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Are Virginia's school standards the lowest in the nation, as Youngkin says?
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- Virginia in 2019 had the lowest baselines for proficiency on its standardized tests in fourth grade math and reading and eighth grade reading, according to a study by the National Center for Education Statistics.
- The NCES stresses that its study measures the rigor of each state's standardized testing, not how well students are learning.
- On national standardized tests that do measure learning, Virginia ranked near the top in fourth grade math and reading and eighth grade math. Virginia was average in eighth grade reading.
Republican Glenn Youngkin is promising to stiffen academic standards in public schools if he’s elected governor next month.
"Virginia has the lowest standards for math and reading of all 50 states," he wrote in a Sept. 2 guest column for The Washington Post.
We fact-checked this often-made Youngkin claim and learned that federal research does show Virginia has the lowest baselines for student proficiency on its standardized tests of all measured states for fourth-grade math and reading and eighth-grade reading. This comparison only measures the rigor of various state standards, however, not how well students are learning.
When it comes to performance on standardized national exams, Virginia’s fourth graders rank near the top and its eighth graders rank high in math and at the national average in reading. Youngkin does not offer this important perspective.
Youngkin’s bottom-of-the-barrel claim is based on a 2021 report by the National Center for Education Statistics, a branch of the U.S. Department of Education. The center examined the proficiency standards in each state in 2019 and assigned them "equivalent scores" on a 0-to-500 scale. Higher scores mean higher standards.
"The study is intended to help readers understand the myriad state assessment results that are otherwise difficult to compare and to serve a policy need for reliable information that compares state standards," the report says. "The study is not an evaluation of the various state assessments or of the quality of the states’ achievement standards, and the findings should not be interpreted as evidence of deficiencies in state assessments…"
In other words, the study is not judging whether state proficiency standards tests should be high, low or in the middle. It’s just offering data.
The report focuses on reading and math tests in fourth and eighth grades.
The equivalent score compares the percentage of students who are deemed proficient on state tests to the percentage that reach the proficiency standard on national tests.
Virginia’s exams are called Standards of Learning tests, or SOLs, and are taken by all fourth and eighth graders, as well as some other grades. The national exam is taken by a representative sample of fourth and eight graders in each state. It’s called National Assessment of Education Progress but is better known as the "Nation’s Report Card."
In fourth grade reading, Virginia’s proficiency standards were the lowest among 49 states (excluding New Hampshire). The equivalent score was 200. The median score among states was 224. Tennessee had the highest score at 238.
In fourth grade math, Virginia standards were again the lowest among 49 states. The equivalent score was 219. The median was 242. Colorado had the highest score at 257.
In eighth grade reading, Virginia’s proficiency standards were lowest among 46 states measured. The equivalent score was 236. The median was 266. Kansas was highest, at 288.
Virginia’s standards for eighth grade math were not measured, nor were those of 14 other states. The reason — according to Charles Pyle, director of media relations for the Virginia Department of Education — is that eighth graders take different math classes based on their abilities, so there is not a single standardized math exam for everyone.
Pyle said the state’s education department doesn’t dispute the report’s findings. "We certainly do take note of their comparisons," he said.
Experts stress that equivalent scores do not evaluate how well students are learning.
"What Virginia considers proficient may not be at the same level of what other states consider proficient," said Grady Wilburn, a statistician for the National Center for Education Statistics. "It doesn’t mean that the students know less than students in other states."
Indeed, Virginia fourth graders in 2019 had the third-highest math score on the national test and the ninth-highest reading score.
Virginia eighth graders ranked seventh in math and 30th in reading.
Youngkin says Virginia’s public schools have strayed from basic instruction under the last two Democratic governors including Terry McAuliffe, his opponent this year, who led the state from 2014 to 2018. Youngkin says the state’s standardized tests should require students to attain high, aspirational learning levels.
Virginia’s proficiency standards for reading were set in 2013 by a state school board appointed by Republican Gov. Bob McDonnell. The math standards were set in 2019 by a state school board appointed by McAuliffe and current Gov. Ralph Northam.
McAuliffe deemphasized standardized testing when he was governor, a move that was cheered by many local school boards and gained bipartisan support in the General Assembly.
Dan Gecker, president of the state school board, said Virginia’s proficiency standards are set with a practical goal rather than an aspirational one. "We’re looking to set the cut level at a specific body of knowledge for a child to succeed at the next grade level," he said.
Youngkin wrote, "Virginia has the lowest standards for math and reading of all 50 states."
He is referring to a federal study that shows Virginia in 2019 had the lowest baselines for proficiency on its standardized tests for fourth grade math and reading and eighth grade reading. The National Center for Education Statistics does not compare test standards for other grades.
Youngkin’s statement, however, skips important context. The NCES stresses that its equivalency ratings on standardized tests in states do not reflect how well students are learning in each state. Youngkin omits that Virginia students score near the top on standardized national tests for fourth grade math and reading and eight grade math. Eighth grade leading levels are at the national average.
Youngkin’s claim, without elaboration, wrongly suggests that Virginia students are learning less than their colleagues across the county.
So we rate his statement Half True.
Glenn Youngkin, Op-ed, The Washington Post, Sept. 2, 2021
Youngkin, WNIS radio Interview, Aug. 13, 2021 (10:54 mark)
National Center for Education Statistics, "Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales," 2019
NCES, "Technical Notes," 2019
The Nation’s Report Card, State profiles, 2019
Interview with Charles Pyle, Director of Media Relations at the Virginia Department of Education, Oct. 6, 2021
Interview with George Bohrnstedt, Senior vice-president of the American Institutes of Research, Oct. 4, 2021
Interview with Grady Wilburn, statistician for the National Center for Education Statistics, Oct. 14, 2021
Interview with Dan Gecker, president of the Virginia Board of Education, Oct. 18. 2021
Education Week, "No Child Left Behind: An Overview," April 10, 2015
Virginia Board of Education, Agenda items, Jan. 10, 2013 and March 21, 2019
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