigration and cross-border policy at the Bipartisan Policy Center.</p>\n\n<p>At times, Trump acknowledged that his directives would not end with the stroke of his pen. &quot;I expect to be sued,&quot; <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2019/feb/15/donald-trump-declares-national-emergency-build-bor/\">Trump said</a> in 2019, when he declared a national emergency to build a border wall with Mexico. His declaration came after he failed to get Congress to authorize billions of dollars for the construction.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;He stuck to his guns and said, &lsquo;Well, I&rsquo;ll do it myself&rsquo;,&quot; Brown said of Trump&rsquo;s overall approach.</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact examined Trump&rsquo;s major immigration policies and consulted experts to gauge what impact his actions have had and are likely to have beyond his presidency.</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED:&nbsp;</em></strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/\">Browse 102 campaign promises individually rated on the Trump-O-Meter</a></p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Failed to defund &lsquo;sanctuary cities&rsquo;, did not triple deportation force, no border wall</strong></div>\n\n<p>Trump&rsquo;s lack of success on crucial promises were not for a lack of trying.</p>\n\n<p>Promise to cancel all funding of sanctuary cities? <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1400/cancel-all-funding-sanctuary-cities/\">Broken</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Trump&rsquo;s attempt was limited to Justice Department funds, and even those efforts were foiled by courts, which largely sided with cities, counties and states that sued the administration. The lawsuits argued that a Trump executive order and conditions for a Justice Department grant violated principles on separation of powers and a doctrine that says states can&#39;t be forced to carry out federal duties.</p>\n\n<p>Promise to triple ICE enforcement? <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1440/triple-ice-enforcement/\">Broken</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Trump wanted funds to increase the number of deportation agents, but he did not get much from Congress. His administration also faced <a href=\"https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2017/OIG-17-98-SR-Jul17.pdf\">challenges</a> in recruiting and hiring. A U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement official in 2018 <a href=\"https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2018-11/OIG-19-07-Nov18.pdf#page=31\">reported</a> not having a sufficient pool of candidates to fill existing vacancies, much less the 10,000 positions Trump requested in an executive order.</p>\n\n<p>Promise to build a border wall and make Mexico pay for it? <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1397/build-wall-and-make-mexico-pay-it/\">Broken</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Mexico didn&rsquo;t pay at all. Using U.S. taxpayers&rsquo; money, Trump has replaced about 200 miles of dilapidated barriers with upgraded fences. Before Trump was president, the nearly 2,000-mile southwest border had 654 miles of <a href=\"https://www.gao.gov/assets/690/682838.pdf#page=51\">primary barriers</a>. As of June, Trump had increased that by 3 miles, to 657.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 1 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>In this Jan. 10, 2020 photo, people work on border barriers construction in Yuma, Ariz. (AP/Elliot Spagat)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Family separations at the southwest border became a flash point</strong></div>\n\n<p>A <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2018/jun/06/what-you-need-know-about-trump-administrations-zer/\">&quot;zero-tolerance&quot;</a> policy to deter illegal immigration became emblematic of the Trump administration. That policy called for the prosecution of all immigrants who illegally entered the United States and led to the separation of thousands of children from their parents. Some children were as young as 5 months old. After public backlash, Trump signed an <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/affording-congress-opportunity-address-family-separation/\">executive order</a> to instead detain families together, &quot;where appropriate and consistent with law and available resources.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Public sentiment wasn&rsquo;t with Trump when it came to these actions, Brown said. &quot;His base was, but he did not have public support broadly,&quot; she said.</p>\n\n<p>The courts didn&rsquo;t support him either. A federal judge in June 2018 <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/jun/29/rachel-maddow/rachel-maddow-right-there-was-no-plan-reuniting-fa/\">said</a> that the administration failed to have a reunification plan in place or an effective system to keep track of children once they were separated from their parents. The judge ordered the administration to stop separating families and to find a way to reunite those who were separated.</p>\n\n<p>Due to immigration officials&rsquo; poor record-keeping, it&rsquo;s unclear exactly when Trump&rsquo;s administration began separating families or how many were separated. A federal oversight office in January 2019 determined that the total number of children separated from their parents was <a href=\"https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-BL-18-00510.pdf\">unknown</a>, but likely significantly more than 2,700. The administration separated some families for reasons that were inconsistent with the messages it was giving the public, and separations continued even after the judge said to stop, according to oversight reports published in <a href=\"https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-BL-18-00510.pdf\">March</a> and <a href=\"https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2020-06/OIG-20-35-May20.pdf\">May</a>.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 2 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>In this Dec. 11, 2018 photo, an asylum-seeking boy from Central America runs down a hallway after arriving from an immigration detention center to a shelter in San Diego. (AP/Gregory Bull)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Enacted restrictions at the southwest border for asylum seekers</strong></div>\n\n<p>Trump was able to limit overall immigration by restricting the number of people who could request asylum at the southwest border.</p>\n\n<p>Under federal law, immigrants may be granted asylum if they have been persecuted or fear they will be persecuted on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion. They can request asylum even if they arrived without legal permission.</p>\n\n<p>The Trump administration implemented policies that denied asylum to people who did not ask for asylum in another country first. It entered into agreements with some Central American countries &mdash; so that they&rsquo;d take asylum seekers who would have otherwise applied for protection in the United States. And Trump launched the &quot;Remain in Mexico&quot; program, sending asylum seekers to Mexico to wait for a resolution of their case, instead of letting them into the United States.</p>\n\n<p>Amid the coronavirus pandemic, the Trump administration has been quickly expelling immigrants who arrive at the border, invoking a section of federal law that allows it to deny entry to immigrants coming from a country with an outbreak of an infectious disease.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Trump has upended decades of legal precedent, halted the U.S. asylum system and effectively closed the southern border through administrative actions,&quot; said Karla M. McKanders, a clinical professor of law at Vanderbilt University Law School.</p>\n\n<p>These asylum policies are among the measures a new administration could reverse.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The larger challenge here is that the immigration system is in need of overdue legislative reform,&quot; McKanders said. The executive and legislative branches &quot;need to operate in conjunction with each other, not insolation.&quot;</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 3 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>In this Nov. 5, 2019 photo, migrants live in a refugee camp in Matamoros, Mexico. Asylum-seekers waiting in Mexico for court hearings in the U.S. appeared before a judge to explain why, after months of effort, they couldn&#39;t find an attorney. (AP/Eric Gay)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Lowered refugee admissions</strong></div>\n\n<p>Trump let in <a href=\"https://www.wrapsnet.org/admissions-and-arrivals/\">fewer refugees each year of his term</a>, and that is one of the most dramatic changes he&rsquo;s made in legal immigration, experts said. This was an area where executive power allowed Trump to advance his goals.</p>\n\n<p>Before leaving office, President Barack Obama said that the United States should let in as many as 110,000 refugees in fiscal year 2017. When Trump took over, he said that was too much and capped it at 50,000. He continued to lower the caps in subsequent years:</p>\n\n<p>2018: 45,000</p>\n\n<p>2019: 30,000</p>\n\n<p>2020: 18,000</p>\n\n<p>The president, in consultation with Congress, determines the highest number of refugees to be resettled in the United States over a fiscal year. While a new president can raise the admissions ceiling, many refugee resettlement agencies have <a href=\"https://www.npr.org/2019/09/12/759967768/popular-refugee-resettlement-programs-closing-under-trump-administration\">closed</a> <a href=\"https://rcusa.org/resources/refugee-council-usa-releases-comprehensive-report-on-the-harmful-impact-of-drastic-refugee-resettlement-cuts/\">or downsized programs and services</a> due to the decreasing number of refugees arriving in recent years.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;President Trump has reshaped our conceptions of the border and refugees so dramatically that it will be challenging to shift back to a system of protection rather than exclusion,&quot; said Denise L. Gilman, who directs the Immigration Clinic at the University of Texas at Austin.</p>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">See Figure 4 on PolitiFact.com</div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\"><em>Faith leaders and members of human rights groups march outside of the U.S. Capitol during a protest calling Congress not to end refugees resettlement program, Oct. 15, 2019, in Washington. (AP/Jose Luis Magana)</em></div>\n\n<div class=\"artembed\">&nbsp;</div>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>United States still grants around 1 million green cards per year</strong></div>\n\n<p>Trump routinely advocated for Congress to end the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2018/jan/30/donald-trump/donald-trump-leaves-out-facts-claim-about-visa-lot/\">visa lottery program</a>, <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2017/dec/20/donald-trump/pick-them-bin-donald-trump-mischaracterizes-divers/\">falsely</a> claiming that it was a route for the &quot;the worst of the worst.&quot; He also wanted legislators to change the legal immigration system so that most people are admitted not based on their family ties, but based on their college degrees or high-paying job offers. Trump didn&rsquo;t get his way.</p>\n\n<p>The number of people granted lawful permanent residence (a green card) annually hasn&rsquo;t changed significantly under Trump, according to the <a href=\"https://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics/yearbook/2018/table1\">latest data</a> released by the Department of Homeland Security. That number remains <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2017/feb/14/tom-cotton/arkansas-senator-says-1-million-green-cards-issue-/\">around 1 million</a>.</p>\n\n<p>Trump &quot;used his immigration policy decisions to send some pretty clear signals, but this has not translated into a significant decrease in legal immigration (except for refugees) over the past three years,&quot; said Philip Kretsedemas, an associate professor of sociology at the University of Massachusetts Boston and an expert on immigration and refugee policy.</p>\n\n<p>PolitiFact rated Trump&rsquo;s promise to limit legal immigration as <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1403/limit-legal-immigration/\">Kept</a>, taking into consideration the dramatic declines in refugee admissions and other efforts, such as the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1402/suspend-immigration-terror-prone-places/\">controversial travel ban</a> implemented during the earlier days of his administration and recent <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1416/hire-american-workers-first/\">visa suspensions</a> amid the coronavirus pandemic.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Hundreds of thousands of immigrants deported, millions remain</strong></div>\n\n<p>The majority of people deported by ICE were those arrested by Border Patrol agents and later transferred to ICE, meaning they were people trying to get into the United States and not typically people who have been here illegally for a long time.</p>\n\n<p>ICE recorded about<a href=\"https://www.ice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Document/2019/eroReportFY2019.pdf#page=19\"> 749,500 removals</a> in total from fiscal years 2017 to 2019, falling short of Trump&rsquo;s <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1399/remove-all-undocumented-immigrants/\">promise</a> to deport all immigrants illegally in the country. There are an estimated 10 million people living illegally in the United States. That includes about<a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jun/25/republicans-and-democrats-claim-support-dreamers-s/\"> 650,000 immigrants</a> who came to the United States as children and are protected from deportation under the Obama-era Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program. That program <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/trumpometer/promise/1443/terminate-barack-obamas-immigration-executive-orde/\">still exists</a>, despite Trump&rsquo;s promise to end it.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\"><strong>Impact of Trump&rsquo;s immigration actions</strong></div>\n\n<p>Overall, how successful has Trump been on immigration? The answer can depend on initial expectations and values, experts said.</p>\n\n<p>The United States hadn&rsquo;t recently seen the type of strict immigration enforcement that Trump ushered in, and it could have long-lasting implications, said Brown of the Bipartisan Policy Center.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>On the other hand, Trump didn&rsquo;t get any major changes on immigration enacted into law.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;The only stuff that relates to immigration at all that Trump ended up signing were funding bills, and they didn&rsquo;t have everything he wanted,&quot; said Mark Krikorian, executive director of the Center for Immigration Studies, which favors low immigration.</p>\n\n<p>Trump&rsquo;s changes, he said, are executive actions &quot;of one kind or another and can relatively easily be changed if the Democrats win in November.&quot;</p>\n\n<p><strong><em>RELATED STORY:&nbsp;</em></strong><a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/16/trump-o-meter-where-president-donald-trumps-campai/\">The Trump-O-Meter: Where President Donald Trump&rsquo;s campaign promises stand in the summer of 2020​</a></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-27T13:51:59-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "donald-trump-says-students-dont-catch-spread-covid",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "Donald Trump says students don’t catch, spread COVID-19. Studies say it’s not that simple",
            "entry": "<p>As thousands of communities wrestle with reopening their schools this fall, President Donald Trump said he would be comfortable sending his son or a grandchild back to school. Pressed on whether he understood why some districts would see that as too risky, Trump had reassuring words about COVID-19 and students.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;A lot of people are saying they don&rsquo;t transmit, and we&rsquo;re looking at that,&quot; Trump said in&nbsp; a <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-press-briefing-072220/\">July 22 briefing</a>.&quot;They don&rsquo;t catch it easily; they don&rsquo;t bring it home easily. And if they do catch it, they get better fast. We&rsquo;re looking at that fact. That is a factor, and we&rsquo;re looking at that very strongly. We&rsquo;ll be reporting about that over the next week.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The main problem with Trump&rsquo;s summary is that it makes no distinction between the youngest and oldest students. Studies are limited. What information we do have from other countries indicates that high schoolers are more like adults, while elementary children present a lower risk. But how those findings might apply in U.S. states with rising case numbers is uncertain.</p>\n\n<p>At one point in the briefing, Trump said, &quot;We have great statistics on young people and on safety.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>The record does not support that level of confidence in the data.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Research on children catching the virus</div>\n\n<p>Over the past few months, researchers in other countries have broadly divided students by age and found that the older ones are more likely than the younger ones to be infected.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>A recent <a href=\"https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/10/20-1315_article\">study out of South Korea</a> looked at more than 1,200 cases of people with COVID-19. It found that the rate of infection was <a href=\"https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/10/20-1315-t2\">three times higher</a> for children 10 to 19 years old than for children under 10.</p>\n\n<p>In France, about 660 people from one community agreed to be <a href=\"https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.18.20071134v1.full.pdf\">tested for antibodies</a> for the disease. Again, the rate for older children was higher than for younger ones. About 40% of 15- to 17-year-olds tested positive, compared with less than 3% for those under 14.</p>\n\n<p>Epidemiologists in China looked at <a href=\"https://science.sciencemag.org/content/368/6498/1481.full\">clusters in Wuhan and Shanghai</a> and tested for the presence of the virus. They used only three age brackets &mdash; 14 and under, 15 to 64 and over 64. The youngest group was about a third as likely to have the disease as the adults were. The oldest group had the highest risk.</p>\n\n<p>Those age ranges might not be as helpful as school superintendents would like &mdash; 15 to 64 is hardly school-age specific. But the data do show a lower risk for children.</p>\n\n<p>In its <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/prepare-safe-return.html\">guidelines for schools</a>, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said infection seems to vary by age, with students 10 to 17 being more likely to catch the disease than those under 10.</p>\n\n<div class=\"pf_subheadline\">Research on children spreading it</div>\n\n<p>For now, U.S. health officials <a href=\"https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/press-briefing-vice-president-pence-members-coronavirus-task-force-july-8-2020/\">have discussed</a> a lack of data on children and COVID-19 transmission.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>&quot;We don&#39;t really know exactly what the efficiency of spread is, first of all, how many children get infected,&quot; Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation&rsquo;s leading infectious-disease specialist, said at a Senate hearing June 30.</p>\n\n<p>The CDC said <a href=\"https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/prepare-safe-return.html\">more research is needed</a> on school-age children passing the virus on to members of their households. A <a href=\"https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/study-determine-incidence-novel-coronavirus-infection-us-children-begins\">National Institutes of Health study</a> intends to follow 2,000 families for six months to determine in part how often children get infected and then infect their families.</p>\n\n<p>Our look at existing research on <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/article/2020/jul/16/are-schoolchildren-not-vectors-covid-19-florida-go/\">whether children transmit COVID-19</a> found a complicated picture.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>A July <a href=\"https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2020/07/08/peds.2020-004879\">commentary</a> published in the journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics reviewed several studies out of Switzerland, China, France and Australia. Co-author <a href=\"https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2020/07/08/peds.2020-1576/tab-e-letters#the-importance-of-the-epidemiological-situation-for-safe-school-opening\">Arnaud L&rsquo;Huillier</a> told PolitiFact that <a href=\"https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/10/20-2403_article\">children can emit live viruses</a>, so there is no biological reason why they couldn&rsquo;t be contagious.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p>But in line with the other research, co-author William Raszka distinguished between younger and older students.</p>\n\n<p>&quot;Children much less frequently transmit SARS-CoV-2 than adults, and this is most striking in younger children,&quot; Raszka said. &quot;I worry more about high school students.&quot;</p>\n\n<p>Trump&rsquo;s words lumped all students together, but the emerging message from the research is that age matters, both for catching and spreading the virus. Where the dividing line falls remains unclear. And even for the youngest children, however rare, the <a href=\"https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/jul/10/john-cornyn/some-covid-19-deaths-have-been-children/\">virus can be deadly.</a></p>\n\n<p><em><strong>Editor&#39;s note:</strong> This story was updated shortly after publishing to include information from new guidelines for school reopenings released by the CDC.</em></p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-24T11:19:29-04:00"
        },
        {
            "slug": "politifacts-facebook-code-conduct",
            "personalities": [],
            "headline": "PolitiFact's Facebook Code of Conduct",
            "entry": "<p>We welcome comments on our <a href=\"https://www.facebook.com/politifact\">Facebook posts at PolitiFact</a>. To keep comments civil, thoughtful and useful, we ask that you post in accordance with our commenting guidelines and our moderation policy.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Commenting guidelines</strong></p>\n\n<p>We hope you approach conversations with an open mind and interact with fellow commenters with civility while giving them the benefit of the doubt. We expect you to abide by the moderation policy laid out below, and we encourage you to use Facebook&rsquo;s function to report violence, hate speech, harassment, spam, etc.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>Moderation policy</strong></p>\n\n<p>We believe in transparency and welcome feedback and criticism. We also appreciate when our journalism leads to debate and discussion. However, we do have some rules, the violation of which will result in our deleting your comments and/or the banning of your account to prevent future posting.&nbsp;</p>\n\n<p><strong>These things will get your comments hidden and/or your account banned:</strong></p>\n\n<ul>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Personal attacks&nbsp;</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Threats of violence</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Discriminatory language</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Harassment&nbsp;</p>\n\t</li>\n\t<li>\n\t<p>Spam or promotional posts</p>\n\t</li>\n</ul>\n\n<p>What do we recommend? Join in discussions, and build on top of ideas. If you think someone has made a great point, like their comment and tell them so. It&rsquo;s easy for conversations online to turn into a sounding board where readers simply post their stance on an issue, but the best discussions come from responding and contributing to what others have already shared.</p>",
            "publication_date": "2020-07-22T17:47:16-04:00"
        }
    ]
}